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Mainstreaming gender in
the CRP Dryland Systems
in Central Asia
Planning Workshop for the Implementation
of the DS CRP Gen...
Strengthening gender equity through systemic and gradual
approach in the CRP Dryland Systems in Central Asia
taking into a...
1. For reducing vulnerability and managing risk
1. Lowland basin of the Aral Sea
2. Rasht and Kyzyl Suu Valley
CRP Dryland...
Main characteristics
• The high degree of desertification and
soil salinization / degradation
• Availability of research i...
Key characteristics
Water for irrigation, options for diversified production
systems for cotton-wheat-livestock-vegetables...
Population by action sites
Action site Population, 000’ % of rural population
Fergana Valley 12 957.4 50.2
Rasht and Kyzyl...
Fergana valley Aral Sea Rasht valley
Agro pastoral livelihood
systems: mountainous agro-
pastoralism in Rasht valley;
and ...
1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 10 .
Cowmilk
Cattle
meat
Tomato
Cotton
fiber
Grape
Wheat
Potato
Mutton
Chicken
Chicken...
http://faostat.fao.org/site/342/default.aspx
Food security and self-sufficiency in cereals production
Importance of Irriga...
Food
Security
Country Low Soil fertility High soil fertility
Lowest Food
Security
Tajikistan
Trade secure / Low food
produ...
Poverty and economic growth in Central Asia
Population living below $1.25
(2005 PPP) a day
Population living below
the nat...
Land and water degradation
(E. De Pauw et al., ICARDA 2009)
Degradation of pastures and forests
(Photo M. Turdieva, Bioversity, 2011)
Andervash Glacier melting in Tajikistan
(Photo S. Christmann, ICARDA, 2012)
Climate Change affect on DS in CA
CRP DS Activities in CA
Risks, constrains,
bottlenecks
Salinity, waterlogging, irrigation water
deficit, soil degradation, low drought-,
heat- fro...
Crops
Cereals, legumes, vegetables,
horticultural, potato, fodder, non-used,
aromatic, medical (officinal) and others
Production systems
Crops, agroforestry, horticulture,
pastures, livestock, fodder crops,
poultry, aquaculture, bee-keeping...
technologies /
innovations
agronomic, production, postharvest,
storage, processing, targeted (to
groups)
Management:
integrated, sustainable,
conservation,
participatory
land and water resources, pastures,
marginal lands, irrig...
Deliverables in / to
production systems, crops, land and
water management, pasture
management, marginal lands and
intensif...
Cross-cutting issues
Gender, youth, biodiversity,
smallholders, nutrition, capacity
building, partnership and etc.
DS CRP Central Asia Priority activities for 2013-2014
1. Identify and introduce tolerant, high-yielding and improved quali...
1. Improve the productivity of marginal lands in irrigated farming and pastoral
systems
2. Increase livestock productivity...
IDO 7. Policy
IDO 5. Markets IDO 6. Services
IDO 1. Resilience reducing risks
IDO 2. Intensification / income
IDO 4. NRM
I...
IDO 7. Policy reform removing constraints and incentivising rural households to engage
in more sustainable practices that ...
Productivity
IDO
Resilience
IDO1
Capacity to innovate
IDO6
Food Access
IDO3
Income
IDO2
Policies and institutions
IDO7
Fut...
Resilience
(IDO1)
Capacity to
innovate (IDO6)
Food Access
(IDO3)
Income
(IDO2)
NRM
(IDO4)
Gender
(IDO5)
SIDOs
Poverty redu...
Typology of the groups:
livelihoods, vulnerability, risks, distribution of incomes
decision making
Agricultural livelihood...
Policy, Institutional, technological, socio-economic, etc
Agricultural livelihood
systems (ALS)
1. Agro pastoral
2. Tree b...
Typology of the groups:
livelihoods, vulnerability, risks,
distribution of incomes decision
making
Agricultural
livelihood...
Thank you!
