The CGIAR Research Program on
Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE)
Led by IWMI
The challenges facing our global food
production systems
Food security . . . Exploitation of resources . . .
The challenges
change . . . climatic, demographic, economic
We have exceeded three of the nine Planetary
boundaries – danger of greater risks and
uncertainty emerging
Agriculture is ...
How do we transform agriculture to meet
human prosperity and global sustainability?
The Challenge:
We need to increase pro...
How do we transform agriculture to meet
human prosperity and global sustainability?
How will this be achieved?
Through a ‘...
Benefit sharing mechanisms in the Andes
Fuquene, Colombia
S
Annual net income:
US$ 2,183/ha
Annual net income:
US$ 1,870/h...
Another example here ?
• From rainfed SRP (termites, goats, or ?)
• (See next slide the goats example that
could refer bac...
A virtuous circle that triggers change to
a more resilient state
S
SRecurrent droughts,
increasing climate
variability, po...
Our vision:
A world in which agriculture thrives within
vibrant ecosystems, where communities
have higher incomes, improve...
The Game Changers for Sub-Saharan
Africa……..
• What if smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa
were able to grow crops a...
4. Variability
management
3. Addressing
degradation
1. Eastern
Gangetic Plains
2. Business
models
. . . with targeted interventions in 6 - 7 focal regions.
Integrated Examples of WLE work in
Africa
What if we could prevent degradation
and restore degraded lands?
Now is an exciting
time for renewed
coordinated efforts
towards a ‘land
degradation neutral
(or better!) world’
More than ...
1. Advances in research
Social Science
CIRAD
IWMI, CPWF, CIAT, WRI
Inclusion of the people’s voice
within the scientific r...
1. Advances in research
Soil Science RS/GIS
CIAT, ICRAF, CU, ISRIC, Purdue, FAO-
GSP, countries in sub-Saharan Africa
and ...
1. Advances in research
Ecosystem Services
Trade-off Analysis
Environmental Economics
IFPRI, Bioversity, CIAT, IWMI, CPWF,...
2. Alignment of global initiatives
• Rio+20 ‘The future we want’ Land Degradation Neutral’
• UN Sustainable Development Go...
Study Landscapes in Focal Regions
+/-10 Study
Landscapes Tanzania,
Malawi, Kenya, Ethiopia,
Ghana, Burkina Faso, Niger,
La...
Partnership for Outcomes
LANDSCAPE
NATIONAL
REGIONAL
GLOBAL
DELIVER RESEARCH OUTCOMES – impact multiplies through partners...
Gender, Poverty and
Institutions
How?
Content and structure
• Equity triangle
• Gender integration in SRPs
and gender specific
Architecture:
– Embedded: no...
What?
Towards:
• More equitable access to water, land and ecosystems services.
• Improved decision making - inclusion in r...
Ecosystem Services and
Resilience
Ecosystem Conservation as
a result of
poverty alleviation
Ecosystem Conservation as
means to
poverty alleviation
Principles
• People are fundamental
• Human and Natural systems are tightly coupled.
• Ecological processes in the portfol...
0
20
40
60
80
100
1-Oct-80
1-Nov-80
1-Dec-80
1-Jan-81
1-Feb-81
1-Mar-81
1-Apr-81
1-May-81
1-Jun-81
1-Jul-81
1-Aug-81
1-Sep...
Ecosystem Services by
whom and for whom?
Rainfall
less than 900 mmyr-1
Greater
than 900 mmyr-1
F. Kizito (CIAT)
Thank you!
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The CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) Led by IWM

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Presented at the Africa Agriculture Science week in Accra, Ghana on July 17th 2013, during CPWF's side event ‘Engagement platforms for food and water security: opportunities to harness innovation to improve livelihoods and resilience in Africa’

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  • It is clear from a global perspective that growth along current trajectories using today’s technologies is bound to fail. It would exceed planetary boundaries that ensure stability in our food production systems and lead to environmental degradation that will stop growth and even threaten major reversals of living standards through pollution, deforestation, water scarcity, famines, floods, displacement, and collapsing agricultural productivity.
