Land Use and Water Management in Rainfed Agriculture
for Enhanced Systems Productivity:
The case of Vertisol Areas in the ...
Agriculture- Crop and Livestock farming is the main
source of livelihood in the basin
Challenges to Agriculture in the Bas...
The Case of Vertisols
o Among the high potential
soils
o Located in areas with
favorable climate
o LGP ranges from 120-190...
o Productivity is constrained
by their hydro-physical
characteristics
o Severe water logging
during rainy season
Required ...
• Traditional:
 Late planting on flat beds-Late planting on flat beds- crops grow oncrops grow on
residual moistureresidu...
CROPWAT: ETc and
Eff. rain
Vertisols
Drainable (2-5%)
slope
Undrainable (<2%
slope)
Alternative
s
Weather, soil,
Climate
N...
Supported by: CPWF
• Globally agriculture accounts for 70% of all fresh
water withdrawals and 90% of the consumption
• Agr...
Location and year Grain Straw
BBF Flat % increase due
to BBF
BBF Flat % increase due
to BBF
Enewari (1986) 1105 1072 3 159...
Location and year Grain WP with respect to eff.
rainfall (kg m-3
)
WP with respect to actual
ETc (kg m-3
)
BBF Flat % incr...
Location Gross return (USD ha-
1
)*
WP (USD m-3
)
BBF Flat BBF Flat % increase due to BBF
Enewari 1986 545 529 0.12 0.11 3...
Effect of Land use on WP with respect to effective Rainfall
of Undrainable Vertisols
Land use Average grain
yield (kg ha-1...
Integration (Systems approach)
• Improving crop water
productivity
• Value addition: Feed crop
residue to livestock
• Impr...
• BBF increased crop yield and WP with respect to
effective rainfall, and reduced evaporation loss
• Growing rice increase...
Land use and water management in rainfed agriculture for enhanced systems productivity: The case of Vertisol areas in the ...
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Land use and water management in rainfed agriculture for enhanced systems productivity: The case of Vertisol areas in the Blue Nile Basin

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Presented by T. Erkossa, A. Haileslassie and C. MacAlister at the Nile Basin Development Challenge (NBDC) Science Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9–10 July 2013

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Land use and water management in rainfed agriculture for enhanced systems productivity: The case of Vertisol areas in the Blue Nile Basin

