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Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
Managing fish passage through large dams
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Managing fish passage through large dams

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3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy 2013. Presentation from Session 9: Managing the impacts of dams across cascades.

3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy 2013. Presentation from Session 9: Managing the impacts of dams across cascades.

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  1. people  science  environment  partners Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná MANAGING FISH PASSAGE THROUGH LARGE DAMS from Itaipu (Brazil) to Lower Sesan 2 (Cambodia) Eric BARAN, Pelle GÄTKE, Sergio MAKRAKIS, Maristela MAKRAKIS, Timo RÄSÄNEN, SARAY Samadee, Helio Martins FONTES Jr. 3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 19-21 November 2013 Contact: e.baran@cgiar.org
  2. OUTLINE Fish in the Sesan and 3S Basins Lower Sesan 2 Dam in Cambodia Fish passage options in general Fish passage options in South America: Itaipu dam A possible fish pass for Lower Sesan 2 Conclusion
  3. FISH IN THE SESAN AND 3S BASINS
  4. Biodiversity in the 3S system o 329 fish species = 42% of all Mekong species (basin area =10% of the Mekong) o 17 endemic species found nowhere else in the world o 5 endangered fish species (Red List) Fish migrations in the 3S o 89 migratory fish species belonging to 15 families. o Sesan River: at least 41 migratory species contributing 60% of the total catch
  5. Large Cyprinids esp. Bangana, Labeo Medium-sized Cyprinids esp. Scaphognathops, Mekongina, Labeo , Bangana, Cirrhinus Black species esp. Channa, Clarias Spawning in tributaries Medium-sized Cyprinids esp. Scaphognathops, Mekongina, Labeo, Bangana, Cirrhinus Large Probarbus (Spawning) Small Cyprinids esp. Henichorhynchus, Nemacheilus, Paralaubuca, Labiobarbus, Cirrhinus Small Cyprinids esp. Henichorhynchus, Paralaubuca, Labiobarbus, Cirrhinus Migration Upstream Large Pangasiids Large Pangasiids MAY JUN JUL Migrations in the 3S AUG SEP OCT NOV Downstream DEC JAN FEB MAR APR
  6. Fish consumption in the 3S Fisheries Administration 2013 study : o People in mountains and plateaus consume on average 52.3 kg of fish and other aquatic animals per person and per year o Out of this, inland fish represent 26.5 kg/person/year o Migratory species = 58% of the fish diet of “Mountains and plateaus” people
  7. LOWER SESAN 2 DAM IN CAMBODIA
  8. Srepok River Sesan River Sesan River 8
  9. View of the reservoir Spillway Height Length Installed capacity Mean annual energy Tailrace channel 45m 7,729 m 400MW 2,311.8 GWh
  10. Conclusions of the LSS 2 EIA executive summary about fisheries “Impacts on fish will be severe as many species are migratory (around 66%) and their passageway through the project area will be blocked by the dam. This will also have impacts downstream of the dam into the Mekong River and potentially also the Tonle Sap Lake” PEC and KCC 2008, Executive Summary
  11. Plans about a fish pass at Lower Sesan 2 site “Due to geographical condition and economical feasibility, no fish pass will be installed in the Sesan 2 HPP. This means that the proposed dam will totally block upstream migration of fish. Probably a fish pass of more than 15 meters high could not accommodate numerous migrating fish species of the Mekong Basin.” PEC and KCC 2008, section 3.11.
  12. FISH PASSAGE OPTIONS IN GENERAL
  13. 1) Natural bypass channels Work up to about 10m. 3) Vertical slot fish passes Work up to about 30m. 2) Pool fish passes Work up to about 10m. 4) Weir-type passes Work up to about 30m
  14. 6) Fish locks 7) Fish lifts Work up to about 30m. Work up to 6070m.
  15. FISH PASSAGE OPTIONS IN SOUTH AMERICA: ITAIPU DAM
  16. Brazil Paraguay Itaipu Dam Second largest installed capacity (14,000 MW) after the Three Gorges Dam's Largest operating dam (91.6 TWh in 2009) Length 7,919 m Height 196 m Longest and highest fish passage in the world
  17. Fish passage built in 2002, 20 years after the dam. 10 km long 120 m high 1 natural channel, 4 fish ladders, 4 artificial lakes for fish to rest.
  18. Fish pass opening 730m long fish ladder; lake 4 1.6 km long fish ladder; lake 3 Lake 2 Lake 1; 521m long fish ladder 200m long fish ladder 6.8 km long river
  19. Slope: 1.3% mean slope Water current: 1.4 m.s-1 mean flow velocity Discharge: 10 to 12 m3.s-1 year round 116 fish species recorded in the fish pass; biomass dominated by a few excellent swimmers
  20. A POSSIBLE FISH PASS FOR LOWER SESAN 2 DAM
  21. C2 C1 A B
  22. Path B would be 13 km long. It would start 9.8 km downstream and would reach the reservoir about 5.5 km away from the spillway. The average slope would be 0.15%, i.e. quite passable for most species. that path would require digging a 5.5 km long canal connecting two natural streams, between altitudes of 99 and 90 meters.
  23. Flow modeling shows that: - the water consumed by the fish pass would reduce water availability at power plant by 0.6% (best case scenario) to 1.2 % (worst case scenario) maximum - the water consumed by the fish pass would reduce power production by 0.6% (best case scenario) to 1.1 % (worst case scenario) maximum.
  24. CONCLUSIONS
  25. o Fish resources are abundant in the 3S system and important to Cambodian people o The Lower Sesan 2 project has hastily dismissed fish passage mitigation options o New options for fish passage at high dams can be learnt from South America o A fish pass using natural streams could allow connecting the reservoir to the downstream river without modifying the dam design o The pass would consume at most 1.2% of the reservoir water Such potential calls for a detailed feasibility study

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