CRP 1.1 Dryland Systems : Impact Pathways for East and Southern Africa
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CRP 1.1 Dryland Systems : Impact Pathways for East and Southern Africa






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CRP 1.1 Dryland Systems : Impact Pathways for East and Southern Africa CRP 1.1 Dryland Systems : Impact Pathways for East and Southern Africa Document Transcript

  • CRP 1.1 Dryland SystemsImpact Pathways for East and Southern AfricaDRAFT – 27 March 2013ContentsContents......................................................................................................................................1Fig. 1: Draft Framework for CRP 1.1 Impact Pathways.......................................................2Table 1: Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 2...............................................................................3Table 2: Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 3.............................................................................11Table 3: Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 3, Satellite Sites......................................................16This document is an attempt to present the impact pathways as envisioned in the inceptionreports for the SRT 2 and SRT 3 sites for East and Southern Africa. Figure 1 is a frameworkthat attempts to be broad enough to include all of the impact pathways envisioned last year atinception stage for East and Southern Africa and South Asia. Please note, because of theorigin of these impact pathways, impact pathways relating to SRT 1 and SRT 4 are lacking.CRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 1
  • Fig. 1: Draft Framework for CRP 1.1 Impact PathwaysResearch, Knowledge andMethodology OutputsFirst Order Outcomes:Governance, Policy andProgram ChangesSecond Order Outcomes:Changed Farmer/Pastoralist PracticesThird Order Outcomes:System ChangesHouseholdLevelOutcomesImpactsA1. Research findings ontechnical improvementsA2. Research findings & analysisaimed at understanding ofresources and of social, economicand ecological systemsA3. Research findings andanalysis aimed at improvedhousehold characterizationA4. Examples and models forprogrammingA5. Tools, approaches, modelsand capacity development forgovernance, policy and planningA6. Proactive knowledgemanagement:• tools, approaches and models• capacity development• lobbying and informationsharingB1. Better governance processesB2. Better policiesB3. More and better investmentin drylandsB4. Better land and resourceplanning and managementB5. Financial servicesB6. Market development:• Market systems• Capacity development• Market infrastructureB7. Livestock, agriculturalrangeland and socialprogrammingB8. Better researchC1. Livestock-crop integrationC2. Better feed and herdmanagementC3. Water harvestingC4. Land and soilmanagementC5. Better use of and access toinformationC6. Adoption of innovationsC7. Increased farmer/pastoralists capacityAgroecological improvementsD1. Increased productivityD2. Improved sustainabilityo Increased biomasso AgrobiodiversitySocio-economic outcomesD3. Tenure securityD4. Reduced conflictD5. Access to/participationin marketsD6. Access to credit/ micro-financeD7. Landholding sizeD8. Greater equityE1.LivelihoodassetsE2.LivelihoodstrategiesE3. IncomeRV.ReducedVulnerabilitySI.SustainableIntensificationCRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 2
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 2Table 1: Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 2Problem Component/Outcome OutputB1 to B8 (esp. B2-B4)(1) Although the multipledrivers of vulnerabilityof dryland commun-ities are well docu-mented, attempts toreduce it are under-mined by a limitedunderstanding of howmany people arevulnerable, and towhat extent, indifferent drylandpopulations(urban:rural,NRM:non-NRMbased, aridity zones)A51.1.1 Nationally / widely agreed frameworks todefine and measure vulnerability are in place andintegrated into existing government / developmentpartners household classification and monitoringsystemsA2/A31.1.1.1 Widely accepted and contextually specific definitions ofvulnerability (and resilience) exist for communities andhouseholds in the target siteA51.1.1.2 Government approved monitoring frameworks in place tomonitor levels of vulnerability / resilienceA2/A31.1.1.3 Vulnerability/ resilience of dryland populations being mappedand classified according to agreed indicators in frameworkA51.2.1 Vulnerability framework being used to modelimpact of long and short term variables (drivers)and inform policy and programming interventionsA51.2.1.1 Framework used to create/ enhance modelling systems that canpredict long and short term shifts in vulnerability /resiliencebased on multiple variables.A51.2.1.2 Vulnerability / resilience modelling integrated into governmentMIS/ EW / M&E systemsCRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 3
