EMBARGOThe contents of this Report must not be quoted or summarized in the print,broadcast or electronic media before 15 D...
Copyright © United Nations 2010All rights reservedUNCTAD/DITC/TAB/2010/3ISBN 978-0-9816619-0-2Material in this publication...
ii   C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0
ContentsForeword ............................................................................................................
1.4.3     Need for institutional mechanisms .................................................................................
3.4.2      Large-scale corporate enterprises.................................................................................
5.3.4      Trade balance in creative goods ..................................................................................
7.     Technology, connectivity and the creative economy                                                                  ...
9.      The international dimension of creative-industries policy                                                         ...
LIST OF BOXES1.1    A creative entrepreneur: Transforming ideas into successful business ....................................
9.1        Television and soap operas .......................................................................................
5.9     Creative goods: Exports, by regional economic group, 2002 and 2008 ..................................................
LIST OF FIGURES                               1.1       Creativity in today’s economy........................................
5.13          Audiovisuals: Exports, by economic group, 2002, 2005 and 2008..................................................
2.5.A      Exports of personal, cultural and recreational services, by economic group and country/territory,              ...
Foreword       The United Nations published its first         across the South and the growing share ofCreative Economy Re...
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Acknowledgements       The Creative Economy Report series is the   under the overall guidance of Edna dosresult of a partn...
Creative Economy Report 2010: Georges Poussin     the boxes throughout the report. These                                  ...
Scope of this report       The Creative Economy Report 2010 —                                     strengths and weaknesses...
These have been the key motivations guiding         reorient policies towards more equitable,                             ...
Chapter 1 explores evolving concepts                         Advances were made in the UNCTADsuch as creative ecology, cre...
UNCTAD - Creative Economy - A feasible development option
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Transcript of "UNCTAD - Creative Economy - A feasible development option"

  1. 1. EMBARGOThe contents of this Report must not be quoted or summarized in the print,broadcast or electronic media before 15 December 2010, 17:00 GMT
  2. 2. Copyright © United Nations 2010All rights reservedUNCTAD/DITC/TAB/2010/3ISBN 978-0-9816619-0-2Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted as long as acknowledgement isprovided with a reference to the source. A copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprintshould be sent to the UNCTAD secretariat at: Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland,and to the UNDP Special Unit for South-South Cooperation, 1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017 USA.This report is the fruit of a collaborative effort that was led by UNCTAD and the UNDP Special Unitfor South-South Cooperation. The Creative Economy Report 2010 presents the United Nationssystem-wide perspective on this new topic, as an example of multi-agency cooperation working as“One UN”.The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply theexpression of any opinion whatsoever concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city orarea, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The report is available in English only. The full report is currently available on the Internet athttp://www.unctad.org/creative-economy.
  3. 3. ii C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0
  4. 4. ContentsForeword ..........................................................................................................................................xvAcknowledgements ......................................................................................................................xviiScope of this report........................................................................................................................xixTen key messages ........................................................................................................................xxiiiAbbreviations and acronyms ......................................................................................................xxvi PART 1. THE CREATIVE ECONOMYChapter1. Concept and context of the creative economy 31.1 Evolving concepts and definitions ........................................................................................3 1.1.1 Creativity ......................................................................................................................................3 1.1.2 Creative goods and services ..........................................................................................................4 1.1.3 Cultural industries ........................................................................................................................5 1.1.4 Cultural economics........................................................................................................................5 1.1.5 Creative industries ........................................................................................................................6 1.1.6 The UNCTAD classification of the creative industries ......................................................................7 1.1.7 The creative economy ..................................................................................................................9 1.1.8 The creative class and creative entrepreneurs ..............................................................................10 1.1.9 Creative cities ............................................................................................................................12 1.1.10 Creative clusters, networks and districts ......................................................................................16 1.1.11 Cultural and creative commons....................................................................................................18 1.1.12 Experience economy ..................................................................................................................18 1.1.13 Creative ecology..........................................................................................................................191.2 Major drivers of the creative economy worldwide..............................................................19 1.2.1 Technology ................................................................................................................................19 1.2.2 Demand......................................................................................................................................20 1.2.3 Tourism ......................................................................................................................................211.3 The multiple dimensions of the creative economy ............................................................23 1.3.1 Economic aspects ......................................................................................................................23 1.3.2 Social aspects ............................................................................................................................24 1.3.3 Cultural aspects ..........................................................................................................................25 1.3.4 Sustainable development ............................................................................................................261.4 The cross-cutting nature of creative industries..................................................................27 Contents 1.4.1 Need for concerted inter-ministerial policies ................................................................................27 1.4.2 Need for dialogue with multiple stakeholders................................................................................28 C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0 iii