  1. 1. Land Use and Water Management in Rainfed Agriculture for Enhanced Systems Productivity: The case of Vertisol Areas in the Blue Nile Basin T. Erkossa 1 , A. Haileslassie 2 , C. MacAlister 3 Nile Basin Development Challenge (NBDC) Science Workshop Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 9–10 July 2013
  2. 2. Agriculture- Crop and Livestock farming is the main source of livelihood in the basin Challenges to Agriculture in the Basin: – Extreme biophysical variations – Population pressure and land degradation ⇒Shortage of land ⇒Encroachment to marginal lands ⇒Reduced land and water productivity (average grain yield < 1 T/ha) – Lack of site specific technologies • Limited use of improved technologies Increasedpoverty,foodinsecurity& Vulnerabilitytoclimatechange Required: Identification +Disseminate of Site specific Technologies Introduction
  3. 3. The Case of Vertisols o Among the high potential soils o Located in areas with favorable climate o LGP ranges from 120-190 days o About 12 million ha in Ethiopia o 12% of the Abay Basin (≈12% of the Abay Basin (≈ 2.7 million ha)2.7 million ha)o
  4. 4. o Productivity is constrained by their hydro-physical characteristics o Severe water logging during rainy season Required level Deficit Water Management Challenges Growing Season Excess Water logging Defic it Agricultural Constraints of Vertisols
  5. 5. • Traditional:  Late planting on flat beds-Late planting on flat beds- crops grow oncrops grow on residual moistureresidual moisture  Tolerant crops-Tolerant crops- low yielding or not preferablelow yielding or not preferable • Hand made BBF-Hand made BBF- backbreaking taskbackbreaking task Management Options Hand made BBF BBF made by BBM • Improved:  Surface drainage (BBF)-Surface drainage (BBF)- made by animalmade by animal powerpower  Tolerant and high yielding cropsTolerant and high yielding crops
  6. 6. CROPWAT: ETc and Eff. rain Vertisols Drainable (2-5%) slope Undrainable (<2% slope) Alternative s Weather, soil, Climate National Met. Stations, NewLocClim Estimates Surface drainage + Early planting Flat bed + Late Planting System WP Livestock WP Livestock feed (Straw) Crop WP Tolerant and high yielding crops Natural pasture Crop yield: field monitoring, research reports
  7. 7. Supported by: CPWF • Globally agriculture accounts for 70% of all fresh water withdrawals and 90% of the consumption • Agricultural WP increase by 1% means 10% increase in water availability for other uses • Rainfed agriculture dominates the farming system (>90%) • Improving WP of the rainfed system enhances livelihood in the US and increases water availability for the DS Why Agricultural Water Productivity
  8. 8. Location and year Grain Straw BBF Flat % increase due to BBF BBF Flat % increase due to BBF Enewari (1986) 1105 1072 3 1590 1543 3 Dogollo (1986) 1844 1258 47 2654 1810 47 Dejen (1987) 1263 918 38 1817 1321 38 Bahir Dar (2007) 2600 2000 30 3741 2878 30 Merawi (2007) 1700 600 183 2446 863 183 Bichena (1997) 1600 900 78 2302 1295 78 Average 1685 1125 63 2425 1618 63
  9. 9. Location and year Grain WP with respect to eff. rainfall (kg m-3 ) WP with respect to actual ETc (kg m-3 ) BBF Flat % increase due to BBF BBF Flat Enewari 1986 0.23 0.22 5 0.37 0.99 Dogollo 1986 0.32 0.22 45 0.58 0.49 Dejen 1987 0.22 0.16 38 0.42 0.77 Bahir Dar 2007 0.34 0.26 31 0.93 0.82 Merawi 2007 0.30 0.10 200 0.54 0.50 Bichena 1997 0.34 0.19 79 0.53 0.83 Average 0.33 0.24 57 0.66 0.89 Land Preparation Methods Effect on Grain WP of wheat with respect to eff. rain and ETc
  10. 10. Location Gross return (USD ha- 1 )* WP (USD m-3 ) BBF Flat BBF Flat % increase due to BBF Enewari 1986 545 529 0.12 0.11 3 Dogollo 1986 910 621 0.16 0.11 47 Dejen 1987 623 453 0.11 0.08 38 Bahir Dar 2007 1282 986 0.17 0.13 30 Merawi 2007 839 296 0.15 0.05 183 Bichena 1997 789 444 0.16 0.09 78 Average 831 555 0.14 0.09 56 *Wheat grain price estimated @ 0.4932USD kg-1
  11. 11. Effect of Land use on WP with respect to effective Rainfall of Undrainable Vertisols Land use Average grain yield (kg ha-1 ) Average eff. rain (m3 ha-1 ) Grain WP (kg m-3 ) Biomass (grain + straw) WP (kg m-3 ) Rice 3596 7900 0.46 1.0 Grass-pea 4662 7900 4895 1.8 Natural pasture Biomass (kg ha-1 ) Average eff. rain (m3 ha-1 ) 2793 6330 0.44 Results- Undrainable Areas
  12. 12. Integration (Systems approach) • Improving crop water productivity • Value addition: Feed crop residue to livestock • Improving livestock productivity • Improve livestock management • Improve crop-livestock System Productivity Example: Crops - livestock USDha-1
  13. 13. • BBF increased crop yield and WP with respect to effective rainfall, and reduced evaporation loss • Growing rice increased overall WP despite increased water consumption, due to its reduced evaporation • Use of BBF on drainable land and rice on flat land increased Economic WP • Integrating crop-livestock system; for example through feeding the crop residues to the livestock enhanced overall SWP

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