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Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan
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Ganges Global Drivers by Zahirul Khan

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  • 1. Ganges Basin Development ChallengeObjective: Improve resource productivity and increase the resilienceof agriculture and aquaculture systems of brackish coastal areas ofthe Ganges
  • 2. Ganges Basin:Ganges Basin Area= 1,087,300 sq. km
  • 3. Study Area:Ganges Dependent Area in BangladeshProject Target Area:Coastal Zone of the Ganges basin inBangladesh except the SundarbansCoastal Divisions:Barisal: Patuakhali, Barguna, Jhalakati &Pirojpur districtsKhulna:Khulna & Satkhira districts
  • 4. Problems and Challenges in the Coastal Region of Bangladesh Salinity intrusionSea level rise Increase in precipitation in monsoon Salinity intrusion Salinity Intrusion Decrease in precipitation in dry season Water RelatedDevelopments: frequency of tropical cyclone Important Issues: Increased •Water, land and ecosystem management •Coastal Zone Policy Added siltation on the •Community participation in water management •Coastal Development Strategy drainage route •Equitable allocation of multi-purpose cyclone •Priority investment program Flood •Community capacity to enhance livelihoods shelters Cyclone •Enabling institutional environment •Rationalization of coastal polders •Integrated knowledge base • Restoration of inflow to the Ganges distributary by basin wide management •Salinity intrusion Water logging •Drainage congestions & Sedimentation •Climate change and climate variability
  • 5. Drivers of Change: Participatory ApproachDRIVERS PRESSURE/CONSEQUENCESDemographic/Societal Water demand & usePopulation growth, Land use change Loss of biodiversity and wetlandsEconomic/Trade Shift in land useEconomic develpopment (change in per Water Demand, watercapiata income) PollutionMarket value of agricultural products Roads, railway & portsPolitical/Institutional/Legal Improved Irrigation andWater policy (national and regional) drainage system, Water availability in the dry seasonEnvironmental/Climate Change Fresh water shortage,Sea level rise due to Climate Change Salinity intrusion, FloodChanges in precipitation and temperature due Sedimentationto Climate Change , Subsidence More Cyclone & Storm surgeTechnological/Important Innovations Enhanced knowledge and aquaculture and agriculture intensification, use of HYVWater infrastructure development Enabling environment
  • 6. Community Consultation at Polder 30 Place: Kismat-fultola, Batiaghata Participant: Fishermen (6 women, 9 men) Priority Issue 1 Stop leasing the canals 2 Stop placing ‘net’, ‘pata’, ‘charu’ or obstruction in the canals/river 3 Increase depth and flow in canals 4 Place: Fultola, Batiaghata Stop catching mother fish carrying eggs 5 Participant: Farmers (3 women, 20 men) Reduce using pesticides for agriculturePriority Issue 6 Stop unnecessary catching of juvenile fish of other species 1 Increase of water level & salinity intrusion, Polder needs to be raised, some of the 7 Stop complete drying of canals while irrigation so that some fish/e existing gates need to be repaired and new gates are required to be constructed survive/remain in the canals for future growth 2 Need improvement in drainage and excavation of new drains/canals, new sluice gates/inlet-outlet 3 WGMs want to be able to operate the gates themselves and to lease the ‘Khas lands’ near the embankment and gates to generate funds for their activities. 4 Stop leasing of the canals 5 Solve the problem of river siltation and improve navigation 6 Water management through public representation and partnership 7 Capacity building and training
  • 7. Percentage Population Growth 6.5% Changes in Water Mgt Sea level rise 6.1% 5.9% Land use change Water Sharing 5.7% 5.7% Transboundary flow Aquaculture intensification Economic Develpopment Urbanization Water infrastructure… 5.5% 5.4% 5.4% 5.4% 5.4% Changes in precipitation 5.2% Water Policy 4.8% Industrialization Water Governance &… 4.6% 4.6% Water Use change Preliminary Results of Questionnaire SurveyMarket Value of Agro Products 4.4% 4.3% Changes in temperature 4.2% Dietary patterns 3.2% Water Pricing & Insurance 2.8%
  • 8. Hydrologic Trend Analysis in the Study Area:Trend Analysis of Ganges River Discharge Hardinge Bridge on the Ganges • Increasing trend of 90000 annual maximum flow 80000 • Decreasing trend of 70000 annual minimum flow 60000Discharge (m3/s) 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Max Q Min Q Average Q Linear (Max Q) Linear (Min Q) Linear (Average Q)
  • 9. Hydrologic Variables:Trend Analysis in the Study Area:Trend Analysis of Water Level Hiron Pointon the Pussur River Hiron Pointon the Pussur River • Rising trend of water 4 level near the sea 4 3 3 The increase of maximum 2 water level is 6 cm/yr atWater Level (mPWD) Hiron Point in the last 10 12 years. 0 1 -1 -2 0 1999 1980 2001 1985 2003 1990 2005 1995 20002007 2005 2009 2010 Max of WL Max of WL of WL Min Linear (Max of WL)of WL Average Linear (Max of WL) Linear (Min of WL) Linear (Average of WL)
  • 10. Salinity (PPT) 0 2 4 6 8 12 10 Jan/2005 Jan/2005Mar/2005Apr/2005May/2005May/2005Jun/2005 Jul/2005Aug/2005Sep/2005 Noapara GhatOct/2005Nov/2005Dec/2005 Jan/2006Feb/2006Mar/2006Apr/2006May/2006Jun/2006 Fultola Ghat Jul/2006Aug/2006Sep/2006Oct/2006Nov/2006Dec/2006 Jan/2007Feb/2007Mar/2007Apr/2007May/2007 Charerhat GhatJun/2007 Jul/2007Aug/2007Sep/2007Oct/2007Nov/2007Dec/2007 Jan/2008Feb/2008 Rupsha GhatMar/2008Apr/2008May/2008Jun/2008 Jul/2008Aug/2008Sep/2008Oct/2008 Salinity Trend in the Region MollarhatNov/2008Dec/2008 Jan/2009Feb/2009 Monthly Salinity MonitoringMar/2009Apr/2009May/2009Jun/2009 Jul/2009Aug/2009Sep/2009 (Data Source: Department of Environment, DOE)Oct/2009
  • 11. Population growth 140 120• One of the densely 100 populated country 80 60• Projected population 40 20 0 o 2025: 180million o 2050: 220 million Rural Urban Cropped area• Urban: 25 million (2001), 80 Population growth million (2025) & 140 million (2050)• Reduction of agricultural land 1% annually
  • 12. Coastal Polders in Bangladesh In the early sixties and seventies, 125 polders (of which 49 are sea-facing) were constructed to protect low lying coastal areas from tidal flood & salinity intrusion.
  • 13. G1 IRRI – IWM – LGED - SRDI Trial sitesS elected Polder in coastal zone of Bangladesh and West Bengal Polder 30 trials and study watershed Polder 3 trials Polder 43/2/F trials West Bengal Bangladesh
  • 14. Impact of SLR on Intrusion of 5ppt Salinity line Dry Season Khulna Barisal 95 km Patuakhali Barguna Bhola 55 kmSundarbans 0 SLR Hiron Point Sea Level Rise Affected area (ha) Affected Population SLR 60 cm (SLR) due to SLR due to SLR120 cm SLR 60cm 512,590 4,613,306 120cm 1,061,016 9,549,144

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