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  • Directly linked to food security
    Region as a whole is self-sufficient in terms of food security, but not all countries produce enough food to meet domestic requirements
    Per capita calorie intake from wheat is highest and nearly equal to West Asia
    There are a number of biotic, abiotic, technological and policy constraints constraints to successful cereals production in the region

    Rank
    Commodity
    Quantity (tonnes)
    Flag
    Value (1000 $)
    Flag
    Unit value ($/tonne)
    1
    Flour of Wheat
    940000
    1
    250000
    1
    266
    6
    Wheat
    165000
    3
    31000
    6
    188

  • Salinity and waterlogging affect 90% of the lower Amudarya
    Old irrigation infrastructure and lack of water distribution planning
    As a result, generally low yields, low water productivity and low incomes
  • High degree of degradation of pastures and forest/ woody areas
  • Transcript of "Mainstreaming gender in the CRP Dryland Systems in Central Asia"

    1. 1. Mainstreaming gender in the CRP Dryland Systems in Central Asia Planning Workshop for the Implementation of the DS CRP Gender Strategy, May 26-27, 2014, Amman, Jordan
    2. 2. Strengthening gender equity through systemic and gradual approach in the CRP Dryland Systems in Central Asia taking into account specific landscape, socio- economic, cultural, geographical and historical conditions in Central Asia: • historical legacy and transitional economy • work/ labour migration to Russia • high dependence of Food security on land and water use • diversity of livelihood and production systems • cultural aspects CA Flagship Gender Strategy
    3. 3. 1. For reducing vulnerability and managing risk 1. Lowland basin of the Aral Sea 2. Rasht and Kyzyl Suu Valley CRP Dryland Systems Action sites in Central Asia 2. Action site for sustainable intensification 3. Fergana valley Background: CRP Dryland Systems in Central Asia
    4. 4. Main characteristics • The high degree of desertification and soil salinization / degradation • Availability of research infrastructures • High potential for supporting and adopting of research outputs by national partners • The presence of the International Cooperation Agencies • Large cross-border area in the Aral Sea (lowland) • The close relationship with similar systems in other regions Action sites: Reducing vulnerability and managing risk Aral sea basin Rasht valley
    5. 5. Key characteristics Water for irrigation, options for diversified production systems for cotton-wheat-livestock-vegetables and horticultural crops, characterized by high and unique agrobiodiversity, along with good research and transport infrastructure are some of the factors that can lead to higher standards of living of the local population. Action site for Sustainable intensification Fergana valley
    6. 6. Population by action sites Action site Population, 000’ % of rural population Fergana Valley 12 957.4 50.2 Rasht and Kyzyl Suu Valley 286.9 97 Aral Sea region 5 238.2 55.3
    7. 7. Fergana valley Aral Sea Rasht valley Agro pastoral livelihood systems: mountainous agro- pastoralism in Rasht valley; and Low rainfall, susceptible of soil to erosion in Aral Sea Basin Susceptible of soil to erosion Mountainous, remote, marginal Tree based systems: Mixed tree-crop-livestock system, providing population with firewood, timber, food, and fodder crops for animal feeding Fruits and vegetables, Irrigated crop: cotton/wheat/rice systems cotton/wheat cotton/wheat/rice Vegetable / fruit Homegarden systems (urban & rural) (small in area, significant in nutrition) Mapping Agricultural livelihood systems (ALS) across Central Asia Action Sites
