Upgas università barcellona

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Upgas università barcellona

  1. 1. 25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading1UPGAS-LOWCO2LIFE08/ENV/IT/000429Environmental Assessment
  2. 2. 25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading2UAB TEAMDr. Xavier GabarrellDr. Francisca Blanquez CanoDr. Gara Villalba MéndezMSc. Katherine Starr Katherine.starr@uab.catwww.sostenipra.cat
  3. 3. 3OBJECTIVEEnvironmental assessment of the 2 proposed systems - atan industrial scalePerceived environmental benefit = actual environmentalbenefit?Innovative elements: Removal and capture of CO2 from biogas. Negative contribution toglobal CO2 balance. Use of industrial waste streamsImprovement of the environmental quality of industrial wastesonce used25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading
  4. 4. 4FIRST STEPS IN ENV. ANALYSISBreak down flows in and out of yoursystemStudying those flows help you determineimpact of your system25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading
  5. 5. 5CO2 ALKALI ABSORPTION WITH REGENERATION: AWRMixerPumpColumnPumpAlkaline solutionregenerator tankDrying of loadedAPCWaterpurification plant WaterChemical PlantKOHMunicipalSolidWasteIncineratorAirPollutionControl(APC)ResiduesLandfillMunicipal WasteLandfill orAnaerobicdigesterInjection intonatural gas gridHeatExchangerCO2richbiogasHumidCO2 leanbiomethaneCarbonatedAPCGas,leachateDry CO2leanbiomethaneRegeneratedKOH solutionMethanelossWashingof APCWashingWastewaterElectricityAlkaline with RegenerationProcess ProcessFlowEmissionsLegend25 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading
  6. 6. 625 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingCO2 ADSORBTION WITH BOTTOM ASH: BABIUMSWI BAWeatheringReactorNitrogengasMunicipalSolidWasteIncinerator(MSWI)MunicipalwasteLandfill (oranaerobicdigester)Injection intonatural gas gridLandfillLoadedbottom ashHumid CO2leanbiomethaneCO2richbiogasBottomAsh (BA)WeatheredBottomAshUnsuitableBottomAshGas,leachateSpentN2HeatexchangerMethanelossDry CO2leanbiomethaneChemical plantElectricityBABUIprocessLegendProcessFlowEmissions
  7. 7. 725 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS METHODSLife Cycle AssessmentMaterial Flow AnalysisExergy AnalysisTotal CO2 avoided emissionsRelevance to national scenarioPreliminary data
  8. 8. 825 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingLIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENTDetermine the impact on the environment alongvarious factors Ecotoxicity, human toxicity, eutrophication, acidification,global warming potential, etc.Compare between elements Parts in a system Two or more systemsFocus on a unit of measure: 1 kWh energycontent in the upgraded gasSoftware: GaBi 4.4Database: Ecoinvent 2.2, and PE international
  9. 9. 925 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingBALANCEPLANPROCESSESFLOWSINPUTSGlassElectricityOUTPUTSBottleGlass WastesBOTTLEMANUFACTUREINPUTSPETDiesel OilAluminiumOUTPUTSStopperWastes of AlSTOPPERMANUFACTUREWATER FILLINGINPUTSWater, EnergyOUTPUTSBottle filledDefective bottlesMassVolumeEnergyMoneyCML 2001ADPGWPAPEPEDIPResources, fossil fuelsEcosystem qualityCarcinogenic effectsEI99Resources, fossil fuelsEcosystem qualityHuman HealthTRACIEcotoxicityGlobal Warming AirBOTTLEOFWATERLCA
  10. 10. 1025 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingPARAMETERS FOR LCANeed to define parameters and boundaries of the studyUp-scaled to Industrial scaleLandfill gas 50% CH4, 50% CO2 AwR Regeneration rate of solution: 70% 658 kg/hr of APC 6649 l/hr of water BABIU 8333 kg/hr of Bottom ash 6.7 Nm3/hr of NitrogenDirect landfilling of carbonatesReagents travel 50km to reach upgrading plantUpgraded gas Injected directly into the grid
  11. 11. 1125 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingLIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT•Various studies conducted using different system boundaries as well as differentfunctional units.• Comparison of the proposed innovative processes to commercial upgradingtechnologies :• High pressure water scrubbing (HPWS)• Pressure swing adsorption (PSA)• Chemical scrubbing with amine (AS)• Membrane separation (MS)• Cryogenic separation (Cry)• Organic physical scrubbing (OPS)
  12. 12. 1225 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingBIOGAS UPGRADINGConventional processes for biogas upgrading: CO2 is removedand vented to atmosphereFocus on global warmingpotentialHigh Pressure Water ScrubbingPressure Swing Adsorption
  13. 13. 1325 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingLIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENTLCA on 8 technologies across 12 indicators - Comparison of impacts of upgrading technologiesCompared across all 12 CML2001impact categories, BABIUhas the best performance in 8categories and the second best in3. Only in ozone layer depletion(ODP) potential does BABIU havethe second highest impact, behindAwR.AwR had the highest impact in11 categories. In global warmingpotential (GWP) it has the secondlowest impact after BABIU. TheKOH that is needed for thisprocess is the main cause of thehigh impact across all categories.
