Green To Blue Water Continuum SWWW09 Vidal Et Al
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Green To Blue Water Continuum SWWW09 Vidal Et Al

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CPWF Program Director , Dr Alain Vidal, shows how interdisciplinary research supports the productivity and resilience of social and ecological systems of the world's poorest communities. Specifically ...

CPWF Program Director , Dr Alain Vidal, shows how interdisciplinary research supports the productivity and resilience of social and ecological systems of the world's poorest communities. Specifically how Multiple water uses (MUS), techniques and sources, and its resulting community organization, increase resilience in poor agricultural areas. The ability to adapt and mitigate change - such as economic or climatic change - enables people a better chance to climb out of poverty.

Dr Vidal says the green-to-blue water continuum in water-for-food management for agriculture contributes to this resilience, and should not be overlooked by institutions and groups managing water.

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  • 1. The Green-to-Blue Water Continuum:An approach to improve agricultural systems’ resilience to water scarcity
    Alain Vidal, Barbara van Koppen, David Love & David Blake
    CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food
  • 2. An oldhistory of combinedrainfed and irrigated agriculture
    Sinceancient times, the reality of water dependency has inspired farmers to innovate
    Water stored, mobilized and applied to plants in different ways, depending on the nature of the resource available
    Farmers have alwaysdealtwith the green-to-blue water continuum to extract the best productive value - not only from crops, but fish, livestock, etc
  • 3. A recenthistory of opposedrainfed and irrigated agricultures
    Since the 60s, irrigation has almost doubled - from 160 to 300 Mha. Policies keep “poor” rainfed and “rich” irrigated agricultures separated, negating the green-to-blue water continuum
    New irrigation farmers were historically ‘rainfed’ farmers, if not breeders or fishers
    Almost half of today's irrigated surface is cultivated by farmers whose tradition is ‘rainfed’
  • 4. Green-blue water in agriculture
    From Hoff & Rockström, SEI
  • 5. Resilience concept
    Society and nature as truly inter-connected socio-ecological systems
    • Non-linear dynamics
    • 6. Thresholds
    • 7. Alternate stable states
    Basic continuity assumption
    • PERSISTENCE absorb shocks, while maintaining structure and function
    • 8. ADAPTABILITYability for learning, to cope with disturbance
    • 9. TRANSFORMABILITYcapacity to reorganize, and create a new system
    Humid rainfed
    Dry rainfed
    Green water
    Blue water
    From Hoff & Rockström, SEI
  • 10. Which is the right one?
    Non resilient
    Non resilient
  • 11. Opposed (thus, less) resilient agricultures
    Rainfed systems are less resilient for external reasons
    • Green water is irregularly supplied and becomes scarcer
    • 12. Lack of investment and markets for crop production
    Irrigated systems for internal reasons
    Irrigated crops less resistant to drought resulting from irregular blue water supply
    Irrigation may generate water excess that degrade soils and crop productivity
  • 13. CPWF aims to increase water productivity and to ensure more equitable use of water amongst users and the environment
  • 14. The green-to-blue water continuum…
    From David Molden, IWMI
  • 15. …a way to reconcileopposed agricultures
    Increasing water productivity and improving farmers’ livelihoods should be done along the existing green-to-blue water continuum
    Could significant progress be achieved by learning from each others’ resilience?
  • 16. Crossed lessonslearntfrom CPWF
    Green water dominated systems
    IWRM research for mitigating drought and improving livelihoods within the Limpopo Basin (water scarce)
    Improving Mekong Water Allocation in the Nam Songkhram Basin (endangered wetland)
    Blue water dominated systems
    Multiple Use water Systems (MUS) project in the (Andean, Nile,) Limpopo, Ganges and Mekong basins
  • 17. Lessons learnt from IWRM project
    Green water is the source of runoff and percolation of blue water
    Ways to improve access to green water:
    In-field soil water conservation techniques that increase the rate of infiltration and percolation, e.g. mulching
    Micro‐catchment or runoff farming and supplementary irrigation to capture overland flow from areas adjacent to fields
  • 18. How IWRM increases resilience
    Negotiation processes of users result in new institutions
    Resilience builds upon a multi-stakeholder approach and a combination of water management interventions
    Household crop income raised from US$200 to 600 per year
    IWRM in water scarce Southern Africa
    Resilience zone
    Green water
    Blue water
  • 19. Lessons learnt from Nam Songkhram Basin
    Highly contested waterscape
    Floods and droughts always presented as main obstacles to development, whereas flood pulse is main driver of wetland productivity
    Multiple actors, in complex context and history
    Threat of ‘Water Grid’ and other mega‐projects hangs over future of wetlands
    “paa boong paa thaam”
  • 20.
  • 21. How is Paa Boong Paa Thaam more resilientthan « development » ?
    Highlydiversified on-farm and off-farm green water productive uses
     Household income US$1100/y
    Rapid privatisation & land reform, coupled to continual pressure to build blue water control infrastructures, introduces disruptive changes
    Can PaaBoongPaaThaamsurvive transformation?
    Previous changes proved unsustainable
    Wetlands in the Mekong basin
    Wetland resilience zone
    Unstable zone
    Green water
    Blue water
  • 22. Lessons learnt from MUS Multiple Use water Systems
    Multiple use water systems are an effective way to fightpoverty by improvingaccess to agricultural water
    Experience shows that farmers use/re-use multiple (up to 9!) sources of water
  • 23. Domestic water: An ignored form of blue water
    Homestead-scale MUS gives high resilience against natural- and human-made volatility
    Especially for the poor and for women generates ‘more MDG per drop’
    Multiple-use water ladder, with household water-derived income ranging from US$40 to 300/year
    Costs for multiple-use supplies for homestead-based production typically repaid within 3 years, from the income gained, therefore cross-subsidize domestic uses
  • 24. How MUS increases resilience
    Ability to use multiple sources under various climatic conditions or as emergency provision, key for resilience
    Community-scale MUS allows building on what communities have been doing since time immemorial
    MUS - everywhere
    MUS resilience zone
    Single uses
    unstable zone
    Green water
    Blue water
  • 25. Multiple water uses, techniques and sources, together with resulting community organization do increase resilience
    Neglecting the green-to-blue water continuum createsunaffordable disruptive changes
    Multiple use/sources resilience
    Rainfed humid
    Single uses
    unstable zone
    Rainfed dry
    Green water
    Blue water
    Resilience in the green-to-bluewater continuum: A synthesis
  • 26. Thankyou
    Alain Vidal, CPWF