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Untangling some challenges and opportunities in water research on the African continent today   – with focus on domestic a...
Humanity and Freshwater – reminder of some facts <ul><li>As Global Citizens, we are either a male or a female; </li></ul><...
We distinguish freshwater categories  <ul><li>' Green water ' – provided by precipitation (rain) in the natural cycle </li...
Water consumption, the big picture   <ul><li>' </li></ul><ul><li>8% domestic use </li></ul><ul><li>22% industrial use </li...
Water use – a woman's perspective   <ul><li>Goal 7:  Ensure environ-mental sustainability   </li></ul><ul><li>Target 7c:  ...
How are we doing across Africa? Source: MDG Report 2010 Africa More advances on % of population with improved drinking wat...
What offers greatest social benefit? <ul><li>Women and girl education in general has made progress </li></ul><ul><li>Women...
Water footprint of food products by weight and  energy content <ul><li>Cereals  - 1,644 m3/t </li></ul><ul><li>Oilseeds – ...
Role of women in agricultural production “ The links ... could not be clearer because nothing is more vital to maternal an...
Water scarcity and agricultural productivity <ul><li>Particularly in arid and semi-arid parts of Africa,  water scarcity  ...
Where are the 'low apples'? <ul><li>Strengthen local research capacity  with emphasis on integrated water-cum-agricultural...
Two examples <ul><li>The SIRIUS research project in FP7 - “ S ustainable  I rrigation water management and  R iver-basin g...
AWARD continued <ul><li>Registration at a regional or international professional conference </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunitie...
AWARD continued <ul><li>The outcomes after 3 years were: Fellows say they have new found professional competence and confi...
A take-home message <ul><li>Doing gender-aware and critically engaged water and food security research is the best technic...
Sources and additional reading European Commission, 2003. Water for Life. EU-Water Initiative. International Cooperation –...
YOUR ATTENTION IS MOST APPRECIATED Thank You www.mundusmaris.org
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Untangling some challenges and opportunities in water research on the African continent today – with focus on domestic and agricultural use

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Presented by Stella Williams (Agricultural Economist and Professor—Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria) at the International Forum on Water and Food (IFWF), South Africa, 14-17 November 2011.

The International Forum on Water and Food (IFWF) is the premier gathering of water and food scientists working on improving water management for agricultural production in developing countries.

The CGIAR Challenge Program for Water and Food (CPWF) represents one of the most comprehensive investments in the world on water, food and environment research.The Forum explores how the CPWF research-for-development (R4D) approach can address water and food challenges through a combination of process, institutional and technical innovations.

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Transcript of "Untangling some challenges and opportunities in water research on the African continent today – with focus on domestic and agricultural use"

