Upgas università Firenze

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Upgas università Firenze

  1. 1. 25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading1UPGAS-LOWCO2LIFE08/ENV/IT/000429Ing. Lidia LombardiDipartimento di Energetica“Sergio Stecco”Università degli Studi di Firenze
  2. 2. Economic analysisSelected operative conditions AwR - BABIUReference size definition AwR - BABIUInput and output flows AwR - BABIUSizing and capital costs AwR - BABIUOperation costs AwR - BABIUUpgrading specific cost AwR - BABIUConclusions and future developments25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading2
  3. 3. AwR: selected operative conditions25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading3Low alkaliconcentration in theabsorbing solution(2,8 eq./l)Solution/biogasratio:12 l/Nm3Regenerationefficiency: 60-65%Low alkaliconcentration in theabsorbing solution(3,8 eq./l)Solution/biogasratio:9 l/Nm3Regenerationefficiency: 50%
  4. 4. AwR: reference size25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading4Biogas Nm3/h 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 1.000APC kg/h 190 379 569 758 917 1.138 1.327 1.517 1.706 1.896 3.792APC* t/year 1.368 2.729 4.097 5.458 6.826 8.194 9.554 10.922 12.283 13.651 27.302*7.200 h/yWtE  70.000 ÷ 140.000 t/yAPC ≈ 3%APC  2.100 ÷ 4.200 t/y2-3 WtE plantskmCaO based250 Nm3/h
  5. 5. AwR: schematic layout on industrial scale25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading5BIOGASBIOMETHANEWATER MAKE-UPREACTANT MAKE-UPWATERAPCWATERWASTE WATERWASTE WATERREGENERATED SOLUTIONPRE-WASHING TANKPOST-WASHING TANKCARBONATION/REGENERATION TANKFILTER PRESS 1FILTER PRESS 2FILTER PRESS 3APCABSORPTIONCOLUMNCOMPRESSOR
  6. 6. AwR: input/output flows (alkali 3,8 eq./l)25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading6AbsorptionKOH NaOHEntering biogas flow rate Nm3/h 250CO2 % vol. 50CH4 % vol. 50Exiting biomethane flow rate Nm3/h 126CO2 % vol. 98CH4 % vol. 2Solution flow rate l/h 2.250KOH/NaOH content % w/w 18 13Overall regeneration efficiency % 50 50KOH/NaOH make up kg/h 235 167Water make-up l/h 1.072 1.118RegenerationRequired APC kg/h 917Water for pre-washing l/h 4.587Water for post-washing l/h 3.697Waste water from pre-washing l/h 4.041Waste water from post-washing l/h 3.688Output APC kg/h 1.279Captured CO2 kg/h 148-222
  7. 7. AwR: economic balance (alkali 3,8 eq./l)25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading7Specific cost KOH NaOHCapital cost 762.850Annual amortization 103.647Maintenance 26.700Financial remuneration 26.700Make-up reactants1,2 €/kg 2.032.312 -0,66 €/kg - 794.069Pre-washing water 0,29 €/m3 9.446Post-washing water 0,29 €/m3 7.614Make-up water 0,29 €/m3 2.207WWT pre-washing 52 €/m3 1.512.855WWT post-washing 52 €/m3 1.380.855Labour cost 50.000 €/person 125.000Electricity 0,17 €/kWh 135.775APC transport [50 km] 0,129 €/(t km) 59.381APC final disposal 70 €/t 644.445Income from entering APC 220 €/t -1.453.24434-17%25-32%23-29%11-14%
  8. 8. AwR: input and output APC25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading8AwRAPChazardous waste≈ 220 €/t(income)APCnon hazardous waste≈ 70 €/t(cost)BIOGASBIOMETHANE
  9. 9. AwR: upgrading specific cost (alkali 3,8 eq./l)25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading9KOH NaOH€/Nm3 of entering biogas 2,56 1,88€/Nm3 of biomethane 5,08 3,71€/kWh of biomethane 0,53 0,39WWT pre-washing 52 €/m3 1.512.855WWT post-washing 52 €/m3 1.380.855Make-up reactants1,2 €/kg 2.032.312 -0,66 €/kg - 794.06932%29%To comply with non-hazardous limitsTo remove Cl-USP < 0,10€/kWh
  10. 10. AwR: upgrading specific cost - improvement25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading10Carbonation Post-washingPre-washingWATERWASTE WATERCl- ≈ 8.000 mg/lWASTE WATERCl- ≈ 47.000 mg/l
  11. 11. AwR: upgrading specific cost - improvement25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading11KOH NaOH€/Nm3 of entering biogas 1,79 1,10€/Nm3 of biomethane 3,55 2,19€/kWh of biomethane 0,37 0,23WWT pre-washing 52 €/m3 1.512.855WWT post-washing - -The possibility of selling the CO2 allowance within the CO2 emission trading mechanism wasconsidered. A basic allowance of 10 €/t of CO2 was assumed.About 1.065-1.597 t of CO2 may be stored per year, meaning about 10.650-15.970 €/y, which,unfortunately, do not affect considerably the overall balance.Which price for CO2 allowance in the future?
