WHAT IS A CIVILIZATION? <ul><li>A Civilization has: </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized Jobs </li><...
River Valley Civilizations http://www.mapsofworld.com/images/ancient-river-valley-civilization.jpg
In this unit, we will study 4 River Valley Civilizations.  These are the major rivers for each. <ul><li>Mesopotamia—known ...
WHY ARE RIVERS IMPORTANT IN EARLY CIVILIZATIONS?  CIVILIZATIONS? <ul><li>TRADE </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSPORTATION </li></ul>...
MESOPOTAMIA <ul><li>formed between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>First ruled by a group called the Sum...
What type of government did the Sumerians have? <ul><li>Monarchy —ruled by a king </li></ul><ul><li>Duties of rulers: </li...
Sumerian Religion <ul><li>Polytheistic —the worship of more than 1 god </li></ul><ul><li>Ziggurats- pyramid shaped temples...
Language <ul><li>Cuneiform—wedge-shaped symbols on clay tablets (see picture below) </li></ul>http://www.virginiawestern.e...
<ul><li>ACHEIVEMENTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used clay bricks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invented a plow </li></ul></ul><ul>...
INVASIONS INTO MESOPOTAMIA <ul><li>Akkadians conquered the Sumerians about 2330 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This became the ...
<ul><li>1200 BCE-2000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>After the end of Babylonian Empire, the  HITTITES  prosper </li></ul><ul><li>A...
OTHER EMPIRES <ul><li>Phoenicians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big traders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert sailors </li></ul></...
DEVELOPMENT OF JUDAISM   <ul><li>Judaism —new MONTHEISTIC religion (the worship of only 1 god) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found...
EGYPT <ul><ul><li>Protected by deserts—invasions were not as often as in Mesopotamia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nile River...
The 3 KINGDOMS OF ANCIENT EGYPT <ul><li>OLD KINGDOM: 2700-2200 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Most pyramids built during this kingd...
<ul><li>MIDDLE KINGDOM: 2200-1600 BC </li></ul><ul><li>The Golden Age of Egypt because of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic ...
HORSE AND CHARIOT http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/images/dailylife_images/chariotguy.jpg
THE NEW KINGDOM <ul><li>1600-1100 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt became a powerful Empire during this period. </li></ul><ul><...
EGYTPIAN RELIGION <ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Life after death was very important to Egyptians.  A large portio...
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2007/04/10/gallery/pharoah_zoom.jpg
PYRAMIDS <ul><li>Most built during the Old Kingdom for Pharaohs. </li></ul><ul><li>Took years to build </li></ul><ul><li>5...
EGYPTIAN WRITING--HEIROGLYPHICS <ul><li>Egypt’s first encounter with writing was with the Sumerians. </li></ul><ul><li>How...
http://www.idstyle.com/safari/egypt/hieroglyphics-table.jpg
How did we find out how to read Hieroglyphics? <ul><li>Explorers found the Rosetta Stone (see the picture to the right) </...
EGYTPIAN   ACHEIVEMENTS <ul><li>Number system </li></ul><ul><li>Early geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Use of stone columns </li...
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Unit 2 lesson 2

