Delivering Effective Health Care for All Monday 29 th  March, 2010
Background <ul><ul><li>Prompt treatment with effective anti-malarial therapy key in malaria control in SSA </li></ul></ul>...
Methods  <ul><ul><li>Retrospective policy analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation process at district level in ...
Key  Intervention Components <ul><ul><li>In each site technical teams worked with government managers to implement the PMR...
Critical features of district level implementation <ul><ul><li>By comparing experiences across sites four critical feature...
<ul><ul><li>Technical team with a local base, present over time will cultivate understanding & trust </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><ul><li>Deliberate effort to  manage relationships between the  technical and district health team </li></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><ul><li>Stability in district leadership-ensure continuity over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It is because most o...
<ul><ul><li>Financial management system that is transparent, efficient disbursement process and flexibility to respond to ...
Implications for policy and practice <ul><li>Effective policy implementation requires good relationships  among the implem...
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Strategic management: a critical element in implementing private medicine retailer programmes in Kenya

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  • My presentation is based on a study that examined the influence of implementation process on the outcomes of PMR programmes within the context of scaling up in a district level setting in Kenya.
  • The sites were a MoH-led program in Kwale district, Two NGO-led program-one led by Merlin in conjunction with the MoH in Kisii Central district and the other led by AMREF/USAID in Bungoma district
  • In terms of change in retailer knowledge and practices
  • To build these relationships has implications over time- to manage relationships
  • -Spell out roles and responsibilities- addresses potential sources of tension. For example in one site there was an established MoU at the onset that spelled out roles and responsibilities The consequences- things happening on time As the quote illustrate are not in place plans/activities are not implemented
  • Flexible financial process allows adaptation of the program at local levels addressing local needs – consequences avoiding tensions
  • Strategic management: a critical element in implementing private medicine retailer programmes in Kenya

    1. 1. Delivering Effective Health Care for All Monday 29 th March, 2010
    2. 2. Background <ul><ul><li>Prompt treatment with effective anti-malarial therapy key in malaria control in SSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home-Management of Malaria aims to improve prompt & effective anti-malarial drug use outside formal health system such as through Private Medicine Retailers (PMRs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PMR interventions to improve treatment of childhood fevers have been tested in small scale settings- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes on retailer knowledge and practices </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited evidence on experiences in scaling up interventions at district level </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Methods <ul><ul><li>Retrospective policy analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation process at district level in three sites: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kisii-NGO; Bungoma-NGO; Kwale-Ministry of health </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collected through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Document reviews- reports, work plans, minutes of meetings, memos, financial returns and programme materials </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>19 IDIs and 26 FGDs across all sites with government and NGO managers, Retailers and community members </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretive analysis using two conceptual frameworks: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Scaling up of innovations and theory of diffusion of innovation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Simmons and Shiffman, 2006, Greenhalgh et al 2004). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Key Intervention Components <ul><ul><li>In each site technical teams worked with government managers to implement the PMR programme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three common programme activities identified across sites: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training of retailers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accreditation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demand creation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, there were differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training – (2-3 day direct training of retailers except Bungoma) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demand creation-(cascade dissemination of information in Bungoma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and evaluation (none was undertaken in Kwale ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Critical features of district level implementation <ul><ul><li>By comparing experiences across sites four critical features that enabled effective implementation were identified </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Technical team with a local base, present over time will cultivate understanding & trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ... Because most of the collaboration agencies were based in the US . ..... .... The distance was a factor because maybe somebody would like to come and do an activity based on his own schedule but coming back to the district, you have no one to liaise with us and the DHMT team. That becomes an issue hence a challenge” </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Deliberate effort to manage relationships between the technical and district health team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ When some people feel that their relationship with another one is not good it affects the project” </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Stability in district leadership-ensure continuity over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It is because most of the DHMT members who were there then were transferred apart from one. The new people who came in had no idea about this so adapting to that was a big issue; there was no continuity after the changes” </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Financial management system that is transparent, efficient disbursement process and flexibility to respond to local needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ One of the biggest challenges was financial resources because people were not transparent. You see if we are partners and if you want us to have active participation then it is also good that people know what the inputs are” </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Implications for policy and practice <ul><li>Effective policy implementation requires good relationships among the implementing team </li></ul><ul><li>Communication mechanisms and agreed rules are likely to improve relationships among actors. </li></ul><ul><li>Some local level autonomy in financial decision making is critical for effective implementation </li></ul>

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