  5. 5. 1.4.3 Need for institutional mechanisms ..............................................................................................28 1.5 The creative economy in the developed world....................................................................28 2. The development dimension 33 2.1 Policy implications: The Millennium Development Goals ..................................................33 2.2 The creative economy: Linkages and development implications ......................................36 2.2.1 Multifaceted aspects of the creative economy ..............................................................................37 2.2.2 Cultural and technological linkages ..............................................................................................37 2.2.3 Social interactions ......................................................................................................................38 2.3 Traditional knowledge, culture and the creative economy ................................................38 2.4 The creative economy in the developing world and transition economies ......................41 2.4.1 Africa ........................................................................................................................................41 2.4.2 The Asia-Pacific region................................................................................................................47 2.4.3 Central Asia and the Middle East ................................................................................................50 2.4.4 Latin America..............................................................................................................................52 2.4.5 Caribbean ..................................................................................................................................58 2.4.6 Eastern European economies in transition ....................................................................................61 2.5 Creative economy and the green economy ........................................................................64 2.5.1 Creativity and biodiversity: A win-win solution ..............................................................................66 PART 2. ASSESSING THE CREATIVE ECONOMY: ANALYSIS AND MEASUREMENT 3. Analysing the creative economy 73 3.1 The need for systematic analysis ........................................................................................73 3.2 Organization of the creative economy ................................................................................74 3.2.1 Organizational structures ............................................................................................................74 3.2.2 Operational matters ....................................................................................................................74 3.2.3 Locational issues ........................................................................................................................75 3.2.4 The power of social networks ......................................................................................................76 3.3 Economic analysis of the creative industries......................................................................77 3.3.1 Industrial organization analysis ....................................................................................................77 3.3.2 Value-chain analysis....................................................................................................................77 3.3.3 Inter-industry analysis ................................................................................................................79 3.3.4 Locational analysis ......................................................................................................................80 3.3.5 Environmental analysis ................................................................................................................82 3.3.6 Copyright and intellectual property ..............................................................................................82 3.3.7 Contract theory ..........................................................................................................................83Contents 3.4 Structure of the creative industries ....................................................................................83 3.4.1 Predominance of small and medium-sized enterprises..................................................................83iv C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0
  6. 6. 3.4.2 Large-scale corporate enterprises................................................................................................85 3.4.3 Public or quasi-public cultural institutions ....................................................................................86 3.4.4 Individual artists and producers ..................................................................................................863.5 Distribution and competition issues ....................................................................................89 3.5.1 Changing consumption patterns ..................................................................................................92 3.5.2 Creative industries and regulation ................................................................................................923.6 An application of production-chain analysis: The music industry in sub-Saharan Africa ..934. Towards an evidence-based assessment of the creative economy 954.1 Why we need a new information base and why it doesn’t already exist ..........................954.2 Towards a reliable benchmark for the creative economy ..................................................964.3 The challenge of building an operational model of the creative economy........................974.4 Measures: Their limitations and potential ..........................................................................99 4.4.1 Employment................................................................................................................................99 4.4.2 Time use ..................................................................................................................................100 4.4.3 Trade and value added ..............................................................................................................100 4.4.4 Copyright and intellectual property rights issues ........................................................................101 4.4.5 Public investment......................................................................................................................1014.5 Implementation of a Culture Satellite Account ................................................................1014.6 Data sources and assessment tools: Why the current data are inadequate ..................1034.7 The case for a trade model for the creative industries using a product classification methodology................................................................................1044.8 Comparative analysis of statistical methodologies for international trade of creative and cultural goods ..........................................................................................106 4.8.1 Trade statistics for creative and cultural goods: selected methodologies ......................................106 4.8.2 Summary comparison of statistics methodologies for creative and cultural goods ........................110 4.8.3 Lesson learned from the comparative studyanalysis....................................................................1144.9 Methodological basis for a unified measure of international trade of creative goods ......1174.10 Main considerations ..........................................................................................................119 PART 3. INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN CREATIVE GOODS AND SERVICES5. International trade in creative goods and services: Global trends and features 1255.1 Setting the scene ................................................................................................................1255.2 Creative industries: A new dynamic sector in world trade ..............................................1265.3 Global trends in world trade of creative goods and services ..........................................128 5.3.1 Global trends in world exports....................................................................................................128 5.3.2 Global trends in world imports ..................................................................................................130 Contents 5.3.3 Key players in the global market for creative goods ....................................................................132 C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0 v
  7. 7. 5.3.4 Trade balance in creative goods ................................................................................................133 5.3.5 Country profiles on the creative economy ..................................................................................134 5.4 Regional economic groups in world markets....................................................................135 5.5 Prospects for North-South and South-South trade in creative goods and services ......136 5.6 Global trends in international trade of creative industries, by sectors............................139 5.6.1 Heritage....................................................................................................................................139 5.6.2 Performing arts ........................................................................................................................141 5.6.3 Visual arts ................................................................................................................................147 5.6.4 Audiovisuals..............................................................................................................................149 5.6.5 Publishing and printed media ....................................................................................................154 5.6.6 Design......................................................................................................................................155 5.6.7 New media ..............................................................................................................................158 5.6.8 Creative services ......................................................................................................................160 