WHAT IS A CIVILIZATION? http://deitchman.com/mcneillslides/images/ziggurat_Ur.jpg
River Valley Civilizations http://www.mapsofworld.com/images/ancient-river-valley-civilization.jpg
In this unit, we will study 4 River Valley Civilizations. These are the major rivers for each.
Mesopotamia—known as the Cradle of Civilization or the Fertile Crescent
WHY ARE RIVERS IMPORTANT IN EARLY CIVILIZATIONS? CIVILIZATIONS?
**These are 3 reasons why the first civilizations were near water!
MESOPOTAMIA formed between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers http://mesopotamia.mrdonn.org/meso08.gif
First ruled by a group called the Sumerians
What type of government did the Sumerians have?
Monarchy —ruled by a king
Sumerian Religion Polytheistic —the worship of more than 1 god http://www.topsfieldschools.org/PROCTOR/P_SS/Mesopotamia/ziggurats.jpg
Ziggurats- pyramid shaped temples where Sumerians offered sacrifices and other goods to please the gods.
Cuneiform—wedge-shaped symbols on clay tablets (see picture below)
Math—developed a system based on the number 60 Epic of Gilgamesh http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/tab_gilgamesh.gif
Literature like the Epic of Gilgamesh— Sumerian story of a king
INVASIONS INTO MESOPOTAMIA Akkadians conquered the Sumerians about 2330 BCE This became the first EMPIRE in history. An EMPIRE is land that includes different kingdoms and people under one government. Babylonians conquered the region in 1792 BCE
This civilization created the first set of written laws known as the CODE OF HAMMURABI . It was based on the philosophy of an “eye for an eye”.
After the end of Babylonian Empire, the HITTITES prosper Became supreme rulers of region Huge library with over 20,000 cuneiform tablets Re-built the old city of Babylon Assyrians capturing a city http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.bible-history.com/assyria_archaeology/assyrians_carrying_away_gods.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.bible-history.com/assyria_archaeology/archaeology_of_ancient_assyria_archaeological_discoveries.html&usg=__A8VhDT6LUFTEToxp6C7Emfnga_c=&h=216&w=250&sz=37&hl=en&start=10&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=SpoqYBsp61iRiM:&tbnh=96&tbnw=111&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dassyrians%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26um%3D1
Developed a calendar based on moon phases
OTHER EMPIRES Explored all the way to Africa Tolerant of conquered peoples’ customs Created an Empire in SW Asia and Europe
Royal Road: first major highway (more than 1,500 miles)
DEVELOPMENT OF JUDAISM Judaism —new MONTHEISTIC religion (the worship of only 1 god) Founded by the Hebrews in the Mesopotamian region Hebrew history told in the TORAH (the sacred book of the Hebrews) Founded by a man named Abraham Abrahams’ son Jacob founded Israel Created a kingdom of Israel
Enslaved by the Chaldeans and freed by the Persians
EGYPT Protected by deserts—invasions were not as often as in Mesopotamia http://www.franklin.ma.us/auto/upload/schools/horace/307-egmap.jpg
Nile River flooded regularly 3 times a year for agriculture and trade/travel.
The 3 KINGDOMS OF ANCIENT EGYPT OLD KINGDOM: 2700-2200 BCE Most pyramids built during this kingdom
Pharaohs ran civilization (The Gods put me on the Earth to rule!)
MIDDLE KINGDOM: 2200-1600 BC The Golden Age of Egypt because of:
However, a group from the North called the Hyskos attacked Egypt and ruled for 150 years. But they brought a new technology with them…
HORSE AND CHARIOT http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/images/dailylife_images/chariotguy.jpg
THE NEW KINGDOM Egypt became a powerful Empire during this period. http://www.ancientsculpturegallery.com/images/3013.jpg
This is also the time of the most famous Pharaohs.
EGYTPIAN RELIGION Life after death was very important to Egyptians. A large portion of their income was devoted to preparing for life after death.
Practiced mummification (or process of preserving the body) to prepare for the afterlife
PYRAMIDS Most built during the Old Kingdom for Pharaohs. 50,000 people worked on a pyramid at one time http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/ni/giza-pyramid-of-cheops-egy109.jpg
Rock for pyramids came from the Aswan region (over 600 miles away)—transported in 8 x 4 foot sections
EGYPTIAN WRITING--HEIROGLYPHICS Egypt’s first encounter with writing was with the Sumerians. However, Egyptians thought the god THOTH (god of learning) gave them the magical words.
Pictures stood for sounds as well as ideas
How did we find out how to read Hieroglyphics? Explorers found the Rosetta Stone (see the picture to the right) Demotic Script (Egyptian slang) http://www.earth-history.com/Egypt/_images/RosettaStone.gif
In 1820, a Frenchman named Jean Francis Champollion used his knowledge of Greek to figure out hieroglyphics
Listened to heart rates, make splints, even some surgeries