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Unit 2 lesson 2

  1. 1. WHAT IS A CIVILIZATION? <ul><li>A Civilization has: </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Social classes </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>http://deitchman.com/mcneillslides/images/ziggurat_Ur.jpg
  2. 2. River Valley Civilizations http://www.mapsofworld.com/images/ancient-river-valley-civilization.jpg
  3. 3. In this unit, we will study 4 River Valley Civilizations. These are the major rivers for each. <ul><li>Mesopotamia—known as the Cradle of Civilization or the Fertile Crescent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tigris River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euphrates River </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Egyptian Civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nile River </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indus River Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indus River </li></ul></ul><ul><li>China (Huang He) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yangtze River </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. WHY ARE RIVERS IMPORTANT IN EARLY CIVILIZATIONS? CIVILIZATIONS? <ul><li>TRADE </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSPORTATION </li></ul><ul><li>FARMING </li></ul><ul><li>**These are 3 reasons why the first civilizations were near water! </li></ul>
  5. 5. MESOPOTAMIA <ul><li>formed between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>First ruled by a group called the Sumerians </li></ul>http://mesopotamia.mrdonn.org/meso08.gif
  6. 6. What type of government did the Sumerians have? <ul><li>Monarchy —ruled by a king </li></ul><ul><li>Duties of rulers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained Cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulated Farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armies </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Sumerian Religion <ul><li>Polytheistic —the worship of more than 1 god </li></ul><ul><li>Ziggurats- pyramid shaped temples where Sumerians offered sacrifices and other goods to please the gods. </li></ul>http://www.topsfieldschools.org/PROCTOR/P_SS/Mesopotamia/ziggurats.jpg
  8. 8. Language <ul><li>Cuneiform—wedge-shaped symbols on clay tablets (see picture below) </li></ul>http://www.virginiawestern.edu/faculty/vwhansd/HIS111/Images/Cuneiform.jpg
  9. 9. <ul><li>ACHEIVEMENTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used clay bricks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invented a plow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invented the wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some basic surgeries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Math—developed a system based on the number 60 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature like the Epic of Gilgamesh— Sumerian story of a king </li></ul></ul>Epic of Gilgamesh http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/tab_gilgamesh.gif
  10. 10. INVASIONS INTO MESOPOTAMIA <ul><li>Akkadians conquered the Sumerians about 2330 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This became the first EMPIRE in history. An EMPIRE is land that includes different kingdoms and people under one government. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Babylonians conquered the region in 1792 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This civilization created the first set of written laws known as the CODE OF HAMMURABI . It was based on the philosophy of an “eye for an eye”. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>1200 BCE-2000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>After the end of Babylonian Empire, the HITTITES prosper </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastered ironworking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1300s-612 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>ASSYRIANS </li></ul><ul><li>Became supreme rulers of region </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful military </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient government </li></ul><ul><li>Huge library with over 20,000 cuneiform tablets </li></ul><ul><li>612 BCE-539 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>CHALDEANS </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-built the old city of Babylon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed a calendar based on moon phases </li></ul></ul> Assyrians capturing a city http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.bible-history.com/assyria_archaeology/assyrians_carrying_away_gods.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.bible-history.com/assyria_archaeology/archaeology_of_ancient_assyria_archaeological_discoveries.html&usg=__A8VhDT6LUFTEToxp6C7Emfnga_c=&h=216&w=250&sz=37&hl=en&start=10&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=SpoqYBsp61iRiM:&tbnh=96&tbnw=111&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dassyrians%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26um%3D1
  12. 12. OTHER EMPIRES <ul><li>Phoenicians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big traders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert sailors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explored all the way to Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22-letter alphabet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Persians </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerant of conquered peoples’ customs </li></ul><ul><li>Created an Empire in SW Asia and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Achievements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Road: first major highway (more than 1,500 miles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly peaceful Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defeated by the Greeks </li></ul>
  13. 13. DEVELOPMENT OF JUDAISM <ul><li>Judaism —new MONTHEISTIC religion (the worship of only 1 god) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by the Hebrews in the Mesopotamian region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hebrew history told in the TORAH (the sacred book of the Hebrews) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by a man named Abraham </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrahams’ son Jacob founded Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created a kingdom of Israel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enslaved by the Chaldeans and freed by the Persians </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. EGYPT <ul><ul><li>Protected by deserts—invasions were not as often as in Mesopotamia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nile River flooded regularly 3 times a year for agriculture and trade/travel. </li></ul></ul>http://www.franklin.ma.us/auto/upload/schools/horace/307-egmap.jpg
  15. 15. The 3 KINGDOMS OF ANCIENT EGYPT <ul><li>OLD KINGDOM: 2700-2200 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Most pyramids built during this kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaohs ran civilization (The Gods put me on the Earth to rule!) </li></ul><ul><li>Theocracy </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>MIDDLE KINGDOM: 2200-1600 BC </li></ul><ul><li>The Golden Age of Egypt because of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic prosperity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, a group from the North called the Hyskos attacked Egypt and ruled for 150 years. But they brought a new technology with them… </li></ul>
  17. 17. HORSE AND CHARIOT http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/images/dailylife_images/chariotguy.jpg
  18. 18. THE NEW KINGDOM <ul><li>1600-1100 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt became a powerful Empire during this period. </li></ul><ul><li>This is also the time of the most famous Pharaohs. </li></ul>http://www.ancientsculpturegallery.com/images/3013.jpg
  19. 19. EGYTPIAN RELIGION <ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Life after death was very important to Egyptians. A large portion of their income was devoted to preparing for life after death. </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced mummification (or process of preserving the body) to prepare for the afterlife </li></ul>
  20. 20. http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2007/04/10/gallery/pharoah_zoom.jpg
  21. 21. PYRAMIDS <ul><li>Most built during the Old Kingdom for Pharaohs. </li></ul><ul><li>Took years to build </li></ul><ul><li>50,000 people worked on a pyramid at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Rock for pyramids came from the Aswan region (over 600 miles away)—transported in 8 x 4 foot sections </li></ul>http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/ni/giza-pyramid-of-cheops-egy109.jpg
  22. 22. EGYPTIAN WRITING--HEIROGLYPHICS <ul><li>Egypt’s first encounter with writing was with the Sumerians. </li></ul><ul><li>However, Egyptians thought the god THOTH (god of learning) gave them the magical words. </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures stood for sounds as well as ideas </li></ul>
  23. 23. http://www.idstyle.com/safari/egypt/hieroglyphics-table.jpg
  24. 24. How did we find out how to read Hieroglyphics? <ul><li>Explorers found the Rosetta Stone (see the picture to the right) </li></ul><ul><li>It had 3 languages on it </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greek </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hieroglyphics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demotic Script (Egyptian slang) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1820, a Frenchman named Jean Francis Champollion used his knowledge of Greek to figure out hieroglyphics </li></ul>http://www.earth-history.com/Egypt/_images/RosettaStone.gif
  25. 25. EGYTPIAN ACHEIVEMENTS <ul><li>Number system </li></ul><ul><li>Early geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Use of stone columns </li></ul><ul><li>360-day calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Listened to heart rates, make splints, even some surgeries </li></ul>

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