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 2Problem Component/Outcome OutputB1 to B3(2) Low political will todevelop drylands andineffective governancesystems result inincreased vulnerabilityB1/B2/B42.1.1 Improved multi-sectoral (government) NRMplans (national and local) are developed,implemented and enforcedA4/A52.1.1.1 Validated model for local level NRM governance establishedand disseminatedA52.1.1.2 Model used to develop govt standards and guidelinesA52.1.1.3 Capacity built / support given to develop quality plans in allareasB42.1.1.4 # plans developed using guidanceD32.2. Insecure land rights,weak strategic and landuse planning are increas-ingly undermining theproductivity and envi-ronment of the drylandsB42.2.1 The quality oflocal strategic and landuse plans and applica-tion is improvedprocesses are improvedby being more holisticand participatoryA4/A52.2.1.1 Effective models for participatory planning processes areidentified and inform practiceB42.2.1.2 Quality local strategic plans developed following effectiveparticipatory processesB42.2.1.3 Quality land use plans in place developed in full consultationwith all partiesB12.2.1.4 Representative and participatory governance structures in placeto monitoring the Implementation of local plansB3  D12.3.1 Sufficient and appropriate investment securedfor basic services and infrastructure directlyboosting pastoral (and non) productivityA62.3.1.1 Evidence for lobbying produced linking poor productivity withgap in infrastructural / basic services investmentA2/A42.3.1.2 Models/ research exists to assess the benefits of large scaleinvestment in infrastructure / basic servicesA42.3.1.3 Model uses to assess the relative benefits of differentinvestments in different dryland contexts to secure investmentCRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 4
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 2Problem Component/Outcome OutputD1(3): Despite stronggrowth in demand forlivestock in bothdomestic andinternational markets,the productivity ofmany (most) smallerpastoralists in thedrylands is decliningresulting increasingpoverty andvulnerabilityD53.1.1 Smaller pastoralists access andintegration into national livestock markets isincreasedA23.1.1.1 Systems in place for tracking utilisation of livestock markets by size ofproducerB63.1.1.2 Livestock market infrastructure and operation improved in remote areasA4  B6/C73.1.1.3 Effective interventions for increasing business acumen of smallpastoralists and achieving better prices through joint ventures etc scaled upA63.1.1.4 Expanded price information networks using new and existing technologiesD13.2.1 Smaller pastoralists improve theirproductivity (not necessarily herd size)increasing incomes and resilienceB73.2.1.1 Effective systems for comprehensive provision of quality animal healthcare in placeB73.2.1.2 Expanded systems to ensure year round access to feed and fodderB73.2.1.3 Expanded access to year round (drought resistant) watering pointsB13.2.1.4 Access to credit as requiredC53.3.1 Dryland technicians and pastoralistshave improved access to quality technicaladvice and supportB43.3.1.1 Best practice incorporated into government rangeland/ NR managementB73.3.1.2 Expanded numbers of livestock / pastoral outreach workersB73.3.1.3 Improved access to consistent quality technical advice on enhancing localbreeds and production methodsB13.3.1.4 Improved regulation and monitoring of animal health care servicesCRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 5
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 2Problem Component/Outcome OutputD1(4) The productivityof smaller pastoralistsis further underminedby a lack ofinvestment in theproduction of, orcommercial marketsfor, other livestockrelated products,particularly milk butalso other dairyproducts, fodder andforageD14.1.1 Small holder commercial milk (and other dairy)production/sales/ income in the dry lands is increasedA54.1.1.1 Systems in place to monitor dryland milk / dairy production(and sale)D14.1.1.2 Increased milk production for saleD14.1.1.3 Improvements in milk qualityD54.1.1.4 Expanded number of commercial milk processing enterprisesD1/D64.1.1.5 Expanded milk supply to markets out of drylandsD84.2 Milk production in the dry-lands is primarily managed bywomen and is a key element ofchild nutrition. How can womencontinue to control and benefitfrom the commercialisation ofthe milk industry without anynegative impacts on childnutrition?D1 or D54.2.1 Investment