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Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects
Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects
Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects
Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects
Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects
Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects
Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects
Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects
Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects
Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects
Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects
Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects
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Sustainable Financing: The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects

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By Ian Mathews, Regional Head, Project & Structured Finance Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Ltd …

By Ian Mathews, Regional Head, Project & Structured Finance Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Ltd

Presented at the Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
December 7-9, 2011
Session 7: Financing and Revenue Management in water and energy resources development

Published in: Business, Economy & Finance
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    • 1. Sustainable Financing The Equator Principles and the Financing of Water and Energy Resource Projects Ian Mathews Regional Head, Project & Structured Finance Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Ltd
    • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS <ul><li>The meaning of “Sustainable Financing” </li></ul><ul><li>The relevance of Sustainable Financing </li></ul><ul><li>The Equator Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of the Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for Stakeholders </li></ul>
    • 3. What is meant by “Sustainable Financing” ? <ul><li>Sustainable Financing is an approach that connects Corporate Social Responsibility (“CSR”) and Social Responsible Investing (“SRI”) and which promotes Sustainable Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CSR is a business model that contributes to the social and economic development of all stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI is a business model that invested in transactions that meet specific ethical criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development has been defined as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ development that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Brundtland Commission) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ an economic development theory that calls for raising living standards without destroying the earth’s ecosystems or causing environmental problems such as climate changes, water scarcity, or species extinction” (Webster’s New World Finance and Investment Dictionary) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ financial sustainability is not only about the amount of money, but also about how effectively money is spent, how well benefits are provided to local stakeholders, and other factors” (Convention on Biological Diversity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Financing must meet the generic requirements of Sustainable Development to be relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Financing is not by itself the financing of “Green Technology” or “Green Energy” Projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydropower projects that do not take into account affected stakeholders would not be regarded as sustainable financing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydropower projects that do take into account affected stakeholders and provide for appropriate mitigation and compensation for those affected would be regarded as sustainable financing </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 4. Why is Sustainable Financing relevant to Governments – Strategies for Comprehensive Energy Policies <ul><li>Significant economic growth across Asia is resulting in increased demand for power generation </li></ul><ul><li>As part of a comprehensive energy strategy, hydro and coal power projects are currently the cheapest options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most donors either no longer provide financing for coal-fired power stations or will only provide financing for more expensive technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most international banks require high (and costly) emission standards for coal-fired power stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal prices cannot be predicted with certainty but may move significantly over the life of the asset </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydropower represents a cheap and reliable source of power but access to capital is relatively limited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Donor agencies and some international banks are supportive only if undertaken in a sustainable manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both domestic and regional banks may be supportive irrespective of sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of ensuring sustainability has a relatively limited impact on the end tariff (NB. case studies indicate impact of ~ USc 0.2/kWh or ~ 1.2% Equity IRR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest access to capital for hydropower projects is through sustainable financing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irrespective of donor agency preferences, low and middle income countries cannot afford the luxury of pursuing wind and solar energy, even if they have the physical resources to do so </li></ul>Estimated All-In Cost of New Built Power Stations* Sources: Numerous, including World Bank, Asian Development Bank, OECD Government statistics * Based upon expected capital expenditure costs, expected capacity factors and current fuel costs Average all-in cost for a new power station
    • 5. Why is Sustainable Financing relevant to Governments and Investors – the Role of Civil Society and Financiers <ul><li>Civil Society keeps a close watch on institutions / transactions that could trigger sustainability issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active, focused and professional campaigns by NGOs against Governments and Banks have raised the profile of “ethical investments” in certain industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense monitoring, particularly before Financial Close </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As Banks are an important intermediary between sources of capital demand and capital supply and exist to transform money by size, duration, time, place and risk, Banks therefore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play a crucial role financing capital-intensive transactions, often providing 70-80% of the required capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are increasingly held responsible for their clients’ actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are influenced by campaigns by external stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have the ability to influence clients to achieve high degrees of compliance with sustainability requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ability of Banks to engage with NGOs can vary significantly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy and willingness to open dialogue with other stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dogmatism v. Pragmatism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The interaction of Banks and Civil Society allows Banks to act in conjunction with other stakeholders to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieve more sustainable practices; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdraw from transactions opposed to or unlikely to comply with sustainability initiatives </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. Why is Sustainable Financing relevant to Financiers – the Management of Risk <ul><li>For a Bank, an Environmental Risk can very quickly become a Financial Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly managed projects can have serious environmental and social impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious impacts will need to be mitigated at a cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputational Risks are an increasing concern for Banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant impact on senior management time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disruption to business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embedding CSR and SRI within the decision making process allows a consistent approach for financing and provides for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient risk management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective pricing of risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-active selection of transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater understanding of client requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater understanding of stakeholder issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency of application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasingly Financiers are implementing both agreed global policies and bank-specific policies to ensure compliance with internal CSR requirements </li></ul>