    8. 8. 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 10 . Cowmilk Cattle meat Tomato Cotton fiber Grape Wheat Potato Mutton Chicken Chicken eggs Kazakhstan 2 3 7 8 х 1 4 6 12 9 Kyrgyzstan 1 3 5 13 х 6 3 4 х 19 Tajikistan 3 6 2 1 7 8 4 5 х х Turkmenistan 4 1 7 3 6 8 11 2 13 10 Uzbekistan 3 1 5 2 7 4 11 9 х 15 Weighted- average place in 20 places 2.0 2.8 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.7 6.1 7.1 11.5 11.7 Why Homegarden ALS is important in CA Ten top agricultural products in CAC countries Rating based on monetary volume of production based on FAO data (FAOSTAT 2009) х – not included into the 20 most produced agricultural products Most of agricultural commodities are produced mostly by households: milk, meat, fruits and vegetables, etc
    9. 9. http://faostat.fao.org/site/342/default.aspx Food security and self-sufficiency in cereals production Importance of Irrigated crop systems: Staple crops
    10. 10. Food Security Country Low Soil fertility High soil fertility Lowest Food Security Tajikistan Trade secure / Low food production Middle Food security Uzbekistan Trade secure / Low food production Azerbaijan Trade secure / Low food production Upper Middle food security Kyrgyzstan Trade insecure / High food production Kazakhstan Trade Secure / High food production Turkmenistan Trade Secure / High food production Food security characteristics/ typology in CAC countries SOURCE: Shenggen, F., Liengzhi, Y., & Biengxin, Y., 2010, “Toward a typology of food security in developing countries”, IFPRI. <http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp00945.pdf High relevance Food security on soil fertility in CA
    11. 11. Poverty and economic growth in Central Asia Population living below $1.25 (2005 PPP) a day Population living below the national poverty line GDP per capita (PPP US$) Country Percentage Percentage 1990 1996 2002 2005 2005 2007 2007 Kazakhstan 4.21 5 0.51 3.1 34.6 15.4 10223 Kyrgyzstan 18.61 31.8 34 21.8 47.6 43.1 1869 Tajikistan - 44.5 - 21.5 - 74.9 1656 Turkmenistan 63.53 24.8 - - - - 4826 Uzbekistan - 32.1 42.3 46.3 - 27.5 2308 aData not available. Source: World Bank, PovcalNet (online database, accessed on 12 November 2008). United Nations Millennium Development Goals Indicators (online database, accessed on 29 September 2008). ESCAP Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2008; (http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/syb2008/).
    12. 12. Land and water degradation (E. De Pauw et al., ICARDA 2009)
    13. 13. Degradation of pastures and forests (Photo M. Turdieva, Bioversity, 2011)
    14. 14. Andervash Glacier melting in Tajikistan (Photo S. Christmann, ICARDA, 2012) Climate Change affect on DS in CA
    15. 15. CRP DS Activities in CA
    16. 16. Risks, constrains, bottlenecks Salinity, waterlogging, irrigation water deficit, soil degradation, low drought-, heat- froze-tolerance of crops, low productivity, landslide, soil erosion, out- of-date or absence of storage and processing technologies, undeveloped or absence of seed systems, low capacity, lack of small-scale innovations, and etc.
    17. 17. Crops Cereals, legumes, vegetables, horticultural, potato, fodder, non-used, aromatic, medical (officinal) and others
    18. 18. Production systems Crops, agroforestry, horticulture, pastures, livestock, fodder crops, poultry, aquaculture, bee-keeping and others
    19. 19. technologies / innovations agronomic, production, postharvest, storage, processing, targeted (to groups)
    20. 20. Management: integrated, sustainable, conservation, participatory land and water resources, pastures, marginal lands, irrigated farming and etc.
    21. 21. Deliverables in / to production systems, crops, land and water management, pasture management, marginal lands and intensifiable systems and etc.. methods, tools, processes, technology, research, testing, adoption, options, approaches
    22. 22. Cross-cutting issues Gender, youth, biodiversity, smallholders, nutrition, capacity building, partnership and etc.