incommercialisationare gender andnutrition sensitive ORIncreased milk salesresult in increasedincomes for womenin the drylandsA2/A34.2.1.1 Gender assessment undertaken to ensure commercialisation ofmilk markets is gender sensitive and pro-nutritionB3/B64.2.1.2 Subsidies provided to enable women to expand and realise theincome generating potential of milk productionD1  E34.3.1 Fodder and forage production and incomessustainably expanded by vulnerable groups in thedrylandsA44.3.1.1 Pro-poor models of community managed fodder and forageproduction enterprises identified and disseminatedA24.3.1.2 Fodder and forage production capabilities of different drylandhabitats assessed and mappedA14.3.1.3 Improved fodder and forage seeds and species identifiedB34.3.1.4 Government / donors invest resources to expand best practicemodels and approachesCRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 6
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 2Problem Component/Outcome OutputD2(5): Growing populationsin the drylands depend onnon-pastoral economicactivities that do notgenerate sufficient returns,are environmentallyunsustainable and canundermine pastoralproduction systemsB1/B45.1.1 Standard cost – benefit- environmentalassessments undertaken by government and donoragencies before funding alternative / diversifiedlivelihood programmesB1/B45.1.1.1 Improved and institutionalised environmental assessments ofnew investment optionsA55.1.1.2 Validated tool for ecosystem-scale impact assessment thataccounts for impacts on pastoral landscape managementA55.1.1.3 Validated tools for evaluating community-level food-securityimpact of public investmentsA65.1.1.4 Monitoring system established to track long-term economic andother impactsB1/B45.2.1 All irrigation schemes are subject to anapproval process that ensures compliance with locallevel NRM plansA1/A45.2.1.1 Standard guidelines in place and utilised to promote models ofirrigated agriculture that do not impact negatively on the widerdrylands environmentA1/A65.2.1.2 Information on irrigation options are available to communitiesand government planners at all levels (e.g. good practiceguidelines/minimum standards)B25.2.1.3 Recognition in government policies and plans that pastoralismshould remain principle agricultural system in the dry lands.CRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 7
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 2Problem Component/Outcome OutputD4/RV(6). High levels of conflictamong three ethnic groupswho compete for resourcesleads to high levels ofvulnerabilityB46.1.1 Improved management of existing naturalresourcesB46.1.1.1 Improved rangeland and upland forest management strategiesB46.1.1.2 Improved water harvesting and managementD26.1.2 Enhanced natural resources base, includingbiodiversityD26.1.2.1 Restored landD1/D26.1.2.2 Reduced erosion and improved soil healthB46.2 Immobility leading toinability to access resourcesand to over-use of resourcesB4/D36.2.1 Improved landtenure, use andownership systemsA26.2.1.1 Understanding of community-based land use, tenure anddemarcation systemsB16.2.1.2 Community-based demarcation of land recognized andsanctioned by government authorities?6.3 Poorly defined andchanging administrative,electoral and ethnicboundariesB2/B46.3.1 Adoption ofimproved NRM andland managementpoliciesA66.3.1.1 Improved linkages and information exchange betweenadministrative and community levels covering land use, conflictresolution, coordination and development effortsCRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 8
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 2Problem Component/Outcome OutputD2/D4(7) Severe landdegradation leads toincreased vulnerability,food insecurity, conflictand povertyD27.1 Severe pressure onnatural resources due toincreased numbers of peopleand animalsC1/C2/C47.1.1 Improved landand livestockmanagementpractices anddiversification ofincome generatingopportunitiesB47.1.1.1 Improved rangeland and upland forest management strategiesB47.1.1.2 Improved water harvesting and managementA17.1.1.3 Defined options for income generation on and off farm and forwomen in particularB77.1.1.4 Improved access to reproductive health care for womenD17.2.1 Increased productivity and profitability perunit of resourceB4/C27.2.1.1 Better, all year, fodder availability and managementC2/C47.2.1.2 Managed spontaneous regenerationC2/C47.2.1.3 Controlling invasive speciesC27.2.1.4 Rotational grazing and other improved practices adoptedD57.2.1.5 Improved livestock value chainD37.3 Inappropriate and ill-defined land tenure policiesand practicesB27.3.1 Appropriatepolicies defined,implemented andadoptedA57.3.1.1 Institutional framework to analyze the current situation,prepare a reform strategy and plan and implement change.B27.4.1 Strategies that are adapted to the dynamics ofchangeA47.4.1.1 Multiple community based strategy options defined anddevelopedB2/B77.5.2.1 Administrative support of good practices in land restoration,combatting erosion, conservation and reforestationCRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 9
