Progress, Lessons  & Challenges Ahead-Anthony Whitbread
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  • 1. Photo : Amare Haileslassie ICRISAT/ILRI Science and implementation of the SA Dryland System: Progress, Lessons & Challenges Ahead Haileslassie, Whitbread, Krishna, Wani Science & implementation workshop/Amman (30/06-4/07/14)
  • 2. Topics of Presentation —Location and characteristics of the action sites —What do we want to achieve ? —Key research questions, methods, scales and partners —Synopsis of activities implemented and emerging issues —Lessons and Challenges
  • 3. Location and characteristics of the action sites —Agro pastoral systems —Irrigation systems —Tree based systems —Intensive rainfed systems
  • 4. Location and characteristics of the action sites —Rainfall gradients ~600-150mm —Diversity in soil and thus the soil- water dynamics influencing agricultural practices (sand- clay texture) —Extensive & intensive and farming systems —Systems undergoing rapid changes (e.g. migration, non-farm employment) Photo : Amare Haileslassie ICRISAT/ILRI Photo : Amare Haileslassie ICRISAT/ILRI
  • 5. Location and characteristics of the action sites —Yield instability (Anantapur) and high CV (Rajastahn) —Changes in the structures of farming systems (e.g. livestock species, land holding size) —Production systems and livelihoods in transition: how can we support? Haileslassie et al…2013 IncomeinIndianrupees
  • 6. What we want to achieve & research questions —Generating knowledge on the present performances of production systems. — What are structural components of the system and their interactions; — What are the functional components of the system ( e.g. input levels and types and output level achieved over time); and status of the system (e.g. stability, risk ). —Improving system performances & associated livelihoods. — What are farmers livelihood objectives and how it matches with the current level of livelihood outcomes. — What are the options and scenarios to achieve higher level of performances. — Trade-off analysis.
  • 7. High Level Activities to address the RQ —Baseline characterization of systems function and structure and ex-ante impact assessment of selected technologies ( DP, PC) —Identification, demonstration and validation of promising technologies and diversification options for enhanced productivity & livelihood security (PC, Piloting) —Gender inclusive capacity strengthening of individuals, community and institutions on knowledge gaps and promising technologies (PC) —Enabling institutional and policy options for enhanced adoption, resilience and market access for improved livelihoods ( PC) — Monitoring and evaluation of project interventions and trade offs (DP)
  • 8. How we want to do this: partners —Regional coordinator: ICRISAT —CGIAR partners: Bioversity, CIP, ICARDA, ICRAF, ILRI, IWMI…. Level of collaboration and integration —NARS partners: Indian Council Agricultural Research (ICAR), Indian Agricultural Ministries, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), Ministry of Agriculture (Afghanistan) —Agricultural Universities: University of Agricultural Sciences, Karnataka; Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh —National & State-based NGOs: BAIF, GRAVIS,
  • 9. Scales: 6 Districts, 15 villages, Nested approach How we want to do this: scales and tools/methods Tools and methods: Geospatial; Participatory; Empirical, Simulation, Optimization
  • 10. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues: a) Livestock holding MeanSLUperhousehold
  • 11. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues: b) Feed seasonality- Rajasthan
  • 12. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues: c) Gross income as calculated by expert
  • 13. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : d) Sources of livelihoods and trends over the last five years-Rajasthan
  • 14. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : e) Relation between different income sources and implications Key message : how can the different livelihood sources complement each other?
  • 15. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : f) Household vulnerability-Andhra Pradesh (income at Rs. 15,472 and Rs.36,500 per year) plotted against ln (income)
  • 16. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : g) Adaptation strategies
  • 17. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : g) Adaptation strategies… one does not fit all !