5.6.9 Royalties and licence fees ........................................................................................................162 5.6.10 Related industries ....................................................................................................................163 PART 4. THE ROLE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND TECHNOLOGY 6. The role of intellectual property in the creative economy 169 6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................169 6.2 What are intellectual property rights? ..............................................................................170 6.3 Intellectual property and the creative industries ..............................................................171 6.3.1 Geographical indications and appellations of origin ....................................................................172 6.4 Copyright and the creative economy ................................................................................172 6.4.1 Exclusive rights ........................................................................................................................173 6.4.2 Moral rights ..............................................................................................................................173 6.4.3 Related rights ..........................................................................................................................174 6.4.4 Exceptions and limitations to copyright ......................................................................................175 6.4.5 Enforcement of copyright ..........................................................................................................177 6.5 The economics of copyright ..............................................................................................177 6.5.1 Creative Commons licences: A fast-growing movement ..............................................................178 6.6 Contribution of the creative industries to the economy ..................................................179 6.7 Copyright, the creative industries and traditional cultural expressions..........................181 6.7.1 Indigenous communities and new technologies ..........................................................................182 6.8 Copyrights and new technologies......................................................................................184 6.9 Possible policy options ......................................................................................................186Contentsvi C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0
  8. 8. 7. Technology, connectivity and the creative economy 1897.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................1897.2 Connectivity and its wider impact ....................................................................................190 7.2.1 The mobile revolution ................................................................................................................191 7.2.2 Fastest growth of Internet users in the South ............................................................................192 7.2.3 Developing countries lag behind in terms of broadband connectivity............................................192 7.2.4 Global shifts boost South-South trade and investment in ICT goods ............................................1937.3 Measurement issues and creative content........................................................................1947.4 ICTs and their impact on the creative economy................................................................196 7.4.1 The growing importance of ICTs for the creative industries ........................................................1977.5 Digitization ..........................................................................................................................1987.6 Convergence and new business models ..........................................................................1987.7 Impact across the production chain ..................................................................................2007.8 Looking to the future ..........................................................................................................203 PART 5. PROMOTING THE CREATIVE ECONOMY FOR DEVELOPMENT8. Policy strategies for the creative industries 2098.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................2098.2 The role of public policies ..................................................................................................2108.3 The policy process ..............................................................................................................2138.4 Policy directions..................................................................................................................214 8.4.1 Provision of infrastructure..........................................................................................................214 8.4.2 Provision of finance and investment ..........................................................................................215 8.4.3 Creation of institutional mechanisms..........................................................................................219 8.4.4 Regulatory framework and legislation ........................................................................................221 8.4.5 Development of exports markets................................................................................................223 8.4.6 Establishment of creative clusters ..............................................................................................223 8.4.7 Stimulating creative entrepreneurship ........................................................................................224 8.4.8 Institution of effective data-collection measures..........................................................................2248.5 A creative nexus for enhancing the creative economy ....................................................224 8.5.1 The creative nexus model..........................................................................................................2258.6 Targeted measures for strengthening the creative economy ..........................................226 8.6.1 Non-formal sector ....................................................................................................................226 8.6.2 Creative arts ............................................................................................................................227 8.6.3 Small and medium-sized enterprises ........................................................................................227 8.6.4 Public cultural institutions..........................................................................................................228 8.6.5 Corporate sector ......................................................................................................................228 Contents8.7 Tailoring policy action at the national level ......................................................................228 C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0 vii
  9. 9. 9. The international dimension of creative-industries policy 231 9.1 The international policy framework ..................................................................................231 9.2 UNCTAD: Creative industries on the economic and development agenda ......................232 9.2.1 UNCTAD X: Audiovisual services ................................................................................................232 9.2.2 Third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries: Music ................................233 9.2.3 UNCTAD XI: Creative industries — A turning point......................................................................233 9.2.4 UNCTAD XII: From the creative industries to the creative economy ..............................................234 9.3 WTO multilateral negotiations and implications for creative industries..........................235 9.3.1 The crisis and the international trading system ..........................................................................236 9.3.2 Market access, tariff and non-tariff barriers................................................................................236 9.3.3 General Agreement on Trade in Services ....................................................................................239 9.3.4 TRIPS Agreement......................................................................................................................241 9.3.5 Implications of regional trade agreements for creative industries ................................................241 9.4 UNESCO cultural-diversity perspective ..............................................................................243 9.5 WIPO Development Agenda ................................................................................................245 9.6 UNDP: Engaging developing countries in the creative economy for development..........246 9.7 ITC: Creating business opportunities for creative industries ..........................................248 9.8 UNEP: Promoting biodiversity benefits for the creative industries ..................................251 10. Lessons learned and policy options 253 10.1 Lessons learned ..................................................................................................................253 10.2 Major findings ....................................................................................................................254 