Important Terms <ul><li>polis – (aka city-state) – a city and its surrounding countryside that acted as its own country – city-states shared language, religion, building styles, art, and customs; however, each had different government systems, laws, and military </li></ul><ul><li>acropolis – a fortified hilltop where citizens gathered to deal with government issues </li></ul><ul><li>agora – marketplace </li></ul>
Different forms of government in Greek city-states <ul><li>monarchy – king or queen rules – appointed or hereditary position </li></ul><ul><li>aristocracy – small group of wealthy landowners rule </li></ul><ul><li>oligarchy – small group of people rule – usually overthrew aristocratic governments </li></ul><ul><li>tyrants – one wealthy landowner rules – usually obtained power by appealing to the people and providing services, land etc. </li></ul>
A Look at Athens… A Look at Athens … A leader in democracy – reformers moved towards democracy after struggles between the rich and poor
Athenian government reformers <ul><li>Draco – 621 B.C.E. – created law code to make all Athenians equal and set penalties for criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Solon – 594 B.C.E. – outlawed debt slavery, set up a 4 class social system based on wealth, allowed citizens to participate in the Athenian assembly, and allowed citizens to bring charges against accused persons </li></ul>
Athenian government reformers <ul><li>Cleisthenes – 500 B.C.E. – broke up nobility’s power, allowed citizens to submit laws for debate and voting, and created the Council of 500 (proposed laws and counseled the Athenian assembly) </li></ul><ul><li>Even under the new system, democracy was still limited to Athenian citizens, or free adult male landowners </li></ul>
Education in Athens <ul><li>Only sons of wealthy families had formal education (including studies in math, logic, arts, reading, public speaking, military, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all girls (except very few) were educated at home and learned domestic skills useful for their restrictive futures as housewives </li></ul>
A Look at Sparta… A militaristic society due to almost being defeated by another city-state
Spartan government and social classes <ul><li>Spartan assembly – all Spartan citizens elected officials and voted on issues </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Elders – 30 older citizens – proposed laws the assembly voted on </li></ul><ul><li>Five elected officials carried out the laws </li></ul><ul><li>made </li></ul><ul><li>Two kings ruled over the military </li></ul><ul><li>Social classes (from the top) – Spartan </li></ul><ul><li>born citizens, then free non-citizen </li></ul><ul><li>laborers, then field/house-working </li></ul><ul><li>helots, then slaves </li></ul>
Spartan military and culture <ul><li>Military – boys went in at age 7 and lived in army barracks until age 30, trained in physically demanding ways to make them tough solders, and retired at age 60 from the military </li></ul><ul><li>Culture – individualism was not allowed, no value placed on arts and literature, love of Sparta was </li></ul><ul><li>most important, women had freedom and </li></ul><ul><li>ran family estates while husbands were in </li></ul><ul><li>the military, girls received some military </li></ul><ul><li>training </li></ul>
Greek military terms and conditions <ul><li>hoplite – foot soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>phalanx – soldiers side </li></ul><ul><li>by side forming an </li></ul><ul><li>impenetrable square </li></ul><ul><li>of men holding a </li></ul><ul><li>spear and shield </li></ul><ul><li>The military used </li></ul><ul><li>affordable and </li></ul><ul><li>stronger iron weapons </li></ul><ul><li>so all could arm </li></ul><ul><li>themselves. </li></ul>
The Story of the Persian Wars The Persians invaded present-day Turkey in 546 B.C.E.. The Ionian Greeks (in Turkey) are defeated even though Athenians sent ships and soldiers. The Persians, under Darius the Great, were angry with Athens and met up with the Athenians at the Battle of Marathon in 490 B.C.E., where the Athenians won. Pheidippides ran back to Athens to tell of the victory. When the Persians arrived in Athens, the Athenians had already returned and they quickly retreated. Ten years later, Xerxes (Darius’s son) came back to defeat Athens. While some Greeks supported Athens and others wanted Athens to fall, 300 Spartans defended Athens and all of Greece in the Battle of Thermopylae. The Spartans held the Persians for three days, but eventually Athens fought them in a naval battle near the island of Salamis. The Athenians’ superior navy defeated the Persians. After one more battle in 479 B.C.E., Xerxes was on the defensive.
Delian League <ul><li>Created by Athens to align member city-states </li></ul><ul><li>against Persia </li></ul><ul><li>After Athens took money from the League’s funds </li></ul><ul><li>and tried to control other city-states, Athens was </li></ul><ul><li>looked upon as greedy and too powerful </li></ul>
The Peloponnesian Wars After Athens beat Persia, Athens grew rich and powerful. Ill feelings grew between Sparta and Athens, which led to war. Sparta marched towards Athens and burned their food supply. Athenians stayed inside the city as they received supplies from the port. Disaster struck when a plague spread through the city, yet they fought for several more years. In 421 B.C.E., they signed a truce. Athens tried once more to beat Sparta but was defeated again, and eventually surrendered in 404 B.C.E..
Greek architecture and sculpture <ul><li>Classical art characteristics included balance, order, harmony, proportion in human figures, serenity, grace, and strength </li></ul>
Greek drama <ul><li>Tragedies - serious dramas about war, betrayal, love, and hate that included a hero with honorable abilities and severe flaws that would typically lead to the hero’s downfall – examples are Aeschylus’s Oresteia , Sophocles’s Antigone and Oedipus Rex , and Euripides’s Medea </li></ul><ul><li>Comedies - crude humor about politics, certain people, or ideas – examples are Aristophanes’s The Birds and Lysistrata </li></ul>
Greek historians <ul><li>Herodotus ( History of the Persian Wars ) – considered the first historian and the first to pioneer accuracy in his accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Thucydides ( History of the Peloponnesian Wars ) – wrote about and studied patterns in historical events to predict present and future events </li></ul>
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.