  • 18. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : h) Scenarios and their ex-ante impacts Scenario 2: PL= Rs.42.4/day for Andhra Pradesh, Rs.179.3/day for Karnataka and Rs. 54.9/day for Rajasthan. HI: increased income of the household(21% for Andhra Pradesh, 24% for Karnataka and 19% for Rajasthan due to adaption of improved strategies) Scenario 4: PL=Rs.100/day HI: increased income of the household (21% for Andhra Pradesh, 24% for Karnataka and 19% for Rajasthan due to adaption of improved strategies) Scenario 6: PL=Rs.200/day. HI: increased income of the household (21% for Andhra Pradesh, 24% for Karnataka and 19% for Rajasthan due to adaption of improved strategies)
  • 19. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : j) Land use land cover maps Land use / Land cover 01. Irrigated-mixedcrops 02. Rainfed-mixedcrops 03. Rangelands/fallow 04. Rangelands/shrublands 05. Shrublands/wastelands/trees 06. Water bodies 07. Builtup lands Watersheds
  • 20. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : k) Composite sustainability index
  • 21. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : l) Composite sustainability index-farm typologies Sustainabili ty pillars Farm typologies 1( N=247) 2(N=131) 3(N=84) 4(N=20) 5(N=11) Economy 0.11±0.06a 0.13±0.07b 0.15±0.09c 0.13±0.09ab 0.19±0.16c Environmen t 0.20±0.06a 0.31±0.05b 0.27±0.08c 0.30±0.05c b 0.27±0.07c b Social 0.40±0.10a 0.39±0.11a 0.47±0.13b 0.42±0.12a 0.45±0.12a
  • 22. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : l) Composite sustainability index
  • 23. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : m) Relation between sustainability index a) Farm typology 1 Composite indices of sustainability pillars Economy Social Environment Economy 1.00 Social 0.35** 1.00 Environment 0.24** 0.44** 1.00 b) Farm typology 2 Economy 1.00 Social 0.136 1.00 Environment -0.25** 0.06 1.00 c) Farm typology 3 Economy 1.00 Social 0.43** 1.00 Environment 0.07 0.40** 1.00 d) Farm typology 4 Economy 1.00 Social 0.49* 1.00 Environment 0.38* 0.05 1.00 e) Farm typology 5 Economy 1.00 Social 0.20 1.00 Environment -0.03 0.01 1.00 Overall Economy 1.00 Social 0.34** 1.00 Environment 0.15** 0.284** 1.00
  • 24. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : n) Three dimensional approaches to agricultural biodiversity survey
  • 25. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : o) Impacts of improved seed (millet) on grain and biomass yields (>250 farmers system impact?)
  • 26. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : o) Impacts of improved seed (Chickpea) on biomass yields (system impact?) Variety Gross return (Rs./ha) Cost of cultivation (Rs./ha) Net return (Rs./ha) Benefit: cost ratio CSJK 6 77120 29430 47690 1.62 CSJK 21 72210 29430 42780 1.45 Local 66976 28680 38296 1.33
  • 27. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : p) widespread deficiencies of plant nutrient ( Ananatapur) District Village % of sampled fields deficient in available nutrients P K Ca Mg S B Zn Cu Fe Mn Anantapur Kurlapalli 20 3 43 0 83 77 73 27 3 0 Mallapuram 3 7 60 0 87 87 83 73 3 0 Kurnool V. Bonthiralla 40 7 27 0 100 90 93 27 0 0 Yerraguntla 73 0 3 0 100 40 87 3 0 0
  • 28. Activities and Outputs Emerging issues : q) Up scaling
  • 29. — Partnership building, baseline establishment, piloting… — Coherent framework for research and development continuum…. — Integration across regions and partners is needed- ( activities in Pak, India… — Conceptual framework for regional and global synthesis – regional partners must work but within the global framework — Common/ understanding on what Successes and what did not work well Photo : Amare Haileslassie ICRISAT/ILRI Photo : Amare Haileslassie ICRISAT/ILRI
  • 30. There is no short cut to bring impacts on system related research. It is the result of component integration and interaction: i.e. it is a process and needs enough time to mature.. Differences between impact on components and system needs to be differentiated — We need to focus — Finance and man Biggest implementation challenges Photo : Amare Haileslassie ICRISAT/ILRI Photo : Amare Haileslassie ICRISAT/ILRI
  • 31. Thanks for your attention