    23. 23. DS CRP Central Asia Priority activities for 2013-2014 1. Identify and introduce tolerant, high-yielding and improved quality varieties of cereals, potato, vegetable, horticultural, fodder crops in pure and mixed plantations through on-farm adaptive trials 2. Establish a seed system platform compatible with existing agro-ecological environments to supply farmers with high quality seed and planting materials so as to improve livelihoods, food security and incomes of smallholders 3. Improve the productivity of marginal lands in irrigated farming and pastoral systems 4. Improve water use efficiency through innovative technologies in irrigation and farming in cereals, potato, vegetable, horticultural and fodder crops 5. Establish Strategic Innovation Platform for out-scaling Dryland Systems CRP impacts
    24. 24. 1. Improve the productivity of marginal lands in irrigated farming and pastoral systems 2. Increase livestock productivity to improve availability of animal proteins to the households and increased revenues and wellbeing of the pastoralists 3. Improve water use efficiency through innovative technologies in irrigation and farming in cereals, potato, vegetable, horticultural and fodder crops 4. Identify and introduce stress tolerant, high-yielding and improved quality varieties of cereals, potato, vegetable, horticultural, fodder crops through on-farm adaptive trials 5. Establish a seed systems platform compatible with existing agro-ecological environments to supply farmers with high quality seed and planting materials so as to improve livelihoods, food security and incomes of smallholders 6. Establishing Strategic Innovation Platform for multi-stakeholder process to foster reducing vulnerability of the agro-pastoral system and sustainable intensification in Action Sites 7. Knowledge synthesis, generation, packaging and dissemination (knowledge platform) of sustainable land management practices in Central Asia 8. Strengthen capacity in application of Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing on assessment and sustainable management of soil, water, agro- biodiversity resources CRP DS Cluster activities for 2014-2016 (with additional three, 2014)
    25. 25. IDO 7. Policy IDO 5. Markets IDO 6. Services IDO 1. Resilience reducing risks IDO 2. Intensification / income IDO 4. NRM IDO 3. Nutrition and Health 3.2.1. Varieties / trials 1.2.1. Marginal lands 1.1.1. Improved irrigation 2.2.1. Improved water use 1.1.3. Livestock 7.2.1. Improved land tenure and property rights 4.1.2. Bio-economic modeling 2.3.1. Varieties for crop-livestock 3.2.5. Vegetables production 4.1.3. GIS 3.2.2. Postharvest capacity 3.2.3. Seed system 4.2.1. IP 1.2.2. Water use 3.2.4. Mixed crop system 1.2.3. Risk models 4.2.2. NRM Strategies 4.2.3. NRM Planning
    26. 26. IDO 7. Policy reform removing constraints and incentivising rural households to engage in more sustainable practices that intensify and improve resilience IDO 5. Impact through better functioning markets underpinning intensification of rural livelihoods IDO 6. More integrated, effective and connected service delivery institutions underpinning system intensification IDO 1. More resilient livelihoods for vulnerable households in marginal areas. IDO 2. More stable and higher per capita income for intensifiable households IDO 4. More sustainable and equitable management of land and water resources in agropastoral areas IDO 3. Women and children in vulnerable households have year round access to greater quantity and diversity of food sources
    27. 27. Productivity IDO Resilience IDO1 Capacity to innovate IDO6 Food Access IDO3 Income IDO2 Policies and institutions IDO7 Future options NRM IDO4 Gender IDO5 Food Security Theory of Change for DS CRP in Central Asia
    28. 28. Resilience (IDO1) Capacity to innovate (IDO6) Food Access (IDO3) Income (IDO2) NRM (IDO4) Gender (IDO5) SIDOs Poverty reduction, FS, N&H, Sustainable NRM: DS CRP in Central Asia
    29. 29. Typology of the groups: livelihoods, vulnerability, risks, distribution of incomes decision making Agricultural livelihood systems (ALS) 1. Agro pastoral 2. Tree based 3. Irrigated crop: 4. Homegardens in Fergana valley Aral Sea Rasht valley Mapping and characterization of gender specific groups based on gender disaggregated baseline survey
    30. 30. Policy, Institutional, technological, socio-economic, etc Agricultural livelihood systems (ALS) 1. Agro pastoral 2. Tree based 3. Irrigated crop: 4. Homegardens in Fergana valley Aral Sea Rasht valley Mapping packages of combinations of technologies, innovations, options
    31. 31. Typology of the groups: livelihoods, vulnerability, risks, distribution of incomes decision making Agricultural livelihood systems (ALS) 1. Agro pastoral 2. Tree based 3. Irrigated crop: 4. Homegard ens in Fergana valley Aral Sea Rasht valley Policy, Institutional, technological, socio-economic, etc Agricultural livelihood systems (ALS) 1. Agro pastoral 2. Tree based 3. Irrigated crop: 4. Homegar dens in Fergana valley Aral Sea Rasht valley Resilience (IDO1) Income (IDO2) SIDOs Poverty reduction, FS, N&H, Sustainable NRM:
    32. 32. Thank you!
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