  1. 1. Untangling some challenges and opportunities in water research on the African continent today – with focus on domestic and agricultural use Presentation: Stella Williams , Agricultural Economist, Professor Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria CGIAR CPWF International Forum on Water and Food - 14-17 November 2011, Pretoria
  2. 2. Humanity and Freshwater – reminder of some facts <ul><li>As Global Citizens, we are either a male or a female; </li></ul><ul><li>The water volume on Earth: about 1,400 mio km3 – 97.5% salt water </li></ul><ul><li>2.5% of total = freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>70% of freshwater is fixed in glaciers, contained in soil humidity and in ground water </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 200,000 km3 is useable (UNEP, 2002; Gleick, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li><1% available for human consumption </li></ul>
  3. 3. We distinguish freshwater categories <ul><li>' Green water ' – provided by precipitation (rain) in the natural cycle </li></ul><ul><li>' Blue water ' – consumption of the volume of freshater (surface and ground water) evaporating during production of a good or food stuff </li></ul><ul><li>' Grey water ' – freshwater required to absorb the pollutants / waste water </li></ul><ul><li>These types together correspond to the the water footprint </li></ul><ul><li>For comparisons, we can use e.g. absolute or per- unit water requirements of food stuffs </li></ul>
  4. 4. Water consumption, the big picture <ul><li>' </li></ul><ul><li>8% domestic use </li></ul><ul><li>22% industrial use </li></ul><ul><li>70% agriculture / irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of human population in the last century (FAO) </li></ul><ul><li>The world's six (now seven) billion people are appropriating already at least 54 percent of all the accessible freshwater contained in rivers, lakes and underground aquifers. </li></ul><ul><li>6 km average water trip in rural Africa (Source: World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) </li></ul>Source: Global Environment Outlook: Environment for development (GEO-4 )
  5. 5. Water use – a woman's perspective <ul><li>Goal 7: Ensure environ-mental sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Target 7c: Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility. </li></ul>This photo of Sudanese women carrying water containers on their heads has been much used and remains emblematic for practically all African countries as they make efforts to improve water supply (and sanitation) towards the MDG 7
  6. 6. How are we doing across Africa? Source: MDG Report 2010 Africa More advances on % of population with improved drinking water (left) than on % with sanitation (right) – black bars (2008)
  7. 7. What offers greatest social benefit? <ul><li>Women and girl education in general has made progress </li></ul><ul><li>Women and girl education in relation to clean water and hygiene needs expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Insisting more on sanitation – and how to overcome social, economic and technical obstacles for adoption is useful </li></ul><ul><li>Freeing up women's time in fetching, cleaning and discharging water & reducing illnesses will generate significant socio-economic benefits </li></ul><ul><li>While the basics are well-known, research could help in better understanding the obstacles and developing narratives and courses of action for addressing constraints more effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Blending scientific knowledge with local experience and beliefs with particular attention to the role of women and girls is a promising avenue </li></ul><ul><li>Using most commonly used local communication means increases uptake and impact. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Water footprint of food products by weight and energy content <ul><li>Cereals - 1,644 m3/t </li></ul><ul><li>Oilseeds – 2,364 m3/t </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables – 322 m3/t </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits – 967 m3/t </li></ul><ul><li>Nuts – 9,063 m3/t </li></ul><ul><li>Legumes – 4,055 m3/t </li></ul><ul><li>Beef – 15,415 m3/t </li></ul><ul><li>Cereals – 0.51 litre/kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Oilseeds – 0.81 litre/kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables – 1.34 l/kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits – 2.10 litres/kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Nuts – 3.63 litres/kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Legumes – 1.19 litres/kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Beef – 10.19 litres/kcal </li></ul>
  9. 9. Role of women in agricultural production “ The links ... could not be clearer because nothing is more vital to maternal and child health than the food that is produced on Africa’s farms and the income agriculture provides to lift our people out of poverty,” said World Food Prize Winner and Executive Secretary of FARA, Monty Jones, already in 2010. Women have traditionally provided for household food production in Africa, while men tend to focus on growing cash crops or migrate to cities to find paid work. Yet women own hardly any land and get only around 5 % of farming information services.
  10. 10. Water scarcity and agricultural productivity <ul><li>Particularly in arid and semi-arid parts of Africa, water scarcity is a growing threat to agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, research in drought tolerant varieties does often not reach the affected (women) farmers, because there extension services are weak or non-existent and rarely geared towards women </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, fertiliser is too expensive for subsistence farmers and small-holders, especially without credit </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing particularly the phosphorus content of soils would have a major effect on productivity and incomes (packaging, distribution, credit..) </li></ul><ul><li>To unlock more of women's potential, it is important to start with what they already know and do, and help them update their local knowledge to keep it relevant to changing circumstances as a way to create new opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Package support to meet specific local needs. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Where are the 'low apples'? <ul><li>Strengthen local research capacity with emphasis on integrated water-cum-agricultural research, the basis on most African economies </li></ul><ul><li>Where research has been carried out, despite structural adjustment and other disruptions, per hectare yields are higher than in countries without such research (US Aid Study) </li></ul><ul><li>Connect research to socio-economic ground realities and allow for sufficient time </li></ul><ul><li>Do research in critically engaged mode with all stakeholders – paying attention not only to important 'technical' features, but looking at differentiated needs of men and women, of different groups of stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Usually second-best technical solutions are chosen, because they are compatible with social organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Better to do the right thing less badly than the wrong thing perfectly. