8. water, faming governance and adaptation to climate change for dike compartments. kien van nguyen
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8. water, faming governance and adaptation to climate change for dike compartments. kien van nguyen

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3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy. Presentation from Sessions 4 & 6: M-POWER Solutions for Mekong Region Governance

3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy. Presentation from Sessions 4 & 6: M-POWER Solutions for Mekong Region Governance

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8. water, faming governance and adaptation to climate change for dike compartments. kien van nguyen 8. water, faming governance and adaptation to climate change for dike compartments. kien van nguyen Presentation Transcript

  • Water, faming governance and adaptation to climate change for “dike compartments”: a case study in An Giang province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam Dr. Nguyen Van Kien (MK7) Acting Director – Research Centre for Rural Development An Giang University Email: kienanu@gmail.com CPWF Water and Food Forum Hanoi 19-21 November 2013
  • Outline of the presentation Challenges Water Governance? Farming Opportunities Floods/dikes
  • Dikes are rapid developing across the flood prone areas of the delta since 1998 Traditional farming 3
  • Dikes are rapid developing across the flood prone areas of the delta since 1998 Intensive rice farming – 3 crops Traditional farming: One floating rice – vegetables during dry season 4
  • Research questions • What are the existing institutional arrangements for governance of water and farming activities inside the “dike compartments” in the flood prone provinces of the MRD? • How do farmers make decision on selection of irrigation and farming activities inside the “dike compartments” in the flood prone provinces of the MRD? • What are the challenges and opportunities of the existing water and farming governance inside the “dike compartments” in the flood prone provinces of the MRD? • What are the strategies for sustainable use of water and adapting to climate change inside the “dike compartments” in the flood prone provinces of the MRD?
  • Methods- Study Site Selection
  • Methods • In depth interview at the province, district and commune levels (10 interviews) • Focus Group Discussion: 10 FGDs at two communes • Synthesize the results from in depth interview and FGDs • Collected 68 questionnaires (structured interviews)
  • Key findings
  • Comparison of water and farming governance before and after dike installment Before dikes After dikes • Water/irrigation was managed by individual base • Collective actions are applied for making decision in the choices of water/irrigation services/ farming calendar/ practice • Difficult to manage water/irrigation due to the floodwater • Easier to manage water/ irrigation with the support of pump machines • Government control and operate the irrigation services via old agricultural cooperative forms •Diversity of irrigation water service providers involve in water management • Farmers manage their farm calendar individually • Farming calendar is operated in a collective way • Less diversity of farming activity • More diversity of farming activity
  • Comparison of existing and new institutional arrangement Existing institution/dikes New institution (CMB)/dikes •Top – down approach in irrigation management • Decentralizing water management •Enhancing the role of communitybased organization (Compartment Management Board) • Decentralize water/irrigation/dikes management up to commune level • Decentralize management of sluices, small ditch and dikes into communitybased organization • Farmers play a key role in water and farming management at compartment level • Environmental costs associated with dikes – soil degradation and water pollution • Less environmental impacts on soil, water
  • Farm diversity after dikes were built Activities Winter-spring rice crop (ha) 2000 1,806.00 2001 1,775.00 Summerautumn rice crop (ha) 1,789.00 1,768.00 Autumnsummer rice crop (ha) 0.00 Fish cages (number) Water buffaloes (number) Cows (number) Pig (number) 2003 2004 1,743.00 2005 2006 1,743.00 2007 1,736.00 1,743.00 1,743.00 1,736.00 0.00 305.00 887.00 550.00 4.00 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.00 10.00 7.00 8.00 23.00 23.00 17.00 2.00 36.00 9.00 12.00 26.00 48.00 48.00 1,362.00 1,324.00 1,564.00 2,101.00 1,218.00 2,741.00 1,204.00
  • Flood management - challenges Existing institution/dikes New institution (CMB)/dike • Difficult for flood management to implement “8 crops for three years) • Easier for flood management to implement the “8 crops for three years) – CMB is very active for enforcement of land use planning • • Dike was built in 1998, but did not open the gate for flooding Dike was built in 2007, but strictly enforce the rule of flood management “8 crops per three years”
  • Dealing with conflicts in a overlapping compartment – new challanges Old/existing system do not have CMB to deal with water conflict in a overlapping compartment In a new institutional arrangement, CMB is active to manage overlapping compartment
  • Conclusions • Dikes provide more opportunities for diversity of farming; • However, dikes may create environmental costs • The existing institutional arrangement does not provide incentives for effective irrigation management; • The new institutional arrangement allows rooms for participation and create flexibility for flood management; • The existing institutional arrangement should be reformed, decentralize into community as the role of CMB Thanks!