V2 PAR PROCESS: GHANA AND BURKINA FASO

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CPWF Volta Science Workshop: Integrated Rainwater Management in Crop-Livestock Systems

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V2 PAR PROCESS: GHANA AND BURKINA FASO

  1. 1. V2 PAR PROCESS: GHANA AND BURKINA  FASO
  2. 2. Team composition ILRI, IWMI, WUR Burkina Team Ghana TeamAgronomist ‐1 ARINutritionists‐2 ARI AgronomistEconomists‐2 UDS,ARI NutritionistsAgro‐climatologist‐1  EconomistsSARI Agro‐climatologist
  3. 3. Process of PAR design PRA  Team IPs Looking for  PAR TeamGetting started things to try Designing experiment Analysis of  Treatments Secondary data constraints Number of farmer  Community  Prioritization experimenters  identification and  Rain water  identified entry management  Resources, roles  Identification of  strategies and time frame constraints Technical and  Other studies  institutional  identified constraints  PAR protocol understood indicators Tools Community  Tools Tools workshops IP meetings IP meetings Questionnaire Pair wise  Team meetings Team meetings ranking Trainings Group  discussions
  4. 4. Process contd.Design of PAR Trying out Sustaining  Data collection  Analysis process Monitoring IP Sharing   ressults Learning
  5. 5. Identified institutional constraints and possible  actionConstraints ActionsHigh cost of fertilizers IP to discuss, feed  evidence‐based studies to  IPsBushfires IPs to discussInadequate knowledge in  Training (MoFA),NGOs and handling agro‐chemicals agro‐chemical companiesInadequate storage  IPs to discuss communal facilities storage facilities
  6. 6. Identified technical constraints and possible  solutionsConstraints Technological solutionsDrought Use of Tied ridges and  contour bundsLow soil fertility Use of organic and  inorganic manureLack of animal feed in dry  50% and 100% crop season residue harvest  and feed  strategies developedAnimal  Prophylactic treatment of diseases/mortalities small ruminants
  7. 7. THANK YOU!Please stay for more on the AR  protocols
  8. 8. V2 ACTION RESEARCH PROTOCOL: GHANA BACKGROUND Innovation platforms, took roots from theParticipatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and were builtaround key crop‐livestock value chains in the Lawraand Tolon/Kumbungu districts. They identifiedconstraints, opportunities and strategies at variouslevels along each value chain, and these formed thebasis for formulating, in a participatory approach,the PAR protocol.
  9. 9. Objectives of the PARThe objectives of the PAR, which are similarto the research questions are:Which are the best integrated rainwatermanagement strategies and how would theywork in each recommendation domain?Will integration of organic and inorganicfertilizer for maize‐soybean intercrop,supplementary feeding and prophylactictreatment lead to increased farmproductivity and profitability?
  10. 10. HypothesisBetter integration of crop‐livestock and rainwater management increases overall farmproductivity and profitability
  11. 11. Design of the experimentOf the constraints identified at IP which requiretechnological solutions the project communitiesagreed to use the following interventions:Contour bundsTied ridgesApplication of organic and/or inorganic fertilizers toexperimental plotsSupplementary feeding of small ruminantsProphylactic treatment of small ruminants
  12. 12. Issues addressedRainwater managementSoil fertility improvementLivestock feeding
  13. 13. The treatments Soil water  Soil fertility  Supplementary management management feedingTreatment Tied  Contour  Organic  Inorganic 50% crop  100% crop  ridges bunds manure fertilizers residue  residue  4t/ha NPK 15‐ harvest  harvest 15‐15, SA (Gp. 1 (Gp. 2  farmers) farmers)T1T2 √ √ √ √T3 √ √ √ √T4 √ √ √ √ √T5 √ √ √ √ √ALL FARMERS WILL SOW MAIZE/SOYBEAN INTERCROP
  14. 14. Order of experiment AgronomicNumber of farmer experimenters‐16/locationPlot size‐0.5acre/farmerCompletely randomized block designSubplots 15Measuring 10mx10m3 replicates
  15. 15. Livestock feeding experimentT1: Free range (farmer practice)T2: Confinement + cereal‐legume residue T3:  Confinement + cereal‐legume residue +concentrate
