Sharing benefits of the yali hydropower reservoir


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3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy 2013. Presentation from Session 7: Restoring livelihoods: opportunities for sharing the benefits of water for resettled communities.

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Sharing benefits of the yali hydropower reservoir

  1. 1. Sharing Benefits of the Yali hydropower Reservoir, Vietnam - farming in drawdown area Tran Duc Toan & Nguyen Duy Phuong Soils and fertilizers Research Institute (SFRI) MK1 Project – Optimizing Reservoir Management for Livelihoods
  2. 2. Yali hydropower  Yali HP was built from 1993-2003  Total basin of Yali reservoir: 7445 Km2  Effective water level: 515 m  Dead water level: 490 m Objectives: National Economic development Sources: Cao Thi Yen 2003
  3. 3. Yali HP and Social Impacts It has large impacted on social aspects Table 1: Major loss due to Yali reservoir Items Unit 1.Resettled people Individual 5384 2.Resettled households HH 1149 3.Resettlement villages Villages 4.Inundated land ha 6480 5.Farming land ha 1933 + Wet rice field ha 871 + Other crops ha 1100 ha 3492 6.Forest land Amount 9 Sources: Cao Thi Yen 2003
  4. 4. 1.Resettled people Individual 3.Resettlement villages Villages 5384 9
  5. 5. Major Challenges in Consequence Paddy land limited due to inundated High pressure of population (Local & Immigration) Upland, forestland has been exploited inappropriate approach for farming activities, causing land rapid degradation Unattainable livelihood
  6. 6. Consequence of Resettlement  A story after 20 years of resettlement in Yali HP: + Shortage cultivated land & Poor irrigation system + Poor livelihood resources + Food insecurity at HH level /Jarai people + High poverty rate (40-45%) remains mostly Jarai ethnic people
  7. 7. Opportunities for Enhance Local Livelihood  It estimated about 26.000 ha of semi-flooded land area in Yali reservoir + Of which 1900 ha of semi-flooded land belongs to resettled communities & 1500 ha can serve for agriculture + More than 600 ha of semi-flooded cultivated, mostly with cassava, by 500 HH area has + Paddy rice only cultivate one crop per year  BSS and livelihood survey indicated that the drawdown area is high productive and crucial to the livelihood of local people, but high risk due to short duration of land exposition and sudden flooding occurred
  8. 8. Hydrological behavior in Yali reservoir Duration of Land Exposition in reservoir Months 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Water level 505-510 mls ---- 510 – 512 mls ---- //////////////////////////////////////////////// Land exposition 170 days ///////////////////////////////////////////////////// ---- 12 Land exposition 210 days Water flooded ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// ----------------- 512-515 mls Land exposition 240-260 days ----------------Water flooded ------------------------ Water flooded Which crops can grow in context of reservoir? and give a better income for farmer HH ?
  9. 9. Pilot Trial Activities Pilot trails - Short term variety of cassava KM98-7 has been selected among four tested varieties to test in semi-flooded area “ Higher income for farmer HH) - Short term variety of Rice P6DB has been selected to test a second rice crop in semi-flooded area “ More rice for food security”
  10. 10. Pilot Results of cassava in semi-flooded area of Yali Reservoir cassava 1.Result of pilot 2012 Varieties Yield (ton/ha) KM140 25,2 KM98-7 Starch Gross Input cost content income (M.vnd/ha) % (M.vnd/ha) Net income (M.vnd/ha) 22.8 35.28 14.54 20.74 32,6 26.2 45.64 16.02 29.62 KM21-12 28,5 23.0 39.9 15.20 24.70 KM94 (Control) 21,4 21,0 29.96 13.74 16.22 2. Result of pilot 2013 Yield (ton/ha) Starch content % Gross income (M.vnd/ha) Input cost (M.vnd/ha) Net income (M.vnd/ha) KM140 26.6 23.0 43.3 13.3 30.0 KM98-7 34.8 27.7 63.9 15.8 48.1 KM94 (Control) 24.4 21.4 37.5 12.1 25.1 Varieties
  11. 11. Pilot Results of rice in semi-flooded area of in Yali Reservoir 3. Result of pilot 2013 Varieties Yield (ta/ha) Gross income (M.vnd/ha) 25,51 Input cost (M.vnd/ha) Net income (M.vnd/ha) 9,5 16,01 Q5 34,5 P6DB 41,0 28,70 9,5 19,20 IR64 28,5 19,95 9,5 10,05 This gave an evidence that second rice in semiflooded area, food security at HH level can achieved
  12. 12. Upscale of MK1 Project in Yali Reservoir  Results of pilot in 2012 & 2013 farmers has attracted  Different training courses and field visits has been organized in period of 2012-2013 for more than 500 farmer HH in four communes reservoir affected  Result of upscale: 20 ha of short term variety of cassava has expanded by 34 farmer HH in semi-flooded area in 2013  The district (DARD) plan to increase the area of KM 98-7 to 400-500 ha in 2016 -2017 Economic term: It roughly estimates about 9.012.0 billion VND could be obtained if KM98-7 will replace old varieties after 4 years of MK1 project
  13. 13. Lesion Learn from MK1 in Vietnam A) Anthropology:  Ethnic minority: Jarai  Backward farming activities: Shifting cultivation, monoculture, extensive farming.  Low education level  No experience on intensive farming  Resettlement on the areas which land have been degraded  Ineffective farming, land is being sold to buyer (majority Kinh people which also has been resettled, leading to inherently lack of arable land, causing more stress.
  14. 14. Lesion Learn from MK1 in Vietnam (cont.) B) Natural conditions  The fluctuation of Water level depends on Hydropower operation  Understand water regime of reservoir is a key point to design cropping system in semi-flooded area  A mechanism to exchange between Yali HP Company and local government on water regime information is crucial for farmer to use semi-flooded area, increase income “It has been established”  Introducing shorter term variety to fit the crop planting calendar with the duration of land exposure in the drawdown area could be achieved the objective of limiting the risk of food security  Early harvest of cassava in semi-flooded area, it is hard to keep seedling for coming year, so it strictly requires “Seedling must be multiplied on upland”  Pilot of paddy rice in second crop has succeeded, but it can not upscale because local objective doesn't focus on rice “Less area for paddy rice in semi-flooded area”
  15. 15. Further Actions after MK1 Project  Capacity building for local extension workers and farmers on ICM for suitable crop systems on inundated area as well as on the sloping land  Training on soil conservation and conservation agriculture for sustainable agricultural production for farmers and local extension survice staffs on both soil topography.  Local government/DARD has committed to multiple the seedling at farmer house for next years. “This has been done by farmers in 2013, about 2 ha of seedling for 2014, and 5 ha for 2015”  Improvement of Diversify income for farmers , this action is not only in semi-flooded area, but also on upland: mixed/inter-cropping (annual with perennial (rubber, coffee) for multi-products “DARD’s requirement”