  14. 14. 1425 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading-100%-80%-60%-40%-20%0%20%40%60%80%100%PercentageCML 2001 CategoriesCO2 storageTransportReagentsElectricityInfrastructureDisaggregated impacts of BABIU - main impact from transport and electricity.LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
  15. 15. 1525 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgrading-60%-40%-20%0%20%40%60%80%100%PercentageCML 2001 CategoriesCO2 storageTransportReagentsElectricityInfrastructureDisaggregated impacts of AwR - The production of KOH was the main reason for all of the impactsLIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
  16. 16. 1625 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingComparison of the global warming potential of using KOH and NaOH at varying regeneration rates in AwRIf the KOH is replacedby NaOH its emissionsare reduced.As well if theregeneration rate ofthis reagent isincreased from 70% itsemissions are reduced,though it cannot reachthe same CO2 savingsas achieved through theBABIU process.LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
  17. 17. 1725 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingComparison of global warming potential of distance of transport of bottom ash for BABIU and APC of AwR.Transport distances between municipalsolid waste incinerators (MSWI) and theupgrading plant are important. For thisfunctional unit, at a distance of 145 kmthe impact of BABIU and AwR havethe same impact, and after that theimpact of BABIU is higher than that ofAwR, as it requires a large amount ofbottom ash to be transported. When thedistance between the MSWI and aBABIU plant reaches around 1315 kmthe impact from transport becomeshigher than any CO2 savings and theprocess begins to have a negativeimpact on the environment. For AwR,this point is reach at a much furtherdistance of around 10475 km.LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
  18. 18. 1825 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingExergy = energy that is useful for workCan be used to determine efficiencies of systemsand points of improvementDepends on amount of materials and electricityneeded and the production process of inputsEXERGY ANALYSIS
  19. 19. 1925 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingProcess Exergetic efficiencyBABIU 91%AwR with KOH 81%AwR with NaOH 83%• Since BABIU uses less resources, it has a higher exergetic efficiencythan AwR• Use of NaOH increased efficiency•Effect of regeneration rate?EXERGY ANALYSIS
  20. 20. 2025 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingMATERIAL FLOW ANALYSISQuantification of the flows and stocks coming inand out of a systemBlack box approach Only look at what goes in and out, not what goes oninsideFlows of municipal solid waste 2008 and 2009 Spain, Italy and AustriaFlows of natural gas
  21. 21. 2125 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingMATERIAL FLOW ANALYSISAble to calculate hypothetical amount of upgradedbiogas Needs of the processes Compare to natural gasAssume all biogas is generated within the year Gives a general idea to possibility and needsDifferences Amount of waste collected Landfill, Anaerobic digestor Organic waste concentration Biogas capture rate Impurities in selective organic fraction
  22. 22. 2225 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingMATERIAL FLOW ANALYSISMunicipal solid waste flow – Spain 2008
