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Assessing livelihood piloting experiences associated with hydropower development
 

Assessing livelihood piloting experiences associated with hydropower development

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3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy. Presentation from Session 15:

3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy. Presentation from Session 15:

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  • Water for energy and livelihoods are closely interrelated. Hydropower development in particular has induced changes to local livelihoods in project areas in various ways. This presentation discusses briefly the livelihood piloting experiences associated with hydropower development drawing on case studies in the three countries of the Lower Mekong Basin: Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. Data is drawn mainly from the CPWF-Mekong project 1 on optimizing reservoir management for livelihoods.
  • Sites covered – Cambodia, Laos PDR and Vietnam (a combination of planned dam sites and those that are already operationalised).The Yali Falls Dam is the second largest dam in Vietnam, located in Gia Lai and Kon Tum provinces on the KrongPoko, a tributary of the Se San River, in the Central Highlands of Viet Nam, about 70 kilometres upstream of the Cambodian border. The 69 metre-high dam was begun in 1993 and sealed in 1996, with the 64.5 km2 reservoir filled by 1998. It aims to generate 720 MW of hydropower.The Theun-Hinboun Expansion Project (THXP) involves a 70m high upstream dam and reservoir on the Nam Gnouang River and a new 60MW power station at the Nam Gnouang dam, 230MW expansion of the existing THPC capacity, and 150 km of 115kV and 230kV transmission lines.The THXP is scheduled to be completed in 2012 with all available electricity output from the downstream power plant (total of 440MW) will be sold to EGAT pursuant to an amended Power Purchase Agreement while the electricity from the upstream powerhouse will be sold exclusively to EdL.Lower Se San 2 Dam is a proposed hydroelectric dam on the Se San River in Se San District, Stung Treng Province, Northeastern Cambodia.
  • Broad scale and livelihood surveys conducted under MK1 project showed that the drawdown area is highly productive and crucialto the livelihood of local farmers, but is a risky environment for cassava cultivation due to the short duration of land exposure (7-8months) and the possibility of a sudden flood occurring at the end of the crop cycle.

Assessing livelihood piloting experiences associated with hydropower development Assessing livelihood piloting experiences associated with hydropower development Presentation Transcript

  • Assessing livelihood piloting experiences associated with hydropower development: key outcomes and broad lessons learned Presenter: Olivier Joffre Contributors: Olivier Joffre, Sonali Senaratna Sellamuttu, Tran Duc Toan, Nguyen Duy Phuong, Bounthanom Bouahom, Anousith Keophoxay, Mith Samonn, Sovannara Khean, Mak Soeun, Nireka Weeratunge Starkloff and Jharendu Pant 21 November 2013 Hanoi CPWF Forum
  • Take Home Messages   In case of newly introduced technology, communities will require more than a one year trial to continue and adopt the technology  2 Modified environment provide also new opportunities like : drawdown area, irrigation, integration of aquaculture A combination of having good relations with the private sector or government authorities and credible research results can lead to gaining support for the piloting of livelihood-enhancement activities in relation to sustainable hydropower development.
  • Outline of Presentation Study Sites  Key Finding of Broad scale survey  Vietnam Pilot – use of drawdown area of Yali reservoir  Lao PDR Pilot – Integrated rice-fish culture in resettled community  Cambodia Pilot – Integrated Farming System Approach  Conclusion  3
  • Sites CPWF Mekong Project are focusing on  Theun Hinboun Expansion, Lao PDR  Yali, Vietnam  Lower Se San 2, Cambodia
  • Learning from the broad scale and household level surveys     5 Site specific livelihood strategies with community (i) already resettled, (ii) in the process and (iii) not yet resettled Wide spectrum of situation with communities dependent on natural resources in Lao PDR and Cambodia and more market oriented livelihood in Vietnam Objectives of pilots: diversified livelihood activities using the new environmental condition created by the hydropower development Pilots implemented with local authorities in Cambodia and Vietnam and Hydropower company in Lao PDR
  • Vietnam  Drawdown area of Yali reservoir is used by farmer to grow cassava, but:   6 risk of flooding is high at the end of the crop duration on land exposure is too short to achieve maximum yield with the commonly used variety
  • Vietnam livelihood pilot – Key outcomes   7 Introduction of a new short term variety (KM98-7)  2012: 3 farmers – 1.5 ha – 1 commune  2013: 36 farmers – 20 ha – 2 communes Increase yield and starch content  32 tons/ha vs 21 tons/ha  26% starch vs 21% starch  Increased net benefit over $350 USD/ha to $850 USD/ha
  • Vietnam livelihood pilot – Lessons learned  Driver of success   Involvement of local extension services  8 Development of communication channels with the Company – Water level calendar Development of seedling replication system
  • Lao PDR  Context    Pilots- Rice fish Culture   9 Development of Irrigation in resettlement site, flooded in rainy season Depletion of fisheries resources caused by hydropower development Use the access to water for integrated rice-fish culture Expend the productivity of flooded rice fields during the rainy season
  • Lao livelihood pilot – key outcomes  15 farmers tested the pilot      10 Increase productivity of rice fields : fish yield : 317 kg/ha Improve protein supply for households Reduce time spent fishing Synergy with other livelihood activity: Homestead aquaculture pond Adoption of the technology by most of the farmers and development of more aquaculture
  • Lao livelihood pilot – Lessons learned  Diversification of livelihood options with Integrated ricefish  Support of THPC Company – funding the pilots and supported the feasibility study  11 Cooperation between NAFRI, THPC and CPWF to develop pilots for livelihood diversification
  • Cambodia    12 Population not yet resettled and location of resettlement, type and nature of compensation is unknown Fisheries and NTFP are important to local livelihood and will be affected by hydropower development DAE design Integrated Farming System (IFS) that combined different livelihood activities to diversify income generation and food supply
  • Cambodia livelihood pilot – key outcomes   13 Small scale aquaculture, use of hen house for chicken and screening technology for vegetable production was found successful by local communities  Reduce disease outbreak for chicken;  Income diversification with vegetable production dry season and fish production  Support food security with supply of fish and vegetable Adoption and modification of the technology by local farmers
  • Cambodia livelihood pilot – Lessons learned   14 Learning for the future – DAE and Provincial Extension service will be involved in future resettlement activities Technology transfer is limited due to lack of investment capacity and lack of adequate land
  • Overall Conclusions   Capacity building of local staff took place as a result of the livelihood pilots.  15 Modified environment provide also new opportunities (drawdown area, irrigation...) A combination of having good relations with the private sector or government authorities and credible research results can lead to gaining support for the piloting of livelihood-enhancement activities in relation to sustainable hydropower development.
  • Overall Conclusions   While some technology may be easily transferable, others may require more monitoring and training from extension services and other groups  16 In case of newly introduce technology, communities will require more than a one year trial to continue and adopt the technology Only certain options were trialed and tested under Mk1 (due to budget/time constraints) – other options could also have been tested