10.2.1 Definitions and concepts ..........................................................................................................255 10.2.2 Cross-cutting linkages ..............................................................................................................256 10.2.3 The creative economy in the developed world ............................................................................256 10.2.4 The creative economy in the developing world............................................................................257 10.2.5 The value chain for creative products ........................................................................................257 10.2.6 Data issues ..............................................................................................................................258 10.2.7 Trade........................................................................................................................................259 10.2.8 Connectivity and ICTs................................................................................................................259 10.2.9 Policy towards the creative economy..........................................................................................260 10.2.10 International context..................................................................................................................260 10.3 Policy options ......................................................................................................................261 10.3.1 Role of governments ................................................................................................................261 10.3.2 Role of creative entrepreneurs ..................................................................................................263 10.3.3 Role of civil society and the place of strategic alliances ..............................................................263 10.3.4 Role of international cooperation................................................................................................264 References ....................................................................................................................................265Contents Statistical Annex ..........................................................................................................................281viii C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0
  10. 10. LIST OF BOXES1.1 A creative entrepreneur: Transforming ideas into successful business ........................................................111.2 The creative city ......................................................................................................................................131.3 Cultural and creative clusters in China ......................................................................................................171.4 Petra: A cultural trip..................................................................................................................................221.5 Cirque du Soleil: A very simple dream ......................................................................................................251.6 Economics of the museum district of Paris ................................................................................................272.1 South-South sharing of creative experiences ............................................................................................362.2 Brazilian carnivals ....................................................................................................................................392.3 Africa remix ............................................................................................................................................422.4 Experience of the Shanghai Creative Industry Center..................................................................................482.5 A passion for tango ..................................................................................................................................542.6 Guatemala: The economic contribution of culture ......................................................................................572.7 Brand Jamaica as the home of reggae......................................................................................................592.8 The Bolshoi: A sublime gift to the world ....................................................................................................632.9 Thai life and tradition: Thai silk..................................................................................................................652.10 Bio-trade in Colombia ..............................................................................................................................662.11 Eco-ethical fashion and natural fibres........................................................................................................672.12 The Moroccan spa culture ........................................................................................................................682.13 EcoMedia, moving to action ......................................................................................................................703.1 The tecnobrega case................................................................................................................................793.2 Creative clusters ......................................................................................................................................803.3 Turtles: Conservation tourism and pricing ..................................................................................................823.4 Broadcasting creativity blooms in South Africa ..........................................................................................873.5 Properties of creative industries ................................................................................................................903.6 Commercial practices and business models particular to the audiovisual and music industries ....................914.1 Reality and numbers ..............................................................................................................................1206.1 Design as a key ingredient for growth ....................................................................................................1716.2 The da Vinci Code case ..........................................................................................................................1746.3 A collaborative approach to creativity and knowledge ..............................................................................1766.4 Jewellery: A magic marriage between tradition and contemporary design ................................................1836.5 Collective management of copyright........................................................................................................1867.1 When ICTs give rise to new business models ..........................................................................................1997.2 Free and open-source software and the creative economy ......................................................................2027.3 Eurovision ..............................................................................................................................................2048.1 Shanghai creative industries: The Chinese way........................................................................................2118.2 Alternative currencies in Brazil ................................................................................................................2198.3 The Egyptian film industry: The waning of the “Hollywood of the East”? ....................................................2208.4 The Biennale of Contemporary African Art of Dakar..................................................................................222 Contents8.5 Cultural policy in action: The Nairobi Plan of Action ..................................................................................229 C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0 ix
