Livelihood Vulnerability and Sub-Government Position Analysis on the Possible Impacts of Mainstream Hydropower Development
Livelihood Vulnerability and Sub-Government Position Analysis on the Possible Impacts of Mainstream Hydropower Development (A case study of vulnerable livelihood in lowland area of Takeo Province, Cambodia) 2nd Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy 13-14 November 2012 Research Fellow: Socheath SOU
Main Objectives• To identify the livelihood dependency of the communities living in the low-land area of Takeo Province on the Mekong mainstream,• To determine alternative livelihood options of those communities,• To examine sub-government’s position on hydropower development, and• To access the effectiveness of current water governance practices within the province.
Key Questions (1)• How do rural communities make use the advantages of Mekong seasonal water’s regimes? At what level?• What are alternatives or livelihood options for those rural communities?• Do local governments are aware of the risks of hydropower development in the country or along the Mekong mainstream? How would they describe the costs/benefits of such the development?
Key Questions (2)• What is the sub-national government position on hydropower issues?• What are the common practices of water governance in the area?• Would the current practices of water governance equally share benefits and risks?• Are there any challenges in local water governance in the province?• Are there any social inclusion and exclusion in decision making in the governance of water resources?
Approaches• Engage in a wide-range of stakeholders, a so- called participatory approach, – sub-national government level and commune level, – local villagers who are living along the low-land area in Takeo Province – findings could be simply generalized into or reflected to the context of the water governance of the lower Mekong Basin in Cambodia
Coverage Area• The research will focus in four difference districts in Takeo Province residing in the low- land area, – Borei Chulsa, – Angkor Borie, – Koh Andeth and – Kirivong.
Methods (1)• The research uses qualitative and quantitative approach• Data will be derived from both secondary and primary data, – Household questionnaire based survey, – Community meetings, and – focus group discussions – Key informants will be made with all the relevant governments (sub-national government’s bodies) and NGOs agencies
Methods (2)• A study case of the local water governance practices will be produced.• Field observations are also included in the data collection process.• A provincial consultation workshop
Preliminary findings (1)• The man-made infrastructure mostly comes from a series of water canals and waterways• The province consists of the typical plain wet area for Cambodia, covering rice fields and other agricultural plantations.• Takeo’s economy consists basically of agricultural farming and its related sub-sector, including fishery, rice and fruit cropping.
Preliminary findings (2)• The floods usually stay long period of times, from July to November• the increase of water level on the upper Mekong mainstream and heavy rainfall in Takeo Province• big dams in Mekong delta for agricultural purposes.• Flood frequency in these areas is very high and “living with the flood” can almost be considered a way of life for people living in the four districts.
Water levels (in meter), measured at Kampong Ampil Station in Borei Chulsadistrict.6 19985 1999 20004 2001 2002 20033 2004 20052 2006 20071 2008 20090 Nov May Aug Apr Dec Jan March Sep June Jul Oct FebAn average of rainfall levels started from 1,000mm to 1,200mm are regarded asmedium level and suitable for rice cropping in all areas within the province.
Preliminary findings (3)• Even so, there still have victims of the flood and trapped with poverty. Poor families have tried to get addition incomes from off-village jobs in cities.• Water privatization in Cambodia has been adopted through several legal frameworks.• Groups of people have taken the opportunity and have tried to dominate water resource management.
Preliminary findings (4)• It is found out that a good water management policy and participation from local farmer give large and sustainable use water resource.• Farmer water user groups have been established.
Observation/Conclusion• Water management and governance are believed to stay very critical.• Government plays a very important role in water governance and fairly use of water• Water governance is generally a new concept for local people.• People has very poor knowledge on hydropower• Livelihood is found to have huge dependency on river basin.