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 2Problem Component/Outcome OutputD1/E3(8). Dryland ‘on-farm’production, profitabilityand income generation donot reach their maximumpotentialD1/D38.1.1 Improved yields and incomesA1/C28.1.1.1 Improved breed and livestock managementC68.1.2 Profitable and diverse income generatingopportunities for communities, groups, men andwomen realizedA18.1.2.1 Diverse income generating opportunities tried and testedA48.1.2.2 Optimal utilization and management strategies developedD38.2 People’s access toproductive naturalresources are defined underlegally pluralistic regimes,so rights to access are notcommonly definedA2/A68.2.1 Betterunderstanding amongcommunities andlocal authorities ofhow resource accessis defined andcontrolledA2/A68.2.1.1 Surveys and maps of legal and extra-legal definitions of rightsof access to landB78.4.1 Improved community-based methods ofcontrolling and managing Prosopis and Opuntia sppA18.4.1.1 Technologies for controlling Prosopis and Oputia sppA18.4.1.2 Technologies for managing Prosopis spp including for highquality charcoal production and for timber productionC1(9). Poor livestock-cropintegrationC69.1.1 Enhanced access to and uptake of key inputssuch as seeds and fertilizerA1/B79.1.1.1 Improved technologies and inputs developed and madeavailableC19.1.2 Enhanced diversity of crops and forage plantsA69.1.2.1 Diverse crops and information about their cultivation, storage,and marketing is made availableC1/C49.2.3 Farmers implement sustainable agronomicpractices, including rotation, irrigation, soil fertilitymeasures, and erosion controlA69.2.3.1 Information on appropriate technologies and interventions ismade availableCRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 10
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 3Table 2: Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 3Problem Component/Outcome OutputE11. Physical access toresourcesD61.1.1 Farmers make use of better cash/creditavailabilityB51.1.1.1 Mechanisms developed to enable farmers to access creditB81.1.2 Researchers understand, and giveappropriate weight to, the role of householdresource endowments in determining sustainableintensification opportunitiesA31.1.1.2 Household constraints on, and potential for, sustainableintensification characterized.A21.1.1.3 Resource gaps quantifiedA1/A41.1.1.4 Sustainable Intensification programs for household categoriesdevelopedC41.3 Farmers manage their natural resources in amore sustainable waysA21.3.1 Soil, land and water characteristics determinedA21.3.2 Input requirements for a sustainability threshold determinedA61.3.3 Information on Sustainable Natural Resource Management availableC6  D11.4 Farmers use additional resources, e.g.irrigation, improved varieties, sustainably toincrease productivity and profitability.A1/A21.4.1 Irrigation potential, e.g. water resources, topography identifiedA1/A41.4.2 Sustainable irrigation systems identified, tested and promotedC11.5 Farmers use resources more efficiently, e.g.better crop-livestock integration.A11.5.1 Appropriate options for better crop-livestock integration developedA51.5.5 DSS and Trade-off analysis tools developed and deployedCRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 11
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 3Problem Component/Outcome OutputE1 (E3?)2. Inputs and outputs forsustainable intensificationD52.1.1 Farmers participate more in input and outputmarkets.A2/A32.1.1.1 Constraints to farmer participation in markets identified.B62.1.1.2 Potential buyers and input suppliers identified and linked to farmers.A4/B5/B62.1.1.3 External solutions for overcoming constraints identified anddelivered, e.g. subsidies, small packs, micro-finance.A42.1.1.4 Local institutional mechanisms for enhancing market participationidentified and tested, e.g. group buying and selling.A62.1.1.5 Effective mechanisms for accessing and using price-, quality- andquantity information by farmers and buyers identified.CRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 12
