Optimising fish friendly criteria for incorporation into the design of mini-hydro schemes

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3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy 2013. Presentation from Session 14: Alternative electricity sources and planning for the Mekong.

3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy 2013. Presentation from Session 14: Alternative electricity sources and planning for the Mekong.

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  • 1. CPWF MK 15 Presentation Optimising fish-friendly criteria for incorporation into the design of mini-hydro schemes in the Lower Mekong Basin Dr Oudom PHONEKHAMPHENG, Dean Fac. Ag., National University of Laos (NUOL) Mr Douangkham SINGHANOUVONG, Deputy-Director, Living Aquatic Resource and Research Centre (LARReC), Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Lao PDR Mr Garry Thorncraft, Research Associate NUOL Hanoi November 2013
  • 2. Outline of talk:  Brief Background to Lao Fish Passage Team – – – – 2008 to 2009 ACIAR Project No: FIS/2006/083 (upstream passage) 2010 to 2015 ACIAR Project No: FIS/2009/041 (upstream passage) 2013 ACIAR Project No: FIS/2011/072 (downstream) 2014 to 2017 ACIAR Project: FIS/2012/100 (downstream passage)  2013 CPWF Project No: MK15 (downstream passage) – – – – – Mini-hydro development (low-head high-volume) Barotrauma Shear Feasibility in Lao PDR Guidelines (preliminary)
  • 3. Lao Fish Passage Team Aims: Support the Sustainable Development of Water Infrastructure in Lao PDR – By Helping Maintain both Upstream and Downstream Fish Passage  Collaboration between LARReC and NUOL as lead research and educational institutions in Lao PDR  Assistance from international research partners including: o NSW Dept. Primary Industries, Australia o QLD Dept. Primary Industries, Australia o Pacific Northwestern National Laboratories, USA o Individual Expert Consultancies as required.
  • 4. Lao Fish Passage Project Objectives:  Improved understanding of technology to facilitate fish migrations on floodplains and inclusion of this information into tertiary education curriculum of NUOL.  Improved ability for Lao researchers and fisheries managers to understand and apply floodplain fish passage technology at the village, district and provincial level.  Improved local economies through increased fisheries' production where fish passage is considered  Improvement of floodplain fisheries diversity, abundance and sustainability wherever fish passage is considered in the lower Mekong Basin
  • 5. Social and Economic Importance of fish LMB – approx 2.2 million tonnes per annum – food and hard income About 2% of total world fish catch, 800 plus spp Importance of fish in sustenance diets Fish Beef Pork Chicken kg/person/year kg/person/year kg/person/year kg/person/year Lao PDR 29 (48% animal protein) 5 6 5 Cambodia 37 (79% animal protein) 2 3 2
  • 6. 10,000 plus Barriers to fish migration below 10m in height
  • 7. Extent of Migration Barriers – Xe Bang Hieng Total Potential Barriers in whole catchment Xe Bang Hieng = 2492 Streams = 2257 Wetlands = 193 Dams = 42
  • 8. Barrier Survey and Prioritisation Fishway Design Assessment Demonstration Fishway Construction Socio-economic Assessment
  • 9. Cone fishways – Ongoing Assessment
  • 10. Downstream fish passage through gates and spillways Undershot configuration ncreasing pressure Rapid increase in vel. & decrease pressure Turbulent shear Shear stress Overshot configuration Decrease in pressure, increased turbulent shear Increased pressure / collision
  • 11. Irrigation development helps rice farmers, but weirs and floodgates can prevent fish migration, so improving fish passage can = improved livelihoods based on both “Rice and Fish”. But can we now add hydro power to the equation (MK 15)?
  • 12. Global energy growth by sector
  • 13. Global energy growth by sector
  • 14. 2013 CPWF Project No: MK15 Optimising fish-friendly criteria for incorporation into the design of mini-hydro (low head – high flow) schemes in the Lower Mekong Basin  Lao researchers trained in to assess injury and mortality to fish through exposure to changes in barotrauma (water pressure) and shear forces (fast water flows).  Produce a fish-friendly mini-hydro power pre-feasibility study specific to Lao PDR.  Create preliminary engineering design criteria guidelines to minimise injury and mortality to downstream migrating fish.  Presented results through regional workshop to fisheries researchers, water infrastructure engineers and resource managers in the LMB.
  • 15. Pressure and Shear http://www.poweronline.com/
  • 16. Fish friendly options available? Fish friendly turbine - Voith Fish friendly SLH engine - Natel Fish friendly turbine - Voith
  • 17. Reductionist approach - learning from both USA and Australian experience
  • 18. Barotrauma Chambers at Don Dok Campus Vientiane, National University of Lao
  • 19. Rapid Pressure Change
  • 20. Analysing results of experiments
  • 21. Percent Mortality 24hr post treatment Pressure Change Data: very early results – more replication (reduce error bars) and improved handling Treatment
  • 22. Shear Lab at Don Dok Campus Vientiane, National University of Lao Lao USA
  • 23. Published estimates of shear stress in natural and man-made altered environments (reproduced from Neitzel et al, 2000).
  • 24. Silver shark (sometimes referred to as Bala shark; Balantiocheilos melanopterus ) Natural range 200 up to 2,600 (N/m2) Bulb Turbine 500 up to 5,421 (Nm2)
  • 25. Other work:  Feasibility studies on potential for low-head high-flow hydro in Lao PDR – Fieldwork completed, in drafting stage  Preliminary Engineering guidelines for fish-friendly hydro development – Drafting stage
  • 26. BUT The CPWF MK15 project is just the start of this work, it will need to be followed up with further research on the range of fish species and life stages that migrate downstream and then field assessed to ensure acceptable safe passage is achieved. Lao now has these facilities and the knowledge of how to run the experiments, so we are in a position to help develop the biological answers hydro engineers need in order to design fish-friendly low head-high volume small-scale hydro schemes capable of being retro-fitted on existing, or included in new, irrigation schemes in Loa PDR. = Rice + Fish + Power
  • 27. Thank you for your time