  • Ten WLE target basins and regions are: the Andes, Limpopo, Zambezi, Volta, Niger, Nile, Indus and Ganges, Mekong, Amu Darya and Syr Darya, and Tigris and Euphrates.As the map above shows, current WLE investments are in some of the poorest regions of the world where there are pressing water-related problems. For instance, it works in sub-Saharan Africa where there are high levels of food insecurity and rainfall variability. Many of its activities in Southeast Asia focus on addressing water, food and energy-related issues, where hydropower needs to be balanced with other development needs such as agriculture and fisheries.
  • Business opportunities for resource recovery and reuseSafe wastewater and excreta reuse
  • Complex problems that shift and change over scale and time, solutions requires people to changetheir mind-sets and behavior , and as such are social and political, many create problems elsewhere require collective action
  • CGIAR projects and programs are a major vehicle through which these initiatives can land on the ground….
  • Entry points, issues and size of landscape can differSoil health, nutrient mismanagementEco-efficient intensificationEnvironment/ productivity tradeoffsSiltation and water qualityManaging biodiversityCo-managing landscapesUpstream/downstream tradeoffs
  • Ecosystems modify river flows: affecting the rates of transpiration and evaporation influencing how water is routed and stored in a basinSome ecosystems act like natural reservoirs and regulate flows: decrease wet season flows increase dry season flows This work is now being further developed through WLE and another UNEP project in the Volta and the Mekong.    For many ecosystems there is little quantitative information on the extent to which they modify flows.This makes it difficult to incorporate natural flow regulation in planning and management of water resources. This Project: Evaluated how different ecosystems (wetlands, floodplains and forests) affect flow in the Zambezi Basin Developed a method whereby natural flow regulating impacts can be quantified and incorporated in decision-making This Project: Evaluated how different ecosystems (wetlands, floodplains and forests) affect flow in the Zambezi Basin Developed a method whereby natural flow regulating impacts can be quantified and incorporated in decision-making
  • The CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) Led by IWM

    1. 1. The CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) Led by IWMI
    2. 2. The challenges facing our global food production systems Food security . . . Exploitation of resources . . .
    3. 3. The challenges change . . . climatic, demographic, economic
    4. 4. We have exceeded three of the nine Planetary boundaries – danger of greater risks and uncertainty emerging Agriculture is the dominant contributing factor and the solution
    5. 5. How do we transform agriculture to meet human prosperity and global sustainability? The Challenge: We need to increase productivity in a sustainable manner that ensures the provision of ecosystems services with limited if any further lateral expansion of lands under crops and pastures. This will ensure that we stay within the safe operating space.
    6. 6. How do we transform agriculture to meet human prosperity and global sustainability? How will this be achieved? Through a ‘paradigm shift’ that recognises that agricultural production systems are “a wholly owned subsidiary of the ecosystems and natural capital” they are dependent upon
    7. 7. Benefit sharing mechanisms in the Andes Fuquene, Colombia S Annual net income: US$ 2,183/ha Annual net income: US$ 1,870/ha Conservation agriculture and paramo restoration supported by revolving fund Revolving fund credit: +180 farmers /year Potato cropping, grazing pressure, degradation of paramo
    8. 8. Another example here ? • From rainfed SRP (termites, goats, or ?) • (See next slide the goats example that could refer back to our CPWF side event)
    9. 9. A virtuous circle that triggers change to a more resilient state S SRecurrent droughts, increasing climate variability, poor connection to markets Local markets Producers self-esteem Improved rangeland production replacing US$15 / goat of stock feed value Improved livestock: US$ 50 per goat Goat mortality down to 10% Rainfed maize cropping: US$16/ha Livestock: US$10 per goat
    10. 10. Our vision: A world in which agriculture thrives within vibrant ecosystems, where communities have higher incomes, improved food security and the ability to continuously improve their lives
    11. 11. The Game Changers for Sub-Saharan Africa…….. • What if smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa were able to grow crops all year round? • What if we could prevent degradation and restore degraded lands? • What if wastes and used water could have a second life in agriculture? • What if excess water during floods could be stored in natural and man made systems and used during droughts?
    12. 12. 4. Variability management 3. Addressing degradation 1. Eastern Gangetic Plains 2. Business models
    13. 13. . . . with targeted interventions in 6 - 7 focal regions.
    14. 14. Integrated Examples of WLE work in Africa
    15. 15. What if we could prevent degradation and restore degraded lands?