  11. 11. 9.1 Television and soap operas ....................................................................................................................232 9.2 Puppet planet ........................................................................................................................................240 9.3 A breakthrough to promote trade flows of cultural goods and services......................................................242 9.4 Cultural tourism: Impressions of the Peruvian experience ........................................................................244 9.5 A new model leading to sustainability and better futures ..........................................................................247 9.6 Nollywood: A creative response ..............................................................................................................250 9.7 Alphadi: The fashion caravan ..................................................................................................................251 LIST OF TABLES 1.1 Classification systems for the creative industries derived from different models ............................................7 1.2 Estimates of culture employment in selected creative cities........................................................................14 1.3 Creative Cities Network ............................................................................................................................16 1.4 Workers in creative industries in the United States, 2003 ..........................................................................24 1.5 Contribution of the European cultural and creative sector to the European national economies ....................29 1.6 Contribution of the cultural industries to GDP or GVA for five countries, various years..................................30 1.7 Contribution of the cultural sector to the national economies of eight European countries, various years ............31 1.8 Comparison of contribution of creative/cultural sector with contributions of other sectors for eight European countries (% of GDP) ................................................................................................................31 1.9 Estimates of the contribution of creative industries to GDP for five OECD countries ....................................32 2.1 Features of the African music industry ......................................................................................................43 3.1 Value chain in the cultural industries in Canada, 2002 ..............................................................................78 4.1 Comparative analysis of statistical methodologies for international trade of creative/cultural goods defined by UNCTAD/UNESCO ..................................................................................................................110 4.2 Summary of comparative analysis of international trade of creative/cultural goods as defined by UNCTAD/UNESCO ..................................................................................................................................112 4.3 International trade of related creative goods/equipment and supporting materials of cultural goods defined by UNCTAD/UNESCO with the Harmonized System (HS) codes ....................................................113 4.4 Creative services as defined by UNCTAD ................................................................................................113 4.5 Number of reporting countries between different versions of HS codes ....................................................115 4.6 UNCTAD model for creative economy trade statistics ..............................................................................115 4.7 Goods and services of creative industries ................................................................................................116 4.8 Proposed categorization of creative goods ..............................................................................................119 5.1 World exports of all creative industry (goods and services), by subgroup, 2002 and 2008 ........................126 5.2 Creative goods: Exports, by economic group, 2002 and 2008 ..................................................................128 5.3 Creative goods: Exports, by economic group and region, 2002 and 2008 ................................................130 5.4 Creative goods: Imports, by economic group, 2002 and 2008..................................................................131 5.5 Creative goods: Imports, by economic group and region, 2002 and 2008 ................................................131 5.6 Creative goods: Top 20 exporters worldwide, 2002 and 2008 ..................................................................132 5.7 Creative goods: Top 10 exporters among developed economies, 2008 ....................................................132 5.8 Creative goods: Top 10 exporters among developing economies, 2008 ....................................................133Contentsx C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0
  12. 12. 5.9 Creative goods: Exports, by regional economic group, 2002 and 2008 ....................................................1365.10a Creative goods: Exports of South-South trade, by regional group and product group, 2002 and 2008............1385.10b Creative goods: All creative industries exports of South-South trade, by regional group and China, 2002 and 2008 ....................................................................................................................................1385.11 Arts crafts: Exports, by economic group and region, 2002 and 2008........................................................1405.12a Arts crafts: Top 10 exporters among developed economies, 2008 ............................................................1415.12b Arts crafts: Top 10 exporters among developing economies, 2008 ..........................................................1415.13 Performing arts: Exports, by economic group and region, 2002 and 2008 ................................................1465.14 Performing arts: Top 10 exporters among developed economies, 2008 ....................................................1475.15 Performing arts: Top 10 exporters among developing economies, 2008....................................................1475.16 Visual arts: Top 10 exporters among developed economies, 2008 ............................................................1495.17 Visual arts: Top 10 exporters among developing economies 2008 ............................................................1495.18 Publishing and printed media: Top 10 exporters among developed economies, 2008 ................................1555.19 Publishing and printed media: Top 10 exporters among developing economies, 2008 ..............................1555.20 Design: Exports, by economic group and region, 2002 and 2008 ............................................................1575.21 Design: Top 10 exporters among developed economies, 2008 ................................................................1585.22 Design: Top 10 exporters among developing economies, 2008 ................................................................1585.23 New media. Exports, by economic group and region, 2002 and 2008 ......................................................1605.24 New media: Top 10 exporters among developed economies, 2008 ..........................................................1605.25 New media: Top 10 exporters among developing economies, 2008..........................................................1605.26 Reported exports of creative services, 2002, 2005 and 2008 (in billions of $) ..........................................1615.27 Reported imports of creative services, 2002, 2005 and 2008 (in billions of $) ..........................................1625.28 Royalties and licence fees: World exports and imports, 2002, 2005, and 2008 ........................................1635.29 Related goods: Exports, by economic group, 2002 and 2008 (in millions of $) ..........................................1645.30 Related goods: Imports, by economic group, 2002 and 2008 (in millions of $)..........................................1656.1 Economic contribution of copyright-based industries using WIPO methodology..........................................1807.1 Contribution of segments of ICT industries to global GDP, 2003-2007 ......................................................1907.2 Interconnected dimensions of digital life ..................................................................................................1957.3 Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development: Core ICT indicators ........................................................1957.4 Top 20 audiovisual companies worldwide and their 2004 turnover ..........................................................1978.1 Illustration of Local Exchange Trading Systems-LETS ..............................................................................2189.1 Creative goods: Imports, MFN applied and bound tariffs, 2002 and 2008 ................................................2379.2 Creative goods: Imports, by groups of countries, MFN applied and bound tariffs, 2002-2008 ....................2379.3 Creative goods: Imports, by developed economies, MFN applies and bound tariffs 2002-2008..................2389.4 Creative goods: Imports by developing economies, by economic group, MFN applied and bound tariffs, 2002-2008 ................................................................................................................................23810.1 Creative industries policy options ............................................................................................................262 Contents Over view C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0 xi
