Utilizing science engagement to establish positive, productive and prolonged ties between countries. It has become increasingly obvious that we face planetary-scale phenomena that cannot be solved by any one nation or region, nor solved quickly. For decades, the United States government has supported exchange programs based upon the premise that individuals of good will can make a difference in building just societies that serve people with integrity. To the extent that the US can better leverage its technology expertise through prudent public diplomacy and engage others, we may actually help destabilizing individuals and organizations of the resources they might otherwise acquire to perpetrate misery and suffering around the world. Ours is an era of unprecedented scientific and technological achievement that can be either directed toward tremendous good or devastating harm for all of humanity. Albert Einstein once said, “Concern for mankind and his fate must always serve as the chief interest of all technical endeavors.” This is the kind of science our public diplomacy should support. Effective scientific collaboration may mitigate security risks that would unleash weapons of mass destruction, promote ethical research to benefit humanity and advance goals and concerns that we all share. If one can collaborate effectively to redirect the energies and talents of those who might otherwise create bio weapons, for example, into the research and development of treatments for drug-resistant diseases, our exercises in science diplomacy can result in lives saved, industries supported and peace promoted. Why it works: Science depends on honesty, transparency, good communication—all useful diplomatic tools. Science also depends on the art of persuasion—convincing a jury of one's peers with evidence and argument that your ideas are correct. Unlike coercion, which requires only power, persuasion requires knowledge. Societies based on coercion don't value knowledge. Ones based on open inquiry do. Science diplomacy provides an opportunity for scientists around the world to work together on projects that address humanity's most pressing challenges, including sustainable development, preserving the environment, and fighting disease and hunger to prevent conflict around the world.
Early in his presidency, John F. Kennedy made repeated attempts to engage the Soviet Union in space cooperation. In his inaugural address, Kennedy said, “Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars.’’ The global end to polio transmission would have been inconceivable without both the “killed” (Salk) and “live” (Sabin) vaccines. Dr. Albert Sabin and Dr. Mikhail Chumakov worked together to perfect the Sabin polio vaccine. As a result, over 70 million people in the Soviet Union and the United States were innoculated against this deadly disease, despite political differences at the height of the Cold War in the 1950s.
Rarely have we seen such high profile expressions of hope and support for science. Science diplomacy could be a prominent tool for easing tensions in the Muslim world. ( IVSL, GIST, MVSL OR use latter “Digital Libraries” slide .) On the down side, the upper level impacts of science diplomacy can only be realized through cooperation between governments and a vested interest in progress. Domestically, while the Obama administration has made clear its faith in the value of science diplomacy and development, moving forward with plans proves easier said than done in this tense budgetary and partisan environment.
CRDF Global assists firms in overcoming bureaucratic hurdles, minimizes development risk, and expands resources, allowing the timely introduction of new technologies.
Of course, the SciClone partnership had benefits beyond the obvious financial rewards. Not only did the firm promote “nation-building” in Russia by assisting in economic development of the region, the project has employed approximately 60 former bioweapons scientists, thus ensuring that their talents are not diverted to WMD proliferators. SciClone is by no means an exception to CRDF Global’s work. U.S. government investments and support of CRDF Global and other NGOs have led the private sector and former Soviet scientists to develop edible vaccines, safer airbags, new hand and fingerprint technologies, an advanced explosive detection system and even more efficient and environmentally-friendly refrigeration. In FY2002 alone, sixteen private firms willing to tap local talent in the former Soviet Union generated $23.95 million in sales and other revenues as a result of their activities. Equity markets responded favorably to their new technologies, generating $40.6 million in investment from private, institutional, and venture capital investors. And most significantly, more than 563 permanent high-paying technical jobs were created in the former Soviet Union, ensuring that the potentially nefarious talents of former weaponeers were not siphoned off to work for rogue nations or terrorist groups.
Former NASA scientists Howard Pedolsky was searching for way to make refrigeration more energy-efficient. He engaged CRDF Global to fund his research collaboration with a collection of Ukrainian engineers who developed the cooling systems for the former Soviet Union’s ICBMs. Together, they created a partnership that has engaged dozens of scientists on both sides of the Atlantic and has created scores of jobs. Although this project began nearly 10 years ago, the technology they developed is still ahead of their competition.
