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Lesson 3 module 8 how proteins are made 1
 

Lesson 3 module 8 how proteins are made 1

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    Lesson 3 module 8 how proteins are made 1 Lesson 3 module 8 how proteins are made 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Making proteins
      • You have already seen how we use DNA to make RNA now we are going to turn that RNA into Proteins
    • The basics
      • DNA  RNA  Protein
      • (the sequence)
      • Nucleus  Nucleus  Ribosome
      • (the locations)
    • What we know…
      • Proteins are made out of amino acids
    • Fun Facts you should know!
      • The genetic code is in DNA
      • There are 20 different amino acids
        • The come from 4 different types of bases
          • Adenine A
          • Uracil U
          • Cytosine C
          • Guanine G
      • Each set of three nitrogen bases represents an amino acid is known as a codon
      • Codons code for amino acids
      • There are 64 possible combinations of codons. 61 code for amino acids. The three left are stop codons.
    • You should know how to read this. If you can not pick up the phone and call me so I can walk you through it!
    • Translation From RNA to Protein
      • Translation- occurs in the ribosome (organelle)
      • Process of reading codons, laying amino acids in chains, making proteins
      • tRNA- Brings amino acids to the ribosome's so they can assemble into proteins
    • Making proteins
      • All you have to do it make sure that your DNA strand is transcribed into mRNA. Like this
      • Original DNA Strand
      • ACC TAC GCG GGG CAT ATT CCG
      • Transcribed mRNA Strand
      • UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC
    • Now you have your mRNA
      • mRNA UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC
      • 2. Look for the start codon. Remember this is AUG
      • UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC
      • (ignore the stuff before AUG we do not care about it)
    • You now know where to start
      • 3. Now that you know where to start move down the mRNA strand and read the next codon
      • UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC
      • CGC codes for arginine, so add the amino acid arginine to your growing amino acid chain
      • Your chain looks like this now
      • Start  Arginine
    • Move down the chain to your next codon
      • UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC
      • CCC codes for proline
      • Add proline to your chain
      • Start  Arginine  proline
    • Move down the chain to your next codon
      • UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC
      • GUA codes for Valine
      • Add valine to your chain
      • Start  Arginine  proline  Valine
    • Move down the chain to your next codon
      • UGG AUG CGC CCC GUA UAA GGC
      • UAA codes for STOP
      • Add STOP to your chain
      • Start  Arginine  proline  Valine  Stop
    • The last codon you coded
      • told you to stop so you are done coding until you see another start in the codons.