Geographic and Seasonal Distribution of Water Availability in the Sesan Central Highlands
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Geographic and Seasonal Distribution of Water Availability in the Sesan Central Highlands

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Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy. 2012. Presentation from Session 2: The Values of Multiple Uses

Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy. 2012. Presentation from Session 2: The Values of Multiple Uses

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Geographic and Seasonal Distribution of Water Availability in the Sesan Central Highlands Geographic and Seasonal Distribution of Water Availability in the Sesan Central Highlands Presentation Transcript

  • GEOGRAPHIC AND SEASONAL DISTRIBUTIONOF WATER AVAILABILITY IN THE SESANCENTRAL HIGHLANDSTarek Ketelsen, Mai Ky Vinh, Jorma Koponen MK2: Valuing Multiple uses of reservoir waters: WorldFish – ICEM –IFPRI – CIEM – DLOF - CEPA
  • Sesan Vietnam: land use 2005-2009 • forested areas rapidly converted into agricultural land with the expansion of industrial crops – cassava, rubber and coffee • cashew, rubber, cassava and black pepper are the fastest growing crops (growth of 8-12% p.a.) • Irrigated rice growing at 3.9%p.a. • Rainfed rice & maize shrinking at 5-7% p.a.
  • Sesan Vietnam: catchment characteristics • 3S catchments are highly productive catchments • 10% of the total Mekong Basin area but contribute 20.5% of the total flow • Strong monsoon climate => water availability is a question of timing rather than quantity • Sesan catcment:18,684km2 • Sesan Mean annual outflow: 651m3/s (20.5 billion m3/yr)
  • Purpose of the water balanceAssess:• Surface water resource availability in the Sesan Vietnam• Contribution of reservoirs (Yali) to surface water availability• Identify which areas of agricultural land could benefit from reservoir irrigation
  • Modelling methodology• VMod model (Koponen et al, 2010)• area-based distribution of hydro- meteorological impacts of climate change• Computes water balance for grid cells (5x5km)• Baseline:1981 – 2005• Can predict changes in: – Rainfall – Runoff – Flows – Infiltration – evapotranspiration
  • water balance components • Moisture budget – Surface water availability – Relationship between Precipitation precipitation and PET • Soil water availability Transpiration – Moisture stored in the surface and subsurfaceEvaporation layers Surface run-off Surface layer water availability Subsurface layer water availability Infiltration Groundwater availability
  • Sesan Vietnam: Rainfall
  • Sesan Vietnam: moisture budgetsprecip. - PET
  • Sesan Vietnam: Water availability
  • Sesan Vietnam: Soil moisture availability
  • Sesan Vietnam: “Agricultural drought”Precipitation < 0.5* PET • Districts surrounding Sesan hydropower are ‘hotspots’ for agricultural drought during the dry and transition seasons – Sathay – Ia Grai – Kon Tum – Chu Pah • Agricultural land in these areas could benefit from reservoir irrigation to: – Expand agriculture into new areas – Reduce rising demand for groundwater irrigation in the Sesan
  • Catchment water availability • Northern mountainous districts in Kon Tum are wettest (e.g. Dak Glei) • Southern districts in Gia Lai are driest (e.g. Chu Se) • Central districts of Sesan Vietnam are more prone to water stress or extreme dry periods
  • Reservoir contribution to water availability• Reservoirs regulate the seasonal availability of water increasing productivity for electricity generation• Can they also improve agricultural productivity?• Which contribution is more valuable?
  • Yali Buffer zone• Within 2km of the reservoir• Sa Thay, Kon Tum and Chu Pah districts
  • Yali buffer zone
  • Yali: inflow hydrology• Contributing catchment: 3,878km2• Mean annual flow: 262m3/s (40-950m3/s)• Annual inflow volume: 47,327 – 175,434 m3 (average: 98,724m3)
  • Yali reservoir storage• Drawdown :25m (515-490masl)• Drawdown area: 30.2km2• FSL Vol: 981.5mcm• LSL Vol: 215.5mcm• Live storage: 766mcm• Evaporation losses: ~50mcm/yr• => ~700mcm of ”productive water” Source: (Räsänen et al, 2012
  • Reservoir water productivity• ~700 mcm of productive water• => 3,600-3,800GWh• => USD ?• How much water could be used in surrounding agricultural land?• How productive would this water be compared to hydro- electric generation? Source: (Räsänen et al, 2012
  • Thank you!