  13. 13. LIST OF FIGURES 1.1 Creativity in today’s economy......................................................................................................................3 1.2 Interplay of the 5Cs: Outcomes of creativity + 4 kinds of capital ..................................................................4 1.3 UNCTAD classification of creative industries ................................................................................................8 2.1 Development dimension of the creative economy ......................................................................................37 3.1 Creative-industry value chain ....................................................................................................................78 3.2 Simplified diagram of Porter’s model for clusters ......................................................................................80 3.3 Stages of a music production chain in sub-Saharan Africa ........................................................................93 4.1 Cultural cycle ..........................................................................................................................................97 4.2 The creative value chain ..........................................................................................................................98 4.3 UNESCO 2009 Framework for Cultural Statistics domains........................................................................109 5.1 A summarized version of the online music value-chain ............................................................................145 7.1 Global mobile telephone subscriptions by main country groupings, 2003-2008 ........................................191 7.2 Global Internet users by main country groupings, 2003-2008 ..................................................................191 7.3 Global fixed broadband subscribers ........................................................................................................192 7.4 Global mobile broadband subscribers......................................................................................................193 7.5 Exports of ICT goods by main region ......................................................................................................193 7.6 Market size and growth of digital content sectors, 2007 ..........................................................................197 8.1 Funding flows to the cultural sector ........................................................................................................215 8.2 Model of monetary circuit applicable to the creative industries ................................................................216 8.3 The creative nexus: The C-ITET model ....................................................................................................225 LIST OF CHARTS 5.1a Creative industries: Exports of creative goods, by economic group, 2008..................................................127 5.1b Creative industries: Exports of creative services, by economic group 2008 ..............................................127 5.2 Evolution of world exports of creative goods and services, 2002-2008 ....................................................129 5.3a Exports of creative goods, by group, 2002 ..............................................................................................129 5.3b Exports of creative goods, by group, 2008 ..............................................................................................129 5.4a Share of economic groups in world exports of creative goods, 2002 ........................................................130 5.4b Share of economic groups in world exports of creative goods, 2008 ........................................................130 5.5a Imports of creative goods, by economic group, 2002, 2005 and 2008 ....................................................131 5.5b Imports of creative goods, by group, 2008 ..............................................................................................131 5.6 Creative goods: Exports from all developing countries, 2002 and 2008 ....................................................133 5.7a Creative goods: Top 10 trade surplus and deficit countries in 2002 ..........................................................134 5.7b Creative goods: Top 10 trade surplus and deficit countries in 2008 ..........................................................134 5.8 Creative industries: Exports of creative goods, by economic group and China, 2008..................................137 5.9 Heritage goods: Exports, by economic group, 2002, 2005 and 2008........................................................140 5.10 Digital music revenues, 2004-2008........................................................................................................144Contents 5.11 Performing arts: Exports, by economic group, 2002, 2005 and 2008 ......................................................146 5.12 Visual arts: Exports, by economic group, 2002, 2005 and 2008 ..............................................................149xii C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0
  14. 14. 5.13 Audiovisuals: Exports, by economic group, 2002, 2005 and 2008............................................................1535.14 Publishing and printed media: Exports, by economic group, 2002, 2005 and 2008 ..................................1555.15 Design: Exports, by economic group, 2002, 2005 and 2008....................................................................1575.16 New media: Exports, by economic group, 2002, 2005 and 2008 ............................................................1595.17 Creative services: Exports, by economic group, 2008 ..............................................................................1615.18a Creative services: Top 10 exporters of personal, cultural and recreational service among developed economies, 2008 ..................................................................................................................1625.18b Creative services: Top 10 exporters of personal, cultural and recreational service among developing economies, 2008 ..................................................................................................................1625.19 Royalties and licence fees: World exports and imports, 2002, 2005, and 2008 ........................................1635.20 Related goods: Evolution of world exports, 2002 and 2008 ......................................................................1646.1 Contribution of the creative industries to GDP..........................................................................................1806.2 Contribution of groups of copyright-based industries to total of creative industries ....................................181 STATISTICAL ANNEXExplanatory Notes ..................................................................................................................................................282Methodological explanations of the measurement of creative economy ....................................................................282Example of Country Profile: Argentina and Turkey ....................................................................................................288Distribution of developing economies by geographic region and economic grouping ................................................296Distribution of developed economies and transition economies by geographic region ................................................299Distribution of economies by trade group ................................................................................................................300Part 1. Creative industries — Creative Goods1.1 Creative goods: World exports, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008................................3021.2.A Creative goods: Exports, by origin and product group, 2002, 2005 and 2008 ..........................................3081.2.B Creative goods: Imports, by origin and product group, 2002, 2005 and 2008 ..........................................3121.3. Creative goods: Exports and imports, by trade group, 2002-2008 ............................................................3161.3.1 Creative goods: Exports, by trade group, as % of total exports of creative goods, 2002-2008....................3161.3.2 Creative goods: Imports, by trade group, as % of total imports of creative goods, 2002-2008 ..................317Part 2. Creative industries — Creative Services2.1.A Exports of all creative services, by country/territory, 2002-2008 ..............................................................3192.1.B Imports of all creative services, by country/territory, 2002-2008 ..............................................................3212.2.A Exports of advertising and related services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008 ............3232.2.B Imports of advertising and related services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008 ............3252.3.A Exports of architectural and related services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008 ..........3272.3.B Imports of architectural and related services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008 ..........3292.4.A Exports of research and development services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008 ......3312.4.B Imports of research and development services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008 ......333 Over view C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0 xiii
  15. 15. 2.5.A Exports of personal, cultural and recreational services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008............................................................................................................................................335 2.5.B Imports of personal, cultural and recreational services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008............................................................................................................................................337 2.5.1.A Exports of audiovisual and related services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008 ............339 2.5.1.B Imports of audiovisual and related services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008 ............341 2.5.2.A Exports of other personal, cultural and recreational services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008............................................................................................................343 2.5.2.B Imports of other personal, cultural and recreational services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008............................................................................................................345 Part 3. Related Industries — Related Goods, Royalty and License Fee and Computer and Information Services 3.1 Related goods: World exports and imports, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008..............348 3.2.A Related industries: Exports, by origin and product group, 2002, 2005 and 2008 ......................................354 3.2.B Related industries: Imports, by origin and product group, 2002, 2005 and 2008 ......................................356 3.3.A Exports of royalties and licence fees, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008 ......................358 3.3.B Imports of royalties and licence fees, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008 ......................366 3.4.A Exports of computer and information services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008 ........374 3.4.B Imports of computer and information services, by economic group and country/territory, 2002-2008 ........382Over viewxiv C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0