    16. 16. Now is an exciting time for renewed coordinated efforts towards a ‘land degradation neutral (or better!) world’ More than 95 million has of arable land, or 75% of the total in SSA has degraded or highly degraded soil and farmers lose eight million tons of soil nutrients each year, estimated to be worth $4 billion... Land Degradation is a Classic ‘Wicked Problem”
    17. 17. 1. Advances in research Social Science CIRAD IWMI, CPWF, CIAT, WRI Inclusion of the people’s voice within the scientific research framework at many scales Wet season Dry season
    18. 18. 1. Advances in research Soil Science RS/GIS CIAT, ICRAF, CU, ISRIC, Purdue, FAO- GSP, countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America Diagnosing, assessing and mapping Erosionprevalence Soil pH Volta Basin Soil Carbon Digital Soil Map
    19. 19. 1. Advances in research Ecosystem Services Trade-off Analysis Environmental Economics IFPRI, Bioversity, CIAT, IWMI, CPWF, ELD Costs of Action vs. Cost of Inaction InVEST Framework Supply Demand
    20. 20. 2. Alignment of global initiatives • Rio+20 ‘The future we want’ Land Degradation Neutral’ • UN Sustainable Development Goals • FAO’s Global Soil Partnership 3. Drivers of change as opportunities • Public and Private Investment, CAADP and GrowAfrica • Urbanization, feminization of agriculture • Increased price of food • Investments in hydropower and mining
    21. 21. Study Landscapes in Focal Regions +/-10 Study Landscapes Tanzania, Malawi, Kenya, Ethiopia, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Niger, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar, Nicaragua, El Salvador Building on CPWF and other Programs Working with FTA CCAFS Humidtropics Dryland Systems
    22. 22. Partnership for Outcomes LANDSCAPE NATIONAL REGIONAL GLOBAL DELIVER RESEARCH OUTCOMES – impact multiplies through partners Potential beneficiaries 10’s of thousands 0–6years3–6years6–9years • Global initiatives informed and inspired by research, support national and landscape investments • New investments made by IFAD, GIZ, GEF • Public and private • Policy, Regulation, Incentives support adoption Strategies adopted that are site specific, gender & equity sensitive FAO, GSP, UNCCD, ELD, GEF, UNEP, UNDP National Agriculture and NRM policy CAADP, IFAD, GIZ, SDC Communities, civil society, NGO’s, national extension, ARI’s, IFAD, SDC 100’s of thousands Millions
    23. 23. Gender, Poverty and Institutions
    24. 24. How? Content and structure • Equity triangle • Gender integration in SRPs and gender specific Architecture: – Embedded: not just one approach – Budget - working towards full accounting – Voting member of the management committee – Growing with partners Poverty InstitutionsGender
    25. 25. What? Towards: • More equitable access to water, land and ecosystems services. • Improved decision making - inclusion in resource management Research questions: • The African farmer and her husband: Feminization of agriculture • Mother and earth: Replenishing and fostering agriculture Develop: Investable options for women
    26. 26. Ecosystem Services and Resilience
    27. 27. Ecosystem Conservation as a result of poverty alleviation
    28. 28. Ecosystem Conservation as means to poverty alleviation
    29. 29. Principles • People are fundamental • Human and Natural systems are tightly coupled. • Ecological processes in the portfolio of options. • Multifunctionality: Complex Adaptive Systems • Resilience: shocks will occur. • Recognize we might have to modify ecosystems • Large scale: basin as maximum extent (CPR)
    30. 30. 0 20 40 60 80 100 1-Oct-80 1-Nov-80 1-Dec-80 1-Jan-81 1-Feb-81 1-Mar-81 1-Apr-81 1-May-81 1-Jun-81 1-Jul-81 1-Aug-81 1-Sep-81 Flow(m3s-1) Daily flow with and without floodplain Without floodplain (simulated) With floodplain (observed) Flow Regulation in the Luswishi Floodplain Understanding how ecosystems affect livelihoods M. McCartney (IMWI)
    31. 31. Ecosystem Services by whom and for whom? Rainfall less than 900 mmyr-1 Greater than 900 mmyr-1 F. Kizito (CIAT)
    32. 32. Thank you!

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