    • 7. The Applicable Standards for Sustainable Financing - The Equator Principles <ul><li>From 2004, in order to standardise international financial best practice, International Financial Institutions have adopted the Equator Principles </li></ul><ul><li>The Equator Principles are referenced to the Performance Standards of the IFC (part of the World Bank Group) and are broadly in line with the policies of the Asian Development Bank, the European Investment Bank etc </li></ul><ul><li>The Equator Principles comprise a set of rules and guidelines that assist Banks to identify and manage a common and consistent assessment of environmental and social issues across industries and geographies </li></ul><ul><li>The Equator Principles require signatory Banks to ensure compliance with all the obligations under the Principles </li></ul><ul><li>The Equator Principles have been adopted by 72 International Financial Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>34 European Banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21 American Banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 African Banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Australian Banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Asian Banks (3 Japanese; 1 Chinese) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Middle Eastern Banks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equator Principle Banks will not provide loans to projects where the borrower will not or is unable to comply with the Equator Principles </li></ul>
    • 8. What are the Standards and how are they Measured ? Each Bank must provide annual updates of its own compliance with the Equator Principles EP10: Public Reporting For all Category A and most Category B, an independent third party review is required to verify the Action Plan and other obligations for the Banks EP9: Independent Monitoring and Reporting The Borrower will covenant (a) to comply with all local social and environmental laws, permits and standards, (b) to implement the Action Plan, (c) to provide periodic reports to the Banks confirming compliance with required standard, and (d) to decommission the project (where applicable) in accordance with a decommissioning plan EP8: Covenants For all Category A and most Category B, an independent third party review is required for the Assessment, Action Plan and other documentation EP7: Independent Review For all Category A and most Category B, procedures to be implemented to allow affected stakeholders the ability to raise and resolve issues of concern EP6: Grievance Mechanism For all Category A and most Category B, timely consultation of the non-technical findings is to be made available in the local language to encourage early dialogue with stakeholders EP5: Consultation and Disclosure For most countries, for all Category A and B projects, the Borrower must complete an Action Plan to describe, prioritise and implement mitigation measures, corrective actions for any impacts identified in the Social and Environmental Assessment EP4: Action Plan / Management System For most countries, the Assessment is referenced to the IFC Performance Standards EP3: Applicable Standards For Category A and B projects, the Borrower must conduct a Social and Environmental Assessment, prepared by the Borrower or by suitably skilled independent third parties, to identify any impacts caused by the project EP2: Social and Environmental Assessment <ul><li>Each Project is categorised in respect of the magnitude of it environmental and social impact (referenced to IFC Environmental and Social Screening Criteria): </li></ul><ul><li>Category A : Potential significant adverse social or environmental impacts that are diverse, irreversible or unprecedented </li></ul><ul><li>Category B : Potential limited adverse social or environmental impacts that are few in number, site specific, largely reversible and readily addressed through mitigation measures </li></ul><ul><li>Category C : Minimal or no social or environmental impacts </li></ul>EP1: Review & Categorisation Statement of Principles Equator Principle
    • 9. How are the Standards Implemented ? <ul><li>Equator Principles permit a balanced approach towards decision making, taking into account the views of all stakeholders, not just the Borrower </li></ul><ul><li>The Equator Principles are used at all phases of a project’s evaluation and implementation, including before formal evaluation (ie client screening) </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Borrowers are informed of the need and requirements of the Equator Principles before signing any mandate </li></ul><ul><li>The Equator Principles apply to both Advisory and Financing phases of projects above US$10m in size (ANZ applies to all projects) </li></ul><ul><li>In larger deals, one Bank will be appointed to co-ordinate the environmental and social aspects of the transaction </li></ul><ul><li>Most Equator Principle Banks have dedicated Sustainability teams and “Toolkits” to allow for in-house decision-making to complement external advice </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes from assessment are shared with clients to identify areas needing mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes are embedded into the Finance Documents, are ongoing and are monitored at least annually through compliance certification </li></ul><ul><li>Result is a very open and transparent process to identify, assess, and monitor environmental and social issues that may arise in a project </li></ul>
    • 10. Sustainable Financing - the Implications of Equator Principles for Stakeholders <ul><li>For All Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Ranking of Environmental and Social Considerations alongside Economic Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent and ongoing assessment of Environmental and Social Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Open and transparent assessment of projects </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection of Non-Compliant Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Investors </li></ul><ul><li>Early decision whether to follow or reject compliance with Equator Principle is required </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of compliance will reduce access to capital and may lead to Reputational Risk issues </li></ul><ul><li>Potential cost and delays in project implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Governments </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to attract investment from wider and more diverse pools of capital </li></ul><ul><li>Access to donor agencies means lower cost of funds and hence lower tariffs to end users </li></ul><ul><li>Governments can impose international standards as a requirement on investors </li></ul><ul><li>Affected Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of the impact of transactions on their lives and livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate impact mitigation and compensation </li></ul>
    • 11. Concluding Comments <ul><li>Equator Principles are the industry standard for most International Financial Institutions and commercial banks </li></ul><ul><li>The Equator Principles do no more than enshrine and embed good corporate governance corporate social responsibility in transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of the Equator Principles provides greater ability to access capital and finance projects </li></ul><ul><li>Projects adopting the Equator Principles will generally be more successful in managing potential environmental and social issues than those that do not adopt them </li></ul><ul><li>Projects adopting the Equator Principles will generally be more successful in managing reputational risk issues (and management time) than those that do not adopt them </li></ul><ul><li>Projects that adopt the Equator Principles will generally be economically viable in the long term as there is less chance of delays associated with environmental and social issues </li></ul><ul><li>There is limited cost impact (tariff or returns) for a Project to be compliant with Equator Principles </li></ul><ul><li>A fundamentally sound (in terms of economic, social and environmental issues) large hydropower project that is developed with regard to all stakeholders should have no difficulty in being Equator Principle compliant </li></ul><ul><li>The choice to follow the Equator Principles is one Governments and investors need to consider at an early stage of a project’s development – projects will get done, but how they are done is the critical issue </li></ul>
    • 12. Thank You

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