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Two examples <ul><li>The SIRIUS research project in FP7 - “ S ustainable I rrigation water management and R iver-basin governance: I mplementing U ser-driven S ervices” combines research into advanced irrigation planning services with participatory mapping and other approaches to engaging farmers, e.g. in Egypt, so as to increase incomes through irrigation efficiency. Women are very actively involved – in the research and as stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sirius-gmes.es/ </li></ul><ul><li>The AWARD is a project of G&D program. It was established in 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, 180 African women scientists directly benefit from the program. These are African women working in agricultural research from 11 countries who have completed a bachelor’s, masters’ or doctoral degree in selected disciplines, are eligible to apply for a fellowship. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike any other fellowships, AWARD delivers a well-tested, coordinated career-development package built on three cornerstones. </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring: One-on-one monthly mentoring by a senior scientist or professional for each AWARD Fellow. </li></ul><ul><li>Science Skills: Workshops and seminars on science writing and proposal writing. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.awardfellowships.org </li></ul>
  13. 13. AWARD continued <ul><li>Registration at a regional or international professional conference </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to apply for a competitive research attachment at leading international universities and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Membership in a professional association </li></ul><ul><li>Training to use electronic science libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Leadership Capacity: Participation in the CGIAR’s internationally recognized Women’s Leadership and Management Course </li></ul><ul><li>Support to host a community role modelling even membership in a professional association </li></ul><ul><li>http://awardfellowships.org </li></ul><ul><li>The outcomes after 3 years were: Fellows say they have new found professional competence and confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Many women have had increased opportunities and more professional visibility, including promotions, speaking invitations, proposal approvals, grant funding, research attachments, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>AWARD currently partners with some 140 institutions, raising awareness and support for the career development of African women scientists </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 50% of AWARD’s Mentors are African men in senior positions. They play a key role in influencing organizational culture about the important role of African women scientists. Many mentors report that they are better leaders as a result of experience gained through AWARD. </li></ul>
  14. 14. AWARD continued <ul><li>The outcomes after 3 years were: Fellows say they have new found professional competence and confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Many women have had increased opportunities and more professional visibility, including promotions, speaking invitations, proposal approvals, grant funding, research attachments, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>AWARD currently partners with some 140 institutions, raising awareness and support for the career development of African women scientists </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 50% of AWARD’s Mentors are African men in senior positions. They play a key role in influencing organizational culture about the important role of African women scientists. Many mentors report that they are better leaders as a result of experience gained through AWARD. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus AWARD is a professional development program that strengthens the research and leadership skills of African women in agricultural science, empowering them to contribute more effectively to poverty alleviation and food security in SSA </li></ul><ul><li>In summary, AWARD fellowship includes a series of career development resources designed to: </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen science skills </li></ul><ul><li>Augment leadership skill abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance visibility and networking </li></ul><ul><li>Increase opportunities to share newly acquired skills, inspiring the next generation of African women agricultural researchers and professionals </li></ul><ul><li>http://www/awardfellowships.org </li></ul>
  15. 15. A take-home message <ul><li>Doing gender-aware and critically engaged water and food security research is the best technically and results-oriented way to turn challenges into opportunities for Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Challenge Programme needs to strengthen local research capacity and connect international research excellence with local needs e.g. AWARD etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It will be all the more successful if it taps into the huge and diverse talent pool of women and men on the continent. </li></ul><ul><li>It is wise to accept that robust solutions may be technically second-best, but compatible with socio-economic conditions and work. </li></ul><ul><li>Building on what's there and joining forces generates greater success. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sources and additional reading European Commission, 2003. Water for Life. EU-Water Initiative. International Cooperation – from knowledge to action. Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications, 47 p. FAO. Water and Food Security Country Profiles. http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/water/ Gleick, P.H., 2009 'The world's water'. Island Press - http://www.worldwater.org/ Gyawali, D., T. Allan, et al ., 2006. EU-INCO water research from FP4 to FP6 (1994-2006) – A critical review. Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications, 86 p. Mekonnen, M.M. & A.Y. Hoekstra, 2010. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products. Vol 1: Main Report. UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education. Value of Water Research Report Series 47: 35 p. Mekonnen, M.M. & A.Y. Hoekstra, 2010. The green, blue and grey water footprint of farm animals and animal products. Vol 1: Main Report. UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education. Value of Water Research Report Series 48:43 p. UNDP, 2010. Assessing Progress in Africa toward the Millennium Development Goals. MDG Report 2010, 103 p. University of Michigan: http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/freshwater_supply/freshwater.html UN Water for Life Decade (2006-2015): http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/ www.mundusmaris.org
  17. 17. YOUR ATTENTION IS MOST APPRECIATED Thank You www.mundusmaris.org
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