Environmental solutions in hydropower machines

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By Jurgen Schuol, Jason Foust and Daniel Christ …

By Jurgen Schuol, Jason Foust and Daniel Christ

Presented at the Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
December 7-9, 2011
Session 2a: Water engineering

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  • 1. Environmental solutions in hydro power machines Jürgen Schuol, Jason Foust, Daniel Christ Phnom Penh, 2011-12-07
  • 2. Voith Group and Voith Hydro Group Division
      • Voith: family-owned from its onset in 1867
        • Four divisions: Hydro, Paper, Turbo, and Industrial Services
        • Worldwide presence for our customers (> 50 countries)
        • FY 2009/10: Sales 5,191 Mio. €, Employees 39,132
      • Voith Hydro: products and services of large and small hydro plants - turbines, generators, pumps and automation
    Itaipu (Brazil) Three Gorges, San Xia (China) Kops II (Austria) Revelstoke (USA)
  • 3. Hydro Power Successes in Sustainability
    • We support the development of hydro power with a keen sense of responsibility, environmentally and socially.
    • Example: Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol
      • Performance assessment tool
      • to produce a sustainability profile
      • for all types of hydro power projects
      • in four major life cycle stages
    http://www.hydrosustainability.org/
  • 4. Sustainability Topics
  • 5. Fish Friendly Turbines Bonneville Dam (USA)
  • 6. Overview of damage mechanisms for fish
    • Third option (after spilling and fish collection) is to allow fish to pass through turbines.
  • 7. Fish Passage Development
    • In the early 1990’s, the US Department of Energy launched the Advanced Hydro Turbine System (AHTS) program. The program was subdivided into two main areas of focus:
    • - larger axial flow applications
    • - smaller radial flow applications
    Conventional Radial Conventional Axial
  • 8. Reference Minimum Gap Runner (MGR): e.g. Bonneville – USA
    • The project includes replacement Kaplan turbines designed to enhance fish survival.
    MGR Design Existing Design
  • 9.
    • Turbine runner
      • Larger to meet fish passage criteria (shear, min pressure, pressure change rates)
      • Slower rotational speed and reduced number of turbine blades
      • 6” diameter nose thickness
      • Distributor
      • Optimized stay vane to wicket gate alignment to minimize gap
      • Reduced number of stay vanes and wicket gates to minimize strike
    Alden Turbine Development
      • Expected fish survival > 98%
    ~13 mm gap
  • 10. Fish Survivability
      • Graph shows survivability considering blade strike for an ~20 cm fish
      • Survivability rates assume all turbines can meet secondary fish survivability criteria (minimum pressures, pressure change rate, shear)
    Power, [MW] Head, [m]
  • 11. Auto-Venting Turbines Conowingo Dam (USA)
  • 12. Turbine Aeration for Water Quality Enhancement: Motivation
      • Warmer temperatures can cause thermal stratification
      • Reservoir separates into layers, preventing natural mixing
      • Low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in turbine discharges can harm fish and other aquatic life
  • 13. Overview of Aeration Techniques: Auto-Venting Turbines (AVT)
    • In order to improve tailrace dissolved oxygen levels, air or oxygen gas can be introduced into the water passing through turbine.
    • 3 primary AVT methods:
      • Central aeration (blue) – air injected through deflector
      • Peripheral (yellow) – air injected through continuous slot in discharge ring
      • Distributed aeration (green) – air injected through hollow blade
  • 14. Turbine Aeration for Water Quality Enhancement: Conclusions
    • Distributed aeration is most effective for 0.8 ≤ Q/Qopt ≤ 1.2
      • largest potential for air flow and DO uptake
      • lowest impact on turbine efficiency
    • If distributed not available, peripheral next alternative
      • for Q/Qopt ≥ 0.8, air flows, DO uptakes and efficiency impacts more favorable than central
    • Central aeration third choice
      • effective for Q/Qopt < 0.8
    • AVT combinations can be used to maximize uptake while minimizing performance impacts
  • 15. Protective Coating Systems
  • 16. In hydro power plants located on rivers originating from mountainous regions (e.g. Mekong), hydro-abrasive erosion is a known phenomenon, but often lack of awareness!
  • 17. Hydro-abrasive Erosion: Risks and Solutions
    • Hydro-abrasive erosion increases the economical risk of a hydro power project due to:
      • Maintenance and repairs at short intervals
      • Loss of efficiency
      • Loss of productive time
      • Different approaches for sediment management:
      • Civil works (e.g. desilting chambers, flushing facilities)
      • Constructive means (e.g. type of machine, speed, hydraulic layout)
      • Protective coatings
  • 18. Protective coatings
      • Hard Coating
      • Carbides in a metallic matrix (WC + Co/Cr)
      • Application by HVOF process
    Diaturb 532 Softurb 80
      • Soft Coating
      • Polyurethane based
      • Application by painting or spraying
  • 19. Voith Hydro Coating Systems Combined Approach
    • Partial hard coating
    Diaturb 532 (Hard coating) Softurb 80 (Soft coating)
    • Wearing rings (F)
    • Facing plates (F, K)
    • Guide vane end sides (F, K)
    • Guide vane closing edges (F, K)
    • Pelton equipment
    • Narrow Francis water passages
    • Coatings applied on site
    • Runners (F, K)
    • Guide vanes (F, K)
    • Other (e.g. shaft )
    F ... Francis K ... Kaplan Combination Soft coating on top
  • 20. Summary
  • 21. Possible Sustainability Profile - without and with Voith Hydro environmental solutions Level 3: basic good practice Level 5: proven best-practice
  • 22. Contact: Dr. Jürgen Schuol Manager Environmental Engineering Voith Hydro Holding GmbH & Co. KG Tel. +49 7321 37 9214 [email_address]
  • 23.