  16. 16. Order of experimentationFor the raining season flock management will be Monitored.Feeding trials will start from January to AprilNumber of farmer experimenters‐6/locationTotal no. of sheep/location‐30All animals will be given prophylactic treatment
  17. 17. Response variables Net grain yield (maize and soybean) Soil nutrient content (moisture, pH. NPK, C  etc.) Crop residue yield (bulk DM, stem/leaf ratios) Cost of production Small ruminant manure yield (quantity,  quality),housing management Feed intake Weight gains, total gain, growth rate Feed conversion ratioMortality rate
  18. 18. Statistical analysisEach response variable will be subjected tostatistical analysis using the GENERAL ANOVAof GENSTAT RELEASE 10.3 DISCOVERYEDITION 4 with 5% level of significance
  19. 19. Field activities to dateActivity Start date Status RemarksFarmer /AEA training  15/04/2012 Completedon protocolSoil sampling 14/05/2012 CompletedProcurement of seed  20/05/2012 CompletedmaterialPloughing 04/06/2012 CompletedField layout (marking  10/06/2012 Completedout subplots)Weighing out organic  12/06/2012 CompletedmanureField layout (tied  12/06/2012 Completedridging & contour bunds)Sowing at   25/06/2012 Completed Lawra district not Tolon/Kumbungu started‐no rainsDistrict
  20. 20. Field layout demonstration at farmer training
  21. 21. Tied ridges demonstrated on the ground at farmer training session
  22. 22. Field layout demonstration to project farmers
  23. 23. Soil sample collection
  24. 24. Soil samples 
  25. 25. Weighing of organic manure
  26. 26. Contour bund
  27. 27. Tied ridges being made
  28. 28. Tied ridges being made
  29. 29. Women putting manure into pans
  30. 30. Tied ridges 
  31. 31. Women carrying head pans full of manure to the fields
  32. 32. THANK  YOU!Please don’t go away. Stay  for more from Burkina  Faso!
  33. 33. V2 ACTION RESEARCH PROTOCOL Burkina Faso 33
  34. 34. Background: Research protocol builds on :• PRA• IPs meetings with regard to crop and livestock value chains The action research addresses the constraints linked to water, crop and livestock management. 34
  35. 35. Objectives: ▪ Assess agricultural production (crop yields, animal weight gain), water productivity and nutrient flows in smallholder crop‐livestock farms of the Volta Basin, for different levels of integration, different agroecological zones and different levels of access to rainwater management technologies;▪ Assess trade‐offs in using water for crops or for livestock, through alternative uses of crop residues. 35
  36. 36. Hypothesis(i) Agricultural production (crop yields, animal weight gain and  milk production), water productivity and nutrient use efficiency  are higher in farms where water, crops and livestock  management are integrated in a sustainable manner.(ii) The increase in agricultural production (crop yields, animal  weight gain and milk production), water productivity and  nutrient use efficiency due to integration has greater impact on  food security and farmers livelihood in water scarce areas  compared to areas with higher access to water.  36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. 38
  39. 39. FACTORS STUDIEDRHT: Stone rows; Stone rows + Zai; grass strip; controlFertilization: Mineral fertilizer, OM+fertiliser; controlAnimal feeding: Pasture+crop residues; pasture+cropresidues+industrial by‐products; pasture (control)Crops: cereal; legume (improved seeds)Animals: sheep; goat12 farmers per village (4 villages per district, 2 districts)Plot size: 0.25 ha per crop type 39
  40. 40. MeasurementsSoil: Bulk density, pH, nutrients (NPK), OM, texture, field capacity, wilting point.Climate: rainfall, air Temperature, air humidity, radiation, wind speed.Manure & Compost: nutrient contents, water content  40
  41. 41. MeasurementsCrop: planting date, fertilizer application date, harvesting date, yield, biomass production, nutrient contents, forage quality.Livestock: weight gain, feed water content, deaths, sales, births, quantity of crop residues fed.Pasture: floristic composition, herbage yield, forage quality, nutrient contents. 41
  42. 42. MeasurementsEconomic evaluation: date and nature of farming activities, labour, costs and benefits, market information (prices and outlet).  42
  43. 43. STATISTIC ANALYSISANOVA ; multivariate analysis, correlationsUsing GENSTAT 43
  44. 44. THANK YOU! 44

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