  16. 16. Foreword The United Nations published its first across the South and the growing share ofCreative Economy Report in early 2008, at a creative sector trade which is coming from thetime when the world economy had been under- South. By exploring the factors behind thisgoing a period of expansion. The report growth and the potential for further expansionconcluded that the creative industries were of the sector the report provides useful inputamong the most dynamic sectors of the world into the ongoing policy debate on feasibleeconomy and offered new, high growth oppor- development options.tunities for developing countries. The report has Times of crisis offer opportunities tobeen widely used by policy makers, development look at new options, approaches, and strategicpractitioners, and researchers alike. directions. This report argues that while the Since the report was written, the world creative economy’s growth is not in itself aeconomy has been through turbulent times. panacea, it does potentially offer more resilient,Virtually all regions and countries were affected inclusive, and environmentally viable paths toby the global recession and progress towards the recovery. Even if there is no one-size-fits-all pre-Millennium Development Goals was put at risk. scription, the report outlines how governmentsEven now, the global economy is fragile. can play a catalytic role by putting in place the This report builds on the earlier analysis policies, regulations, and institutions needed toof its predecessor, with new and improved data, strengthen their creative economies.showing how creativity, knowledge, culture, and Overall, the creative economy sectors cantechnology can be drivers of job creation, inno- contribute a lot to growth and prosperity,vation, and social inclusion. It suggests that especially for developing countries seeking toworld trade in creative goods and services diversify their economies and build resilience toremained relatively robust at a time when overall future economic crisis. We commend this reportlevels of international trade fell. It analyzes the to all who are looking for innovative andrapid growth in the creative economy sectors sustainable development strategies. Supachai Panitchpakdi Helen Clark Secretary-General Administrator United Nations Conference United Nations Development Programme on Trade and Development Foreword C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0 xv
  17. 17. xvi C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0
  18. 18. Acknowledgements The Creative Economy Report series is the under the overall guidance of Edna dosresult of a partnership between UNCTAD Santos-Duisenberg, the main co-writer ofand the UNDP Special Unit for South-South these reports. The Creative Economy Report 2010Cooperation. These policy-oriented reports was prepared by a small but extremely devot-are the main output of the technical ed team of the UNCTAD Creative Economycooperation project “Strengthening the Programme, composed of Sudip RanjanCreative Economy for Development”, a joint Basu, Cheng Shang Li (consultant), Sharonendeavour coordinated by Edna dos Santos- Khan (consultant), Carolina Quintana andDuisenberg, Chief, UNCTAD Creative Julia Costa Souto (intern). Our special thanksEconomy Programme, and Francisco go to the Head of the Development StatisticsSimplicio, Chief, Division for Knowledge and Information Branch, Henri Laurencin,Management and Operations of the UNDP and his team, composed of David Cristallo,Special Unit for South-South Cooperation. Yumiko Mochizuki, Sanja Blazevi, Yoann The partnership expresses its sincere Chaine, Ildephose Mbabazizimana and Soniagratitude to Yiping Zhou, Director, UNDP Blachier. Comments were received from MinaSpecial Unit for South-South Cooperation, Mashayekhi and Victor Ognivtsev, colleaguesfor his deep support to this initiative. Without within the UNCTAD Division onhis vision and commitment, this work would International Trade. Our gratitude to Prof.not have materialized. Andrew C. Pratt for his academic reflections. The Creative Economy Reports present the In addition to facilitating the policyUnited Nations system-wide perspective on debate, the committed team of the UNDPthis innovative topic, as an example of multi- Special Unit for South-South Cooperationagency cooperation working as “One UN” helped to make this publication possible. Asand with one voice. In preparing the 2010 part of the team of the UNDP Special Unitedition, UNCTAD built upon previous con- for South-South Cooperation, text was editedtributions made for the Creative Economy Report by Christopher Reardon, with assistance by2008 by five relevant United Nations bodies: Elizabeth Smith, and Jennifer Bergamini wasthe United Nations Conference on Trade responsible for the design and layout of theand Development (UNCTAD), the United publication. Administrative and secretarialNations Development Programme (UNDP) support was provided by Clisse MedeirosSpecial Unit for South-South Cooperation, the Ramos Perret at UNCTAD, LourdesUnited Nations Educational Scientific and Hermosura-Chang at the UNDP SpecialCultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Unit for South-South Cooperation, withIntellectual Property Organization (WIPO) additional support for communications provided by Michelle Siqueira. Acknowledgementsand the International Trade Centre (ITC). The research and policy-oriented The partnership extends its apprecia-analysis presented in the two issues of the tion to colleagues at the collaborating organi-Creative Economy Report were carried out zations who provided updated inputs for the C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0 xvii
  19. 19. Creative Economy Report 2010: Georges Poussin the boxes throughout the report. These at UNESCO; as well as Dimiter Gantchev, articles helped to bring pragmatism to the Wend Wendland and Brigitte Vezina policy-oriented analysis of this report and at WIPO. evidence for some of the empirical arguments. The Partnership expresses its sincere The Creative Economy Report 2008 and the gratitude to all those who kindly accepted our Creative Economy Report 2010 were both invitation to contribute with signed articles financed by the UNDP Special Unit for featuring concrete cases and/or their experi- South-South Cooperation. ences in the creative economy as illustrated inAcknowledgementsxviii C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0
  20. 20. Scope of this report The Creative Economy Report 2010 — strengths and weaknesses as well as challengesCreative economy: A feasible development option is the and opportunities to be addressed, bearing insecond policy-oriented report to present the mind that it is important to reconcile nationalUnited Nations perspective on this innovative strategies with global international processes.topic. The creative economy has become a The first Creative Economy Report contin-topical issue of the international economic ues to attract growing interest on the part ofand development agenda during this decade, governments, researchers and practitioners. Itcalling for informed policy responses in both has helped harmonize views, stimulate moredeveloped and developing countries. research and policy debate and refine theAdequately nurtured, creativity fuels culture, concept and its application. The popularity ofinfuses a human-centred development and the publication was also due to the fact that itconstitutes the key ingredient for job creation, is publicly accessible via the Internet at noinnovation and trade while contributing to cost (www.unctad.org/creative-economy andsocial inclusion, cultural diversity and environ- http://ssc.undp.org/creative_economy). Today,mental sustainability. the Creative Economy Report 2008 tops a Google This report builds upon the findings search on this subject. As of the end of Julyand recommendations put forward by the first 2010, the report has been consulted moreCreative Economy Report 2008 — The challenge of than 52,000 times via the Internet, and hasassessing the creative economy: Towards informed policy- been linked to from 1,080 websites all over themaking, but goes a step further by deepening world. Indications are that the report has had athe analysis and bringing new insights on the positive impact on creative industries profes-impact of recent developments on the creative sionals, artists and public opinion; the last twoeconomy. Evidence from this report confirms years has seen a worldwide increase in thean important lesson from