  12. 12. AwR: upgrading specific cost (alkali 2,8 eq./l)25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading12KOH NaOH€/Nm3 of entering biogas 2,13 1,58€/Nm3 of biomethane 4,23 3,14€/kWh of biomethane 0,44 0,33KOH NaOH2,56 1,885,08 3,710,53 0,39KOH NaOH€/Nm3 of entering biogas 1,37 0,82€/Nm3 of biomethane 2,70 1,61€/kWh of biomethane 0,28 0,17KOH NaOH1,79 1,103,55 2,190,37 0,23
  13. 13. BABIU: selected operative conditions25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading132 Nm3/(h·t)Duration:6 hoursCH4 > 98% vol.
  14. 14. BABIU: reference size25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading14* 300 d/yBiogas Nm3/h 50 100 150 200 250 500 1.000BA t/d 100 200 300 400 500 1.000 2.000BA t/year 30.000 60.000 90.000 120.000 150.000 300.000 600.000WtE  70.000 ÷ 140.000 t/yBA ≈ 20%BA  14.000 ÷ 28.000 t/y2-4 WtE plantskm100 Nm3/h 720.000 Nm3/y
  15. 15. BABIU: schematic layout on industrial scale25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading15Discontinous operation (6 h/day)BIOGASCOMPRESSORBIOGAS STORAGECARBONATION TANK 1CARBONATION TANK 2CRUSHERENTERING BACARBONATED BA≈150 m34 ≈ 2X2X7 m100 Nm3/h x 24 h400 Nm3/h x 6 h400Nm3/h/ 2 Nm3/(ht)≈200 tN2 STORAGEN2BIOMETHANEBIOMETHANE
  16. 16. BABIU: economic balance25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading16Specific cost AmountCapital cost 926.349Annual amortization 125.861Maintenance 32.422Financial remuneration 32.422Fuel 1,29 €/l 34.621 l/y 44.662Nitrogen 0,4 €/l 74.201 l/y 29.480Labour cost 50.000 €/person 2 person 100.000Electricity 0,17 €/kWh 67.500 kWh/y 11.475BA transport [50 km] 0,129 €/t·km 60.000 t/y 387.000BA final disposal 70 €/t 60.000 t/y 4.200.000Income from entering BA 70 €/t 60.000 t/y 4.200.000
  17. 17. BABIU: input and output BA25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading17BABIUBAnon hazardous waste(cost)BIOGASBIOMETHANEBAnon hazardous waste(income)
  18. 18. BABIU: upgrading specific cost25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading18€/Nm3of entering biogas 1,06€/Nm3of biomethane 1,90€/kWh of biomethane 0,20
  19. 19. BABIU: input and output BA25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading19BABIUBAnon hazardous waste60 €/t(cost)BIOGASBIOMETHANEBAnon hazardous waste73 €/t(income)€/Nm3of entering biogas -€/Nm3of biomethane -€/kWh of biomethane -∆€ ≈ 13
  20. 20. BABIU: input and output BA25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading20BABIUBA0 €/t (cost)civil work material??? €/t (income)BIOGASBIOMETHANEBAnon hazardous waste73 €/t(income)€/Nm3of entering biogas - 5,56€/Nm3of biomethane - 9,99€/kWh of biomethane - 1,03Landfill gas/upgrading/BA to landfill
  21. 21. Conclusions & …25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading21• AwR process is more complex but allows higher CO2up-take (about 0,2÷0,3 kg/kgAPC) so it requires loweramount of entering solid residues; drawback: costs arehigh• BABIU process is more simple but allows lower CO2 up-take (about 0,01-0,02 kg/kgBA) so it requires largeamounts of entering solid residues; advantages: costsare low, effective also for H2S; limit: availability of BA atd < 150 km
  22. 22. Conclusions & …25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading22• For both AwR and BABIU application is limited by theavailable amounts locally (100-250-500? Nm3/h)• The use of solid residues from WtE for landfill or ADbiogas treatment is a good example of industrialsymbiosis and may offer favorable opportunities whenthe different involved types of plants are located in thesame site or are not too far one from the other
  23. 23. …future25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading23• Better investigate the operative conditions which allows for declassing thewaste• Improve operative conditions for AwR to reduce costs• Put the two processes in series (1° BABIU + 2° AwR)• Investigate different types of alkaline industrial solid residues for both AwR(pre- and post-washing may be not required) and BABIU (higher up-take)• Propose different way of solid/gas contact; different ways of realizingcarbonation• Investigate the application of BABIU for low-CH4 biogas• Associate the H2S removal to CO2 in BABIU

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