4. local participation in agricultural water management in the red river delta


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3rd Mekong Forum on Water, Food & Energy. Presentation from Sessions 4 & 6: M-POWER Solutions for Mekong Region Governance

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4. local participation in agricultural water management in the red river delta

  2. 2. 1. Justification of the research  Improved AWM is very important in RRD (50% of labor force, 70% of pop. living in rural, main income from agri...)  Inefficiencies in AWM in RRD (uneven distribution of water across system and farm HHs, inappropriate timing, loss of water…)  Local participation in AWM is recently seen as a crucial prerequisite for the conservation and sustainable use of scarce water resources; as a key driver of increased efficiency in AWM (N., and A. Neef, 2004; Hetland, 2008).  Few researches on I&D system management, but nearly no research on local participation in AWM in RRD of Vietnam.
  3. 3. 2. Research Question? • What is current institutional arrangement for AWM in RRD of Vietnam? • How or in which ways do local people currently participate in AWM in RRD? • What factors do affect to the local participation in AWM in RRD? • What should be done to enhance the relevant local participation for better AWM and better efficient use of AWM in RRD?
  4. 4. 3. Research methodology 3.1. Analytical Framework Local Participants: - Farmers - Communities - I&D team - Local Authority Activities to participate: Local participation in AWM - In formulating I&D plan - In leading water - in controlling water - in improving canal system - in paying I&D service Factors affecting on participation in AWM - Farmers’ awareness - Economic condition of farm household - Institutions & arrangements - Geographical conditions Participation levels or how: - Passive - Giving information - Consultative - Giving material and labor - Functional participation Implications for enhancing the local participation in AWM
  5. 5. 3. Research Methodology   Site selection: Que Vo district Secondary data Data on agri.land, crop system, situation of I&D system (local canals, pumping stations, dykes), organizational system of AWM, its functions or responsibilities… :gathered from DARD, Extension Service Center, I&D Company.  Primary data - Survey of 90 farm households in 3 selected communes using questionnaires: HH profile, crop production in HH, participation of HH in AWM, implication for better AWM through HH participation. - Focus group discussion:  With HH and local staff, I&D team staff Analysis Procedures: Descriptive statistics, Comparative Analysis
  6. 6. 4.Result and Discussion 4.1. Institutional Arrangement in AWM in Que Vo district 4.2. Local participation in AWM in Que Vo district 4.3. Factors affecting the local participation in AWM 4.4. Suggestions for enhancing local participation and better AWM
  7. 7. 4.1. Institutional Arrangement in AWM in Que Vo district a. I&D system in QV + 25 Pumping stations in QV + For level of canals: 1-4 (level 1 is big and level 4 is small canal) + 2 types of canals by purpose: irrigation and drainage - Irrigation: 140 km of canal 1&2 (57km solid), 313 km of canal 3&4 (60km solid) - Drainage: 96km of canal 1&2; 178km of canal 3&4 (37.5 km solid) Table 4.3: Areas to be well irrigated and drained in 2011 and 2012 in Que Vo (ha) Crop season 2011 2012 Share in 2012 (%) 1. Spring season 6,987 7,249 88.9 2. Autumn season 6,913 6,996 85.8 3. Winter season 2,371 2,174 53.4%
  8. 8. 4.1. Institutional Arrangement in AWM… - QVIDE (with 25 stations) pumps the water from rivers to canal level 1-2 - I&D teams manage the water in canal 34 (open/close water gate to get water from canal 1or 2). - Farm HH lead the water to their fields (open gate or pump); maintain the field bank to keep water - QVIDE sign I&D contract with coops (represent for farm HHs)
  9. 9. 4.2. Local participation in AWM 4.2.1. In formulating irrigation plan - Preliminary plan (before crop): based on crop calendar proposed by QV DARD: No of time of water pumping, timing and duration (no. of days) of each time during crop season - Adjusted plan (during crop season): on request of agri.coops (based on I&D team and HHs). - Farmer participation: (1) require water provision through I&D team/cooperative. (2) Require better plan during biannual meeting
  10. 10. 4.2.1. In formulating irrigation plan
  11. 11. 4.2.2. In leading/lifting water to the fields 1. Information on timing of water pumping: QVIDE  coops/ I&D team  farm HH 2. I&D team will be ready for opening/closing water gate 3. Farm HH will lead the water to their fields by opening the field bank. In some cases, farmer have to lift water to the field (by pump or bucket) when water could not flow by itself
  12. 12. 4.2.2. In keeping water in the fields Farmers have responsibility to keep water in the fields: - Improve the earth-bank to ensure the water could not leak out - Create the border-edge between plots to keep water in their own fields - Often visit their fields to know if the water in the fields is fine
  13. 13. 4.2.3. In maintaining/upgrading canals - QV District People Committee: annually organize Irrigation month (15 Nov – 15 Dec when dried season) for (1) cleaning out the canal; (2) improving the canal banks; and (3) deepening the canal-bed where exists the sediment. - QVIDE and QV-DARD set up the plan for upgrading canal level 1&2 - Agri. Coop set up the plan for upgrading canal level 3&4.
  14. 14. 4.2.4. In maintaining/upgrading canals Result in the district in 2012: - Around 100 thousand working days of local people be mobilized during Irrigation Months - 45.750 m3 of mud was taken out from the canal bed - Water hyacinth and lotus were cleared out from 71 thousand m2 in the canals
  15. 15. 4.2.5. Local contribution for irrigation services - The contribution is to pay for I&D team member salary - Average salary for one member is 1 ton of paddy per crop
  16. 16. Summary of the local participation in AWM Activities Farmers I&D team Coop. Commune 1. Formulating preliminary plan + + + ++ 2. Adjusting the irrigation plan ++ +++ +++ + 3. Leading/lifting water to fields +++ + + + 4. Keeping water in fields +++ + + + 5. Maintaining/upgrading canals +++ ++ +++ + ++ + + +++ +++ + 6. Payment for I&D service 7. Formulating the I&D team Level of active: (+++++) very active; (+) little active
  17. 17. 4.3. Factors affecting local participation in AWM  Awareness of the local people on AWM • Exemption for irrigation fee since 2008: several farmers think it is not necessary to save water because water will be freely provided when needed  less participation in keeping water in the fields.  Socio-economic condition of the farm households • farmers with main income from crop participated more actively  Topography and location of crop plots • Field with high topography need more participation  Organizational structure and mechanism of mobilizing local participation • Keep organizing Irrigation month; • Contributing money if HH could not participate in
  18. 18. 4.4. Recommendation for better local participation in AWM  Raising farmers’ awareness of agri-water saving •  Organizing the training course for I&D team member •  each HH should be responsible for maintaining the canal section that attached to the field of that HH: Clear the grasses; take out water hyacinth, upgrade canal banks; take out mud; Encourage farmers to participate more in upgrading I&D infrastructure • •  When to open/close water gates to save water; which canal should be maintained/ upgraded… Assigning the canal maintenance to farm HHs •  Water shortage situation; farmers’ responsibility in water saving; and way to save agri.water. Keep organizing Irrigation month; Require some contribution if HH do not participate in More consultations in formulating the irrigation plan • With cooperative staff, I&D team
  19. 19. Thanks for your attention!