Unit 2 lesson 2
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  • 1. WHAT IS A CIVILIZATION?
    • A Civilization has:
    • Government
    • Specialized Jobs
    • Cities
    • Social classes
    • Religion
    • Writing
    • Technology
    http://deitchman.com/mcneillslides/images/ziggurat_Ur.jpg
  • 2. River Valley Civilizations http://www.mapsofworld.com/images/ancient-river-valley-civilization.jpg
  • 3. In this unit, we will study 4 River Valley Civilizations. These are the major rivers for each.
    • Mesopotamia—known as the Cradle of Civilization or the Fertile Crescent
      • Tigris River
      • Euphrates River
    • Egyptian Civilization
      • Nile River
    • Indus River Valley
      • Indus River
    • China (Huang He)
      • Yellow River
      • Yangtze River
  • 4. WHY ARE RIVERS IMPORTANT IN EARLY CIVILIZATIONS? CIVILIZATIONS?
    • TRADE
    • TRANSPORTATION
    • FARMING
    • **These are 3 reasons why the first civilizations were near water!
  • 5. MESOPOTAMIA
    • formed between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
    • First ruled by a group called the Sumerians
    http://mesopotamia.mrdonn.org/meso08.gif
  • 6. What type of government did the Sumerians have?
    • Monarchy —ruled by a king
    • Duties of rulers:
      • Maintained Cities
      • Regulated Farming
      • Taxes
      • Made Laws
      • Armies
  • 7. Sumerian Religion
    • Polytheistic —the worship of more than 1 god
    • Ziggurats- pyramid shaped temples where Sumerians offered sacrifices and other goods to please the gods.
    http://www.topsfieldschools.org/PROCTOR/P_SS/Mesopotamia/ziggurats.jpg
  • 8. Language
    • Cuneiform—wedge-shaped symbols on clay tablets (see picture below)
    http://www.virginiawestern.edu/faculty/vwhansd/HIS111/Images/Cuneiform.jpg
  • 9.
    • ACHEIVEMENTS
      • Used clay bricks
      • Invented a plow
      • Invented the wheel
      • Some basic surgeries
      • Math—developed a system based on the number 60
      • Literature like the Epic of Gilgamesh— Sumerian story of a king
    Epic of Gilgamesh http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/tab_gilgamesh.gif
  • 10. INVASIONS INTO MESOPOTAMIA
    • Akkadians conquered the Sumerians about 2330 BCE
      • This became the first EMPIRE in history. An EMPIRE is land that includes different kingdoms and people under one government.
    • Babylonians conquered the region in 1792 BCE
      • This civilization created the first set of written laws known as the CODE OF HAMMURABI . It was based on the philosophy of an “eye for an eye”.
  • 11.
    • 1200 BCE-2000 BCE
    • After the end of Babylonian Empire, the HITTITES prosper
    • Accomplishments
      • Expanded Empire
      • Mastered ironworking
    • 1300s-612 BCE
    • ASSYRIANS
    • Became supreme rulers of region
    • Powerful military
    • Efficient government
    • Huge library with over 20,000 cuneiform tablets
    • 612 BCE-539 BCE
    • CHALDEANS
    • Accomplishments
      • Re-built the old city of Babylon
      • Developed a calendar based on moon phases
     Assyrians capturing a city http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.bible-history.com/assyria_archaeology/assyrians_carrying_away_gods.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.bible-history.com/assyria_archaeology/archaeology_of_ancient_assyria_archaeological_discoveries.html&usg=__A8VhDT6LUFTEToxp6C7Emfnga_c=&h=216&w=250&sz=37&hl=en&start=10&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=SpoqYBsp61iRiM:&tbnh=96&tbnw=111&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dassyrians%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26um%3D1
  • 12. OTHER EMPIRES
    • Phoenicians
      • Big traders
      • Expert sailors
      • Explored all the way to Africa
      • Huge trade
      • 22-letter alphabet
    • Persians
    • Tolerant of conquered peoples’ customs
    • Created an Empire in SW Asia and Europe
    • Achievements:
      • Royal Road: first major highway (more than 1,500 miles)
      • Fairly peaceful Empire
    • Defeated by the Greeks
  • 13. DEVELOPMENT OF JUDAISM
    • Judaism —new MONTHEISTIC religion (the worship of only 1 god)
      • Founded by the Hebrews in the Mesopotamian region
      • Hebrew history told in the TORAH (the sacred book of the Hebrews)
      • Founded by a man named Abraham
      • Abrahams’ son Jacob founded Israel
        • Created a kingdom of Israel
      • Enslaved by the Chaldeans and freed by the Persians
  • 14. EGYPT
      • Protected by deserts—invasions were not as often as in Mesopotamia
      • Nile River flooded regularly 3 times a year for agriculture and trade/travel.
    http://www.franklin.ma.us/auto/upload/schools/horace/307-egmap.jpg
  • 15. The 3 KINGDOMS OF ANCIENT EGYPT
    • OLD KINGDOM: 2700-2200 BCE
    • Most pyramids built during this kingdom
    • Pharaohs ran civilization (The Gods put me on the Earth to rule!)
    • Theocracy
  • 16.
    • MIDDLE KINGDOM: 2200-1600 BC
    • The Golden Age of Egypt because of:
      • Economic prosperity
      • Strong trade
    • However, a group from the North called the Hyskos attacked Egypt and ruled for 150 years. But they brought a new technology with them…
  • 17. HORSE AND CHARIOT http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/images/dailylife_images/chariotguy.jpg
  • 18. THE NEW KINGDOM
    • 1600-1100 BCE
    • Egypt became a powerful Empire during this period.
    • This is also the time of the most famous Pharaohs.
    http://www.ancientsculpturegallery.com/images/3013.jpg
  • 19. EGYTPIAN RELIGION
    • Polytheistic
    • Life after death was very important to Egyptians. A large portion of their income was devoted to preparing for life after death.
    • Practiced mummification (or process of preserving the body) to prepare for the afterlife
  • 20. http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2007/04/10/gallery/pharoah_zoom.jpg
  • 21. PYRAMIDS
    • Most built during the Old Kingdom for Pharaohs.
    • Took years to build
    • 50,000 people worked on a pyramid at one time
    • Rock for pyramids came from the Aswan region (over 600 miles away)—transported in 8 x 4 foot sections
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/ni/giza-pyramid-of-cheops-egy109.jpg
  • 22. EGYPTIAN WRITING--HEIROGLYPHICS
    • Egypt’s first encounter with writing was with the Sumerians.
    • However, Egyptians thought the god THOTH (god of learning) gave them the magical words.
    • Pictures stood for sounds as well as ideas
  • 23. http://www.idstyle.com/safari/egypt/hieroglyphics-table.jpg
  • 24. How did we find out how to read Hieroglyphics?
    • Explorers found the Rosetta Stone (see the picture to the right)
    • It had 3 languages on it
        • Greek
        • Hieroglyphics
        • Demotic Script (Egyptian slang)
    • In 1820, a Frenchman named Jean Francis Champollion used his knowledge of Greek to figure out hieroglyphics
    http://www.earth-history.com/Egypt/_images/RosettaStone.gif
  • 25. EGYTPIAN ACHEIVEMENTS
    • Number system
    • Early geometry
    • Use of stone columns
    • 360-day calendar
    • Listened to heart rates, make splints, even some surgeries