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Overview of agricultural water management research in the Amhara National Regional State (ANRS)


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Presented by Birru Yitaferu at the NBDC Stakeholder Forum, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, 5 October 2011. …

Presented by Birru Yitaferu at the NBDC Stakeholder Forum, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, 5 October 2011.

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  • 1. Overview of Agricultural Water Management Research in the ANRS Birru Yitaferu (ARARI) NBDC Stakeholder Forum 5 October 2011
  • 2.  
  • 3. Introduction
    • Ethiopia, with an area of 1,130,000 km 2 and a population of more than 80 million, is the third largest and most populous country in Africa
    • Agriculture accounts for 52% of the GDP (IMF, 2002), and employs more than 80% of the labour force in the country.
    • The agriculture sector is predominantly subsistent and small scale. Smallholder farmers with an average land holding of less than a hectare
    • The agricultural production system is mainly rain-fed and traditional, characterized by low input – low output
  • 4. Introduction
    • The highlands of Ethiopia are estimated to be 60% of the African highlands and 46% of the country’s land area.
    • It is also known as the water tower of north and eastern African countries with 7 or more drainage systems crossing the country to the nearby regions. Of these the Blue Nile River Basin has an international significance.
    • The country's major natural renewable resources consist of land, water and enormous biodiversity. (Flora and fauna)
  • 5. Introduction
    • Topography of the Amhara Region ranges from 600 at Metema to 4,520 m a.s.l. at Ras Dejen, North Gonder, which is also highest point in Ethiopia.
    • The wide range of altitude is a major factor in determining the temperature and farming systems of the region.
    • Generally, lowland areas (<1500 m) experience warmer temperatures, while highland areas (>1500 m) experience relatively mild and cooler temperatures.
  • 6. Introduction
    • The Amhara National Regional State (ANRS) is situated between latitude 9°–13°45'N and longitude 36°–40°30'E.
    • It is bounded by Afar, Benishangul, Oromia and Tigray regions in the east, south-west, south and north, respectively, and by Sudan in the west.
    • The total area of the region is estimated to be 160,000 km 2 , which is about one-sixth of the country's total area.
  • 7. Hydrological characteristics of the ANRS
    • The highlands of the Amhara Region, on the other hand, are areas endowed with rich water sources with national and trans-national significance.
    • The Blue Nile River originates from the Lake Tana Basin in the Amhara Region and 50% of the BNB is in the ANRS.
    • The region is composed of,
    • 10 major agro-ecologies,
    • 18 sub-agro-ecologies
    • Dominated (38%) by the tepid to cool moist zone, which has high agricultural potential
  • 8. Hydrological characteristics of the ANRS The Amhara Region is composed of four river basins (Abay, Tekeze, Awash and Danakil) and, according to the major geomorphic classification of the region, it comprises seven geomorphic units. These are:
    • The eastern scarpments and lowlands (Wello and part of Shewa)
    • The Gonder and Wello degraded highlands areas
    • The Gojam and North Shewa plateaus
    • The Tana flood Plains
    • The Abay and Tekeze gorges
    • The north-western and western lowlands
    • The extreme highlands and afro-alpine zones - consisting of Ras Dejen, Choke, Guna, Abune Yosef, Amba Farit and Adama mountains.
  • 9. The Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute (ARARI)
    • Has 8 research centers and 5 sub-centers
    • More than 250 researchers from 1 st degree to PhD levels
    • 3 soil laboratories, one grain quality laboratory and TC
    • Green houses, screen houses, etc.
  • 10.
    • ARARI is established with the main objectives to undertake, guide and consolidate agricultural research systems/ endeavors in the region
    • Brought together the research endeavors by different actors in the region
  • 11. Mission
    • ARARI strives to generate appropriate agricultural technologies in the area of
    • Crop production,
    • Livestock and fishery,
    • Forestry and agroforestry,
    • Soil and water management
    • Agricultural mechanization and food science
    • contributing to the sustainable agricultural productivity, competitiveness of the sector, food security and poverty reduction in the ANRS
  • 12. Research in Agricultural Water Management
    • Improving efficiency of irrigation water at major schemes in the region (Kobo, Koga, Ribb/Megech)
    • Including:
        • Adaptation of Crop varieties for irrigation system
        • Scheduling and optimizing water application
        • Calibrating fertilizers for irrigated crops
        • Adjusting Cropping patterns and enhance enterprise choices
        • Improving scheme efficiency in AWM
  • 13. Research in Agricultural Water Management Using rainwater conservation and management
        • Including:
        • Improving efficiency of water harvesting structures
        • Improving efficiency of the harvested water through Dripping and Deficit application
  • 14.
        • Adaptation of Low cost rainwater harvesting technologies
        • Using different lining materials,
        • Selection of best clay materials as lining
  • 15. In situ moisture harvesting using structures such as: - Tied-ridging, - Tripizodal, - Zai - contour bunds Tree survival and enrichment studies using trenches, micro-basins, etc.
  • 16. Improving environmental regeneration through In situ moisture management
        • The case of dry land areas in the northern Amhara
        • The case of East Belesa and tach-Gayint
        • Tree survival and enrichment studies
  • 17. Integrated Watershed Management
      • The case of Debremewi watershed
      • The case of Gumara-Maksegnit watershed
      • The case of SCRP stations
      • The Lake Tana Basin - a field school for R&D and a “ growth corridor ”
  • 18. Major institutions working with ARARI on Water and Land Management in ANRS
    • SLM – GIZ
    • TBIWRD – Tana Beless
    • IFAD – Small scale irrigation development
    • SWHISA – Cida Canada
    • NIDP – Nile Irrigation and Drainage project
    • CDE – University of Berne (model watersheds)
    • ICARDA – Boku rain-fed Ethiopia
    • IWMI – NBDC – from N1-N5 projects
    • SNRM North – Gonder (Austrian assisted)
    • BoA – Amhara region
    • Others governmental and NGOs