  23. 23. 2325 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingMATERIAL FLOW ANALYSISSPAIN 2008MSWI BABIU AwRAnaerobicdigester624.036 37.651.670 185.476 182.570 1.648.882 185.857Landfill 9.419.352 393.917.300 1.940.447 1.910.077 17.250.844 1.944.459MSWI 1.890.000 984.007 378.0001. AD– allOrganicmatter9.283.654 1.067.620.203 5.259.207 5.176.815 46.754.354 5.269.9982. MSWI –all nonorganicmatter6.672.517 3.473.970 1.334.5033. MSWI –current +landfillwaste11.309.352 5.888.085 2.261.870ScenariosWastereceived(T)Estimatedbiogas generated(m3)Estimated electricity production frombiomethane produced (MWh)Actual Situtation in 2008PossibleBAproduction(T)BA fromMSWIneeded forBABIU (T)APC fromMSWIneeded forAwR (T)Possible Bottom Ash production and requirements
  24. 24. 2425 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingMATERIAL FLOW ANALYSISAwR with NaOH BABIUCountryPrimary EnergyConsumption (%)Imported(%)Produced(%)Primary EnergyConsumption (%)Imported(%)Produced(%)Spain 0.75 0.36 1922 0.75 0.26 1926Italy 0.92 0.61 8.94 0.92 0.61 8.96Austria 0.33 0.16 1.66 0.33 0.16 1.66Hypothetical amount of susbtituted natural gas in 2009 –per country
  25. 25. 2525 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingAwR with NaOH BABIUCountryReplacingnatural gas(T CO2 eq)Upgradingprocess (TCO2 eq)CH4diverted (TCO2 eq)Total (T CO2eq)Replacingnatural gas(T CO2 eq)Upgradingprocess (TCO2 eq)CH4diverted (TCO2 eq)Total (T CO2eq)Spain 837,000 194,000 2,700,000 3,731,000 839,000 284,000 2,710,000 3,833,000Italy 2,094,000 600,000 8,360,000 11,054,000 2,098,000 877,000 8,380,000 11,355,000Austria 84,000 27,000 376,000 487,000 84,000 40,000 376,000 500,000•If better separation between unsorted and selective collection of OM•Can increase savings by 300,000 - 10,000,000 T of CO2 eq.•If landfill gas collection increases to 100%•Can increase savings by 16,000,000 - 25,000,000 T of CO2 eq.MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSISHypothetical 2009 CO2 savings – per country
  26. 26. 2625 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingCONCLUSIONS•Both show large CO2 savings, especially compared to conventional•BABIU•Has lowest impact than all conventional processes•Due to large amount of MSWI BA, transport can have large impact iffar away•More exergetic efficiency than AwR•Needs higher amount of industrial waste•Currently not possible to meet all needs• AwR•Production of KOH causes high impact•Change of base to NaOH and improving regeneration rate = lowerimpact•Using NaOH rather than KOH = higher exergetic efficiency•Needs less industrial waste than BABIU•Impact of transport distance is less pronounced•Needs can be more easily met
  27. 27. 2725 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingDISSEMINATIONPapers:Starr K., Gabarrell X., Villalba G., Talens L., Lombardi L., Life cycle assessment of biogas upgrading technologies. WasteManagement 2012. In press.Conference:Biogas Upgrading: Global Warming Potential of Conventional and Innovative Technologies, K. Starr, X. Gabarrell, G. Villalba, L.Talens., L.Lombardi. ECOS 2012 - International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and EnvironmentalImpact of Energy Systems 26-29 June 2012 Perugia, Italy.Potential reduction of CO2 emissions in Spain through the application of carbon capture technologies in anaerobic digestion units,K. Starr, X. Gabarrell, G. Villalba, L. Talens. Ecotech and Tools Conference 30 November – 2 December 2011 Montpellier,France.CO2 balance of biogas up-grading technologies, K. Starr, X. Gabarrell Durany, G. Villalba Mendez, L. Talens Peiró, L.Lombardi. Sardinia 2011 Thirteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium 3 - 7 October 2011 S. Margherita diPula (Cagliari), Sardinia, Italy
  28. 28. 2825 Maggio 2012 – TERRAFUTURA- Firenze - ItalyProcessi innovativi per l’upgrading del biogas – Innovative processes for biogas upgradingThank you!Questions?www.sostenipra.cat

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