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Hydro Power Dams for Water, Food and Energy
 

Hydro Power Dams for Water, Food and Energy

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Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy. 2012. Presentation from Session 1: Smarting Small: Hydropower Dams for Water, Food and Energy

Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy. 2012. Presentation from Session 1: Smarting Small: Hydropower Dams for Water, Food and Energy

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    Hydro Power Dams for Water, Food and Energy Hydro Power Dams for Water, Food and Energy Presentation Transcript

    • HYDROPOWER DAMS FOR WATER, FOOD AND ENERGY Dr. Tran Duc Toan Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute
    • Yali Hydropower and main parametersYali hydropower has built since 1993-2002 Installed capacity: 720 MW , 4 turbines Area of basin: 744.500 ha Water storage capacity: 8515 cubic meter Water effective level: 515 m of altitude Ware dead level: 490 m of altitude Main objective is electricity generation to national grid system
    • Hydropower and Resettlement ContextYali hydropower & Resettlement impacts Table1: Affected by Yali Hydropower Local livelihood also affected by HP Items Unit Amount 1.Resettled people Individual 5,381 2.Resettled households HH 1,149 3. Resettlement village Village 9 4. Inundated land ha 6,480 5. Farming land ha 1,933 6. Wet-rice crop field ha 871 7. Other crops ha 1,100 8. Forest land ha 3,492 Sources: Report on Resettlement of Yali hydropower project. Vietnam, 2001
    • Rapid changes in farmer’s livelihoodRapid changed in living conditions It was 1149 HH has resettled & compensation house have been builtLand loss due to water in reservoir raise up Resettlement house by HP 871 ha of paddy land and 1.100 ha of other crops have been inundated No longer land for cultivation , livestock What happen to livelihood of farmer ? Cultivated land has been inundated
    • Rapid changes in farming system Broad Scale Survey defined Cropping pattern massively change of after resettlement Upland crops such as hill rice, maize and cassava are become main crops Cassava has been dominated crop in the upland area since 2005 Farmer’s livelihood more depended on upland crops Industrial crops such as rubber, coffee, gluticea have developed since 2005 Upland has uncontrolled and massively explored for food crop, industrial crops
    • Major challenges for Local livelihood after resettlement Paddy land is scarcity due to land loss Irrigation has destroyed , water shortage for agriculture High pressure of population, immigration Upland degradation trend to be extended Land selling between Ethnic – Kinh or Outsiders The rural poor & food insecurity
    • Potential for enhancing local livelihood Semi-flood land area is available for food security Soil is alluvial with high fertile It is suitable for many different crops Government law support for local people Yali HP also support for local people Semi-flood land area has exploited for agriculture but inefficiencyMajor constraints Water in reservoir rise up when Yali HP stores water for electricity generation Earlier harvesting in semi-flood land area lead to poor yield
    • Water behavior of Yali reservoirTable: Semi-flood land exposed in reservoirAltitude (m) Months 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12510-512 m ---- //////////////////////////////////////////////////// --------------------- Duration of exposed land 210 days Water submerged Water level in January512-514 m ---- ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// ----------------- Duration of exposed land 240 days Water submerged514- 515 m ---- ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// ---------- Duration of exposed land 270 days Water submergedCropping season must be within 210-270 days Water level after Feb
    • Yali Reservoir and Semi-flood land area Possibility of agriculture in semi-flood land areaTable: Semi-flood land area in Yali reservoirCommunes Semi-flood land area/ Water level (m) Total (ha) 490-495 495-500 500-505 505-510 510-515Sa Binh 3.6 109.0 31.8 34.5 211.3 390.1Yali 28.4 261.3 118.9 107.1 414.7 930.5Ya xier 2.9 6.1 147.3 156.2Ya Tang 20.7 125.2 88.2 91.2 194.1 519.4Total 52.7 495.5 241.8 238.8 967.4 1996.2 Figure: Map of Yali reservoir (4 communes) Agriculture only use above 505 m of altitude
    • Pilot trial in semi-flood land area Shorten cassava variety KM98-7 has tested in semi-flood area Growth period: 7-10 month = 210-300 days Faster growing KM98-7KM98-7 & KM 94 in semi-flood land area KM98-7 in semi-flood land area
    • Pilot trial in semi-flood land area Training for farmer on cultivation techniques - Introduce new cassava variety - Cultivation techniques - Feedback from local people? Field monitoring in pilot trial
    • Pilot trial & Results Cassava yield before water in reservoir raise upTube of cassava after 3 months Table: Cassava yield at harvesting time Varieties Duration Yield Starch (days) (ton/ha) content KM98-7 230 30,0-33,0 26 % ** KM94 230 19,0-21,0 21% KM140 230 24,0-26,0 22%
    • Pilot trial and Beneficiaries First year of testing & Who are beneficiaries Leader of commune and Kinh people must pioneer The result of pilot trial is an evidence to convince ethnic minority to involve in Training courses and field visit has adverted for MK1 activities in Yali reservoir through Shorten Cassava KM97-8 Local staff has recognized which crops varieties can use in semi-flood land area
    • Less learn from pilot trial of MK1Key points to achieve a successful of MK1 in Vietnam Any livelihood activities must suitable with local condition (bio-physical and social context) Livelihood activities must fit with local strategies The market demand should take consideration Enhancing the role of local government /local staff in pilot trial Yali hydropower must engage with local government
    • Future Perspective of MK1 Continuously extending KM98-7 in semi-food land area for improvement of local livelihood Income diversify for farmer in semi-flood land area by other shorten crop varieties need to identify for further local livelihood improvement Equity of beneficiaries , especially ethnic minority people Poor farmer households and Resettlement people will be focused
    • MK1 Project