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 3Problem Component/Outcome OutputB23.Policies and institutionsB2B63.1.1 Policymakers influence market developmentto support SI.A53.1.1.1 Policies and instruments with beneficial effects on marketsidentified.A63.1.1.2 Communication channels between policymakers and researchersimproved.A6  B63.1.1.3 Awareness of policies and their implications among market actorsimprovedB2  C53.1.2 Policymakers develop and implementpolicies that support/promote technology transfer.A53.2.1.4 Policies that facilitate, promote or hamper the transfer of technologyidentified.A63.2.1.2 Researchers and research managers improve their capacity to engagewith policy makers.B83.2.1.3 Researchers take account of the effect of various policy options ontechnology transfer when developing and promoting technologies(sensitivity analysis).CRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 13
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 3Problem Component/Outcome OutputC64.Appropriate innovationsA64.1.1 Farmers adopt reduced-risk SI innovations.A34.1.1.1 Household goals and aspirations understoodA2/A34.1.1.2 Constraints on adoption understood.A14.1.1.3 A basket of low-risk crop- and livestock innovations with technicalpotential for SI developed and testedA14.1.1.4 Technologies screened for adoptability (‘attractiveness’)A1/A4/A64.1.2 Feedback from farmers/CRP1.1 researchersinforms development of technologies in otherCRPs and better approaches for promotingadoption.A14.1.2.1 Feedback from farmers collected and synthesized.CRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 14
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 3Problem Component/Outcome OutputC55. InformationC55.1.1 More peer-to-peer information exchangeA25.1.1.1 Social networks characterizedA65.1.1.2 Improved processes for facilitating information exchangeA65.1.2 New approaches to information flow usedC75.1.2.1 Farmers’ management skills enhancedA65.1.2.2 Methods using new technologies for information exchange, phones, internet, developed.C65.1.3 Farmers benefit from new niches forexogenous innovationA2/A65.1.3.1 Validated technologies for identifying and delivering new niches thatcomplement existing practiceB65.1.4 Public and private sector form integratedinformation servicesA65.1.4.1Public sector data on, e.g. demand, informs private sector investmentopportunities.?5.1.5 Better informed development at scale.?CRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 15
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 3 Satellite SitesTable 3: Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 3, Satellite SitesComponent Outcome OutputC7Engagement ofyouth/demographic andsocial changeC7Youth engaged more productively in agricultureand livestock activitiesB7Establishment of youth based agricultural enterprises, including innovationprograms and youth focused training courses.B7Agricultural innovation programs targeting transition from school toemployment, with particular focus on agri-business opportunities.C7Youth engaged in income generating activities derived from agricultureD2Soil loss and nutrientdepletion in mixed cropgrazing landsC1/D2Soil loss and nutrient depletion is halted in mixedcrop grazing landsA4Demonstrate opportunities for value-added activities for smallholderlivestock (e.g. milk) and associated benefits of grazing land management.A1/A4Opportunities for more effective tree-crop livestock integration.C4Diverse forest resource are maintained andregeneratedB41.2.1 Increase for cover based on community managed regeneration withindigenous species.B4Community engaged in sustainable conservation based income from forestregeneration and opportunities for eco-tourism etc.A1Alternative fuelwood sources developed for farmersA6Efficient energy use interventions promoted within cultural normsCRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 16
  • Impact Pathways – ESA SRT 3 Satellite SitesComponent Outcome OutputC6Technologies are notsuitable to local context,and do not appreciate theintegrated nature of needsfor sustainableintensification.C6Suite of integrated technologies available relevantto local agro-ecological and socio-economiccontextA1/A2Comparative analysis through research evaluation of CRP technologiessuitable to local contextA1/B8Participatory technology evaluation by farmers, which is fed into theresearch evaluation and drives implementation plans.A6Technology is utilized by extension officers and available in the localmarket to allow an integrated approach to sustainable intensification.B4 (C4  D4)Lack of integrated andscaled planning to allowsustainable land usemanagementB4Appropriate plans at village and district leveldeveloped, implemented & enforced.A5Land management using local context specific cultural norms to aid thereduction of court cases around land-use conflicts.B4Water resource sharing plans implemented and managed.CRP 1.1 ESA Impact Pathways – Draft – 27/03/13 Page 17