Important!!!: (The reason for the boot camp) Which is why it is so critical that journalists understand the interplay of science, policy, business, academia and diplomacy. There are myriad companies whose beginnings are owed to infrastructure and processes created to support and encourage international scientific and technological cooperation. Their impacts are often conveyed in terms of jobs, economic impact, technologic innovation or services delivered. Rarely do their stories reflect the organizations like NSF, CRDF Global, National Academies and others whose work enabled and supported the—often—basic research which led to their tremendous breakthroughs.
Science Diplomacy 101
Science Diplomacy: 101 July 14, 2011 Cathleen A. Campbell President and CEO CRDF Global
Science and Diplomacy <ul><li>Informing foreign policy objectives with scientific advice (science in diplomacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating international science cooperation (diplomacy for science) </li></ul><ul><li>Using science cooperation to improve international relations between countries (science for diplomacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: The Royal Society </li></ul>
What is Science Diplomacy? “ Science diplomacy is an intricate blending of science and the diplomatic process, which can be used as a tool for health, a tool for education and a tool for peace.” - Philip Seib, Director, USC Annenberg School's Center on Public Diplomacy
Recent Developments <ul><li>New initiatives and national investment in science and technology research </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential appointment of Science Envoys and enhanced diplomatic role for science </li></ul>
Growing Understanding <ul><li>New legislation to boost science diplomacy (Congressional awareness) </li></ul><ul><li>Growing awareness and support for science and technology (private sector) </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ More broadly, we urgently need to expand and deepen links between the U.S. and foreign scientific communities to advance solutions to common challenges.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Ambassador Thomas Pickering & Nobel Laureate Peter Agre, Baltimore Sun Op-ed, Feb. 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>“ As science diplomacy begins to be recognized around the world as a powerful diplomatic tool, the barriers to international scientific collaboration may be reduced or removed, which could lead to the lowering of barriers between nations on other pressing issues” </li></ul><ul><li>- Ambassador Edward P. Djerejian, Neal F. Lane & Kirstin R.W. Matthews, Houston Chronicle Op-ed, Mar. 2011 </li></ul>
Components of Science Diplomacy <ul><li>Educating stakeholders (policy, S&T, business, public) </li></ul><ul><li>Providing opportunities for scientists to engage </li></ul><ul><li>Building capacity and networks </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating progress and impact </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ Science provides the common language, culture and foundation for nations and people to work together in decision-making on shared global interests.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Dr. Zakri Abdul Hamid, Science Advisor to Prime Minister of Malaysia </li></ul>
CRDF Global and Science Diplomacy <ul><li>Science education and research infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Regional collaboration amidst differences, for mutual benefit. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconnecting previously isolated S&T communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring new opportunities for science as a diplomatic tool. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Access Easy-to-use access to the world’s leading scientific and technical publications at sustainable costs </li></ul>Digital Libraries Technology Innovative open-source technology to strengthen knowledge access and provide a platform for collaboration Training Effective training-of-trainers programs to support librarians, faculty, researchers, and students to maximize usage and impacts Visibility Enhanced dissemination of national research to the international community through open-access journals and research repositories
Competitiveness <ul><li>International, innovation-focused collaborations are helping American businesses keep pace with global competitors by supporting basic research that leads to marketable products. </li></ul>
SciClone <ul><li>Small California-based, business </li></ul><ul><li>Former Soviet bioweapons company </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment for MDR TB </li></ul><ul><li>Redirected 60 scientists </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Now publicly traded on NASDAQ </li></ul>
Eco-Fridge <ul><li>Maryland scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Ukrainian ICBM cooling technicians </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile, eco-friendly refrigeration </li></ul><ul><li>$680,000 initial investment </li></ul><ul><li>More than $21 million in sales in 2010 </li></ul>
Takeaway for Journalists <ul><li>For an issue like science diplomacy that—while seen by nearly everyone as a worthy endeavor—is a top priority for hardly anyone. So we must become better at communicating the value of science diplomacy and connecting its successes, opportunities and benefits to issues about which policymakers and the general public care. </li></ul>
www.crdfglobal.org Cathleen A. Campbell President and CEO CRDF Global 1530 Wilson Blvd, 3rd Floor Arlington, VA 22209 USA [email_address] www.crdfglobal.org Tel: +001 703 526 9720 facebook.com/CRDFGlobal @CRDFGlobal