Merovingians and Carolingians The beginnings of empire in Europe
CLOVIS <ul><li>Missionaries managed to convert the King of the Franks, Clovis (CLOW-vis or clow-VEE) in 496. He appealed to the Christian God to win a battle, then agreed to be baptized after he won. </li></ul>The Roman Catholic Church was particularly glad they’d managed to baptize the King: other Germanic peoples were being brought into Arianism , a rival Christian faith. The Frankish Kingdom helped the Church in their religious conflict. The Baptism of Clovis, from a manuscript
How Merovingian Succession Worked King Clotaire defeating an enemy
Major domos : Mayors of the Palace <ul><li>The Merovingian kings did not rule their lands directly. They appointed major domos to rule in their stead. By the 700’s, the Merovingians were “nominal kings”, or puppet kings. </li></ul><ul><li>(This was similar to the situation with China’s Zhou Dynasty.) </li></ul><ul><li>One major domo, Charles Martel , claimed much of Francia (as the kingdom was called) and defeated Muslim armies at Tours, becoming a hero of the Frankish people. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of splitting the kingdom he built (as the Merovingians did), he passed all of it to his son, Pepin III (Pepin the Short) (“Pippin” in your textbook). This process is called primogeniture , the passing of an inheritance only to a first child. </li></ul>
Pepin the Short <ul><li>Pepin (Pippin) decided that being major domo was not enough. </li></ul>He decided to claim the throne for himself. In 754, Pepin was proclaimed king by the Pope, Stephen II, who needed Pepin to stop an invasion from the Lombards. From then on, the Church declared kings “by the grace of God.” In exchange, Pepin gave Italy to the Pope to rule, creating the Papal States . He did this in 751 (ending the Merovingian dynasty and beginning the Carolingian dynasty, named after Charles Martel).
Charlemagne (Charles the Great) <ul><li>Pepin the Short had a very tall son, Charles, called “Carolus Magnus” in Latin, and “Charlemagne” in French. </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne ruled for 46 years, from 768 - 814. He expanded Francia, but was unable to defeat the Muslims in Spain. Still, he was easily one of the greatest rulers in Europe, and was declared Emperor by Pope Leo III in 800 AD. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Charlemagne managed to revive learning, moving schools out of the monasteries. </li></ul><ul><li>He was successful in defeating the Avars (related to Turks and Mongols) in Eastern Europe, and took parts of it over. </li></ul><ul><li>When Charlemagne was made Emperor in Rome, this angered the Byzantines. His crowning was a major factor in splitting the Church. By the 11th century, the split was permanent: There were two Churches, the Roman Catholic Church in the west, and the Eastern Church in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey). </li></ul>A portrait of Charlemagne made after his death
Charlemagne’s Capitol: Aachen Charlemagne built an impressive cathedral, the first in Europe. Aachen (“Aix la Chappelle” in French) was a glittering capitol in a new empire, and the church matched. Aachen is now in modern Germany.
The Carolingian Split <ul><li>Charlemagne left one son, Louis the Pious, to rule after he died. Louis probably should have been a monk, not a king. </li></ul><ul><li>Louis’ three sons (Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German), split the kingdom, just like the Merovingians did. Civil war ensued. </li></ul><ul><li>In 843, the Treaty of Verdun was signed to end the war. Charles would create France, Louis Germany, and Lothair became the next emperor of the lands between. Lothair’s lands would be fought over for centuries afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Francia was divided into small regions; the Carolingians themselves would hold little power by 888, and none by the late 900s. </li></ul>Charles the Bald Louis the German Cross of Lothair
Questions about the lesson <ul><li>How long were each of the dynasties? </li></ul><ul><li>What was their relationship? </li></ul><ul><li>How did each decide succession ? </li></ul><ul><li>How did they interact with the Church? </li></ul><ul><li>Compare Clovis and Charlemagne. Are they similar? Are they different? </li></ul>
Merovingians and Carolingians: Compare and Contrast MEROVINGIANS CAROLINGIANS