the economic crisis, amount of research and the number of con-namely that the market, contrary to conven- ferences and publications on the topic of thetional wisdom, does not have a near-miracu- creative economy. The Creative Economy Reportlous capacity to address socio-economic 2008 has been the subject of debates by net-imbalances. Thus, policies and actions to works of academic and educational circles, hasfoster development should be rooted in a been adopted by a number of universities as abalanced role for policy interventions and the major reference for graduate-level courses,market. In this context, the debate around the stimulating the revision of academic curriculadevelopment dimension of the creative econo- for higher education in fields related to themy gained momentum in search of a new arts and the creative economy.1 Moreover,development model better adapted to the new an increasing number of governments, in Scope of this repor trealities of the contemporary society. The developing and developed countries alike, areCreative Economy Report 2010 attempts to identifying the creative industries as a priorityrespond to this call by identifying trends, sector in their national development strategies.1 The Creative Economy Report 2008 revisited: The Dutch being unnoticed, by the Research Group Arts and Economics, Utrecht School of Arts, Utrecht University, Netherlands, June 2009. C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0 xix
  21. 21. These have been the key motivations guiding reorient policies towards more equitable, this new publication. sustainable and inclusive growth strategies Obviously, there is a need for better able to accelerate socio-economic growth, cre- understanding of the dynamics of the creative ate jobs and raise living standards. Against this economy in our globalized world. A more background, the creative economy is a feasible holistic approach to development is needed. It development option. is time to take a step back from the global and The world has changed. The crisis look more deeply at the local, identifying provoked a reality check calling for a more specificities and identities of countries and effective global governance system in which recognizing their cultural and economical dif- emerging countries are no longer outsiders. As ferences in order to capture their real needs global demand sharply contracted in the most and surrounding environment. It seems cru- advanced countries, the fast-growing develop- cial to explore the linkages between creative ing nations performed relatively better, surviv- capacities, trade, investment and technology, ing the crisis with less damage. South-South and see how this can translate into a vibrant regional trade and investments have been vital creative economy able to contribute to eco- to mitigating the effects of the global reces- nomic prosperity and poverty reduction. sion. While the traditional manufacturing The Creative Economy Report 2010 incor- industries were seriously hit, the more knowl- porates new reflections, additional research edge-based creative sectors were more resilient and more in-depth analysis of the key issues. to external shocks. In 2008, despite the 12 It captures economic, cultural, social and per cent decline in global trade, world trade of technological developments that took place at creative goods and services continued its global level over the last two years, in particu- expansion, reaching $592 billion and reflect- lar the consequences of the financial crisis and ing an annual growth rate of 14 per cent dur- environmental degradation. Throughout the ing the period 2002-2008. This reconfirms report, the analysis, charts and tables have that the creative industries have been one of been updated with more recent statistics and the most dynamic sectors of the world econ- information, including more timely trade omy throughout this decade. analysis showing the growing share of creative The current economic recovery remains industries products in world markets during fragile, despite the mitigating policies. the period 2002-2008, and the state of play Recovery cannot depend solely on increasing up to 2010. demand in industrialized nations. Developing In fact, there are a number of novelties countries should continue enhancing their in the Creative Economy Report 2010, reflecting creative capacities and progressively look for new realities. The most important is that the new market opportunities in the South, where world economy faced the most severe reces- demand is growing. The Creative Economy Report sion in 70 years in 2008-2009, which serious- 2010 provides evidence that South-South ly undermined growth, employment and qual- trade in creative products and South-South ity of life. The crisis pointed to the limita- investments in digital technologies are gradu- tions of mainstream economic policies, giving ally increasing but have the potential to clear signs of the need for profound econom- expand even faster if supported by enhanced ic and financial reforms, new approaches to South-South cooperation. Developing coun-Scope of this repor t development strategies and better balance tries are therefore encouraged to include cre- between the roles of the market and govern- ative goods in their lists of products as they ment. New development paths are needed to conduct their negotiations under the Global System of Trade Preferences.xx C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0
  22. 22. Chapter 1 explores evolving concepts Advances were made in the UNCTADsuch as creative ecology, creative commons, methodology to process and analyse tradecollaborative creation, experience economy statistics, enabling countries to generate theirand soft innovation and expands the analysis own country profiles on the trade perform-of the major drivers and multiple dimensions ance of their creative industries, as is illustrat-of the creative economy. Chapter 2 introduces ed in the statistical annex.2 Chapter 6 reflectsa thoughtful reflection on the linkages ongoing work undertaken by WIPO at thebetween the creative economy and the green secretariat and at the intergovernmental levels.economy, capturing ongoing policy debates It also analyses sensitive areas related to theon the implications of losses in biodiversity current controversial debates about the prosand how creativity and biodiversity are a win- and cons of protection or the sharing ofwin solution to promote sustainable develop- copyrights, and the new trend towards publicment and economic recovery. Moreover, it domain and new open sources for thepresents an overview of recent developments distribution of intellectual property rights,related to the creative economy in developing including a section on the evolution ofcountries and economies in transition. creative commons.Chapter 3 analyses the organizational struc- In chapter 7 the focus is on the growingture of the creative economy, highlighting the role of technology and connectivity in thepower of social networks and their influence creative economy. It starts by examining thein the distribution of digitized creative con- impact of the economic crisis on digital tech-tent through more flexible business models. nologies, and presenting a fresh view on howChapter 4 features a comprehensive comparative the diffusion of information and communica-analysis of current methodologies to collect, tion technology (ICT), and in particular theanalyse and disseminate economic indicators mobile revolution, is bringing progress forand statistics for the creative industries, taking developing countries. The report presents evi-into account new models for cultural statistics dence that digital technologies and ICT-and ongoing work carried out by internation- enabled services are stimulating the creational organizations and individual countries in and marketing of digitized creative productsthis regard. It also presents a refined method- through new business models, and that thisology developed by UNCTAD proposing convergence and digitization is helping cre-better tools to gradually improve the compa- ative products from developing countries torability and reliability of trade statistics for reach global markets. Chapter 8 emphasizesthe creative industries; it is a work in progress the importance of tailor-made national poli-aimed at improving market transparency. cies for strengthening the creative economy Chapter 5 deals with the international for development gains. The report proposestrade of creative goods and services. It shows policy directions for the provision of financ-a recent picture of global trends for world and ing and investment for the creative industries,regional trade flows of creative products cov- recalling that most governments have publicering the period 2002-2008. An in-depth deficits and new financing options should betrade analysis is presented for the North- explored. As illustration, the concepts of aSouth and South-South trade of creative solidarity-based economy and the use ofproducts, with a special focus on the potential alternative currencies for transactions in the Scope of this repor tfor further expansion of South-South trade, creative economy are presented as alternativeand how the demand for creative products has ways to promote creative entrepreneurship,been contributing to economic recovery. particularly in the post-crisis period. The2 Accordingly, the UNCTAD Global Database on the Creative Economy has also been updated and can be accessed at www.unctad.org/creative-programme. C R E AT I V E E C O N O M Y R E P O R T 2 0 1 0 xxi

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