WTO - Negotiating Groups in the Doha Development Round

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  • 1. GROUPS IN THE WTO Updated 18 April 2011A number of countries have formed coalitions in the WTO. These groups often speak with one voiceusing a single coordinator or negotiating team. These are some of the most active groups in the WTO.Groups Description / issues CountriesACP African, Caribbean and WTO members (58): Angola, Antigua & Barbuda, Pacific countries with Barbados, Belize, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, preferences in the EU Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Rep., Chad, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Congo (Democratic Rep.), Nature: geographical Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Rep., Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Issues: preferences, etc Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, www.acpsec.org Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, St Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent & the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe WTO observers (10): Bahamas, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Liberia, Samoa, São Tomé and Principe, Seychelles, Sudan, Vanuatu Not WTO members or observers (11): Cook Islands, Eritrea, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Somalia, Timor-Lesté, TuvaluAfrican group All African WTO WTO members (42): Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina members Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Rep., Chad, Congo, Congo (Democratic Rep.), Côte Nature: regional d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Issues: general Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, ZimbabweAPEC Asia Pacific Economic WTO members (20): Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Cooperation forum Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong China, Indonesia, Japan, Rep. Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Nature: regional Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Issues: general Thailand, US, Viet Nam www.apec.org WTO observers (1): RussiaEU European Union, in the WTO members (28): Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, WTO officially called the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, European Communities Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Nature: customs union Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Issues: general Sweden, United Kingdom + European Union ec.europa.euMercosur Common Market of the WTO members (4): Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Southern Cone (Mercosul Uruguay in Portuguese) Nature: customs union Issues: general www.mercosur.int
  • 2. Groups Description / issues CountriesG-90 African Group + ACP + WTO members (65): Angola, Antigua & Barbuda, least-developed Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Botswana, countries Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Rep., Chad, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Issues: general Congo (Democratic Rep.), Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, St Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent & the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe WTO observers (14): Afghanistan, Bahamas, Bhutan, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Laos, Liberia, Samoa, São Tomé & Principe, Seychelles, Sudan, Vanuatu, Yemen Not WTO members or observers (11): Cook Islands, Eritrea, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Somalia, Timor-Lesté, TuvaluLeast Least developed WTO members (31): Angola, Bangladesh, Benin,developed countries: the world’s Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Rep.,countries poorest countries. The Chad, Congo (Democratic Rep.), Djibouti, Gambia,(LDCs) WTO uses the UN list. Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Haiti, Lesotho, Madagascar, www.un.org/special- Malawi, , Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, rep/ohrlls/ldc/list.htm Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia Issues: general WTO observers (12): Afghanistan, Bhutan, Comoros, Official website: Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Laos, Liberia, Samoa, www.ldcgroups.org São Tomé & Principe, Sudan, Vanuatu, YemenSmall, This list is based on WTO members (15): Barbados, Bolivia, Cuba,vulnerable sponsors of proposals. Dominican Rep., El Salvador, Fiji, Guatemala, Honduras,economies See also: list in Annex I Maldives, Mauritius, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Papua New(SVEs) — of the 10 July 2008 Guinea, Paraguay, Trinidad & Tobagoagriculture revised draft agriculture modalities, and footnote 9 (paragraph 65) and paragraph 151. Issues: agricultureSmall, This list is based on WTO members (20): Antigua & Barbuda, Barbados,vulnerable sponsors of proposals. Bolivia, Dominca, Dominican Rep., El Salvador, Fiji,economies See also: definition in Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Maldives,(SVEs) — non- paragraph 13 of the Mongolia, Nicaragua, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Stagricultural 10 July 2008 revised draft Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent & the Grenadines,market access NAMA modalities Trinidad & Tobago(NAMA) Issues: NAMASmall, Sponsors of WTO members (15): Barbados, Cuba, Dominica,vulnerable TN/RL/W/226/Rev.5 Dominican Rep., El Salvador, Fiji, Honduras, Jamaica,economies Maldives, Mauritius, Nicaragua, Papua New Guinea, St Issues: Rules (fisheries(SVEs) — rules Lucia, St Vincent & the Grenadines, Tonga subsidies)
  • 3. Groups Description / issues CountriesRecently Recently acceded WTO members (19): Albania, Armenia, Cape Verde,acceded members (RAMs), ie, China, Croatia, Ecuador, FYR Macedonia, Georgia, Jordan,members countries that negotiated Kyrgyz Rep., Moldova, Mongolia, Oman, Panama, Saudi(RAMs) and joined the WTO after Arabia, Chinese Taipei, Tonga, Ukraine, Viet Nam 1995, seeking lesser commitments in the negotiations because of the liberalization they have undertaken as part of their membership agreements. Excludes least-developed countries because they will make no new commitments, and EU members Issues: generalLow-income Seeking to secure the WTO members (3): Armenia, Kyrgyz Rep., Moldovaeconomies in same treatment as least-transition developed countries. (Georgia formally withdrew, but in the agriculture draft the full list is: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyz Rep, Moldova) Issues: AgricultureCairns group Coalition of agricultural WTO members (19): Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, exporting nations Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, lobbying for agricultural Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, trade liberalization. Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Uruguay Issues: agriculture www.cairnsgroup.orgTropical Coalition of developing WTO members (8): Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica,products group countries seeking greater Ecuador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru market access for tropical products Issues: AgricultureG-10 Coalition of countries WTO members (9): Chinese Taipei, Rep. Korea, Iceland, lobbying for agriculture to Israel, Japan, Liechtenstein, Mauritius, Norway, be treated as diverse and Switzerland special because of non- trade concerns (not to be confused with the Group of Ten Central Bankers) Issues: agricultureG-20 Coalition of developing WTO members (23): Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, countries pressing for China, Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, India, ambitious reforms of Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, agriculture in developed Philippines, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, Uruguay, countries with some Venezuela, Zimbabwe flexibility for developing countries (not to be
  • 4. Groups Description / issues Countries confused with the G-20 group of finance ministers and central bank governors, and its recent summit meetings) Issues: agriculture www.g-20.mre.gov.brG-33 Also called “Friends of WTO members (46): Antigua & Barbuda, Barbados, Special Products” in Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, China, Congo, Côte agriculture. d’Ivoire, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Rep., El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Coalition of developing Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Rep. Korea, Madagascar, countries pressing for Mauritius, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nigeria, flexibility for developing Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, St Kitts & Nevis, St countries to undertake Lucia, St Vincent & the Grenadines, Senegal, Sri Lanka, limited market opening in Suriname, Tanzania, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, agriculture Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe Issues: agricultureCotton-4 West African coalition WTO members (4): Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali seeking cuts in cotton subsidies and tariffs Issues: agriculture (cotton)NAMA 11 Coalition of developing WTO members (10): Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, countries seeking Indonesia, Namibia, Philippines, South Africa, Tunisia, flexibilities to limit market Venezuela opening in industrial goods trade Issues: NAMA‘Paragraph 6’ Group of countries with WTO members (12): Cameroon, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire,countries less than 35% of non- Cuba, Ghana, Kenya, Macao China, Mauritius, Nigeria, Sri agricultural products Lanka, Suriname, Zimbabwe covered by legally bound tariff ceilings. They have agreed to increase their binding coverage substantially, but want to exempt some products. (In paragraph 6 of the first version of the NAMA text, later paragraph 8.) Issues: NAMAFriends of Seeking to maximize WTO members (35): Australia, Austria, Belgium,Ambition tariff reductions and Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Denmark, Estonia,(NAMA) achieve real market EU, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, access in NAMA. (Some Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, nuanced differences in Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, positions.) Romania, Slovak Rep., Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US Issues: NAMAFriends of Anti- Coalition seeking more WTO members (15): Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,Dumping disciplines on the use of Hong Kong China, Israel, Japan, Rep. of Korea, Mexico,
  • 5. Groups Description / issues CountriesNegotiations anti-dumping measures Norway, Singapore, Switzerland, Chinese Taipei, Thailand,(FANs) Turkey Issues: Rules (anti- dumping)Friends of Fish Informal coalition seeking WTO members (11): Argentina, Australia, Chile,(FoFs) to significantly reduce Colombia, Ecuador, Iceland, New Zealand, Norway, fisheries subsidies. From Pakistan, Peru, US time to time other WTO members also identify themselves as “Friends of Fish”" Issues: Rules (subsidies)‘W52’ sponsors Sponsors of TN/C/W/52, WTO members (109): Albania, Angola, Antigua & a proposal for Barbuda, Austria, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, “modalities” in Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, negotiations on Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Rep., Chad, China, geographical indications Colombia, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, (the multilateral register Czech Rep, Congo (Democratic Rep.), Denmark, Djibouti, for wines and spirits, and Dominica, Dominican Rep.*, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, EU, extending the higher level Fiji, Finland, FYR Macedonia, France, Gabon, Gambia, of protection beyond Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guinea, wines and spirits) and Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, India, “disclosure” (patent Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Kyrgyz Rep., applicants to disclose the Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, origin of genetic Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, resources and traditional Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, knowledge used in the Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, inventions). The list Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, St Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia, St includes as groups: the Vincent & the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovak EU, ACP and African Rep., Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sri Lanka, Group. Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, South Africa*, * Dominican Rep. is in Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, the ACP and South Africa Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom, Zambia, is in the African Group, Zimbabwe but they are sponsors of TN/IP/W/10/Rev.2 on geographical indications Issues: Intellectual property (TRIPS)Joint proposal Sponsors of WTO members (20): Argentina, Australia, Canada, TN/IP/W/10/Rev.2 Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Ecuador, El Salvador, proposing a database that Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New is entirely voluntary Zealand, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Chinese Taipei, South Africa, US www.wto.org/trips#issues Issues: TRIPS GI register