WATER GOVERNANCE AND COMMUNITY
BASED MANAGEMENT – G3
GBDC Science and Communication Workshop
12th November 2013 - Dhaka
PRESENTATION
1. G3 objectives
2. G3 research activities
3. Highlights from the household survey on
Food, Land and Water
4....
?
G3 OBJECTIVES
OBJECTIVES

Understanding the
actors, communities and
institutions
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
• Is community management the best way of
managing coastal polders? If so, under what
circumstances doe...
OUTCOME LOGIC MODEL
OUTCOMES
Change in Knowledge, Attitude, Skills

OUTPUTS

Nuanced understanding of what
constitutes "go...
OUTCOME LOGIC MODEL
Outputs
OUTCOMES
Change in Knowledge, Attitude, Skills

OUTPUTS

Nuanced understanding of what
constit...
OUTCOME LOGIC MODEL
Stakeholders
OUTCOMES
Change in Knowledge, Attitude, Skills

OUTPUTS

Nuanced understanding of what
co...
OUTCOME LOGIC MODEL
Outcomes
OUTCOMES
Change in Knowledge, Attitude, Skills

OUTPUTS

Nuanced understanding of what
consti...
OUTCOME LOGIC MODEL
Impacts
OUTCOMES
Change in Knowledge, Attitude, Skills

OUTPUTS

Nuanced understanding of what
constit...
STUDY AREA
G3 RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS

Litterature
reviews
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS

Desk reviews

Qualitative
survey
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS

Desk reviews

Infrastructures
mapping

Qualitative
survey
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS

Desk reviews

Infrastructures
mapping

Qualitative
survey

Participatory
maps
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS

Official
consultations

Desk reviews

Infrastructures
mapping

Qualitative
survey

Participatory
m...
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS

Official
consultations

Desk reviews

Infrastructures
mapping

Qualitative
survey

Community
consu...
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS

Official
consultations

Desk reviews

Infrastructures
mapping

Qualitative
survey

Experimental ga...
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS
Conflict case study
Official
consultations

Desk reviews

Infrastructures
mapping

Experimental gam...
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS
Conflict case study
Official
consultations

Desk reviews

Gender
case study

Infrastructures
mappin...
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS
Conflict case study
Official
consultations

Desk reviews

Gender
case study

Infrastructures
mappin...
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS
Conflict case study

Students thesis
Official
consultations

Desk reviews

Gender
case study

Infra...
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS
Conflict case study

Students thesis
Official
consultations

Desk reviews

Gender
case study

Infra...
ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS

Conflict case study

Students thesis
Official
consultations

Desk reviews

Gender
case study

Infr...
OVER 3000 PEOPLE WERE CONSULTED
THE PROBLEMS
Conflicts low/high land
Inactive WMO
Conflicts shrimp/paddy

Lack of coordination

Elite capture

Decision ma...
THE PROBLEMS
Conflicts low/high land
Inactive WMO

Elite capture

Conflicts shrimp/paddy

Lack of coordination

Decision m...
Household
WMO survey

What do we learn from the survey on…

FOOD, LAND AND WATER
SAMPLE OF THE SURVEY
Number of Number
households of villages

Latabunia
Jabusa
Jainkati
Polder 30
Polder 3
Poler 43-2F
TOT...
INSTRUMENTS
Household questionnaire
Section 1 – Identification
Section 2 – Demography
Section 3 – Housing and assets
Secti...
SIZE OF OPERATED AREAS
Most of the farmers (64%) operate very small
areas of land (less than 4 bighas)
100%
90%
80%

Land ...
FOOD SECURITY

70
60

Paddy stock and paddy buying

50

Percentage of households
relying on their stock all
the year long
...
FOOD SECURITY AND ADAPTATION
Dependency on agriculture for food security has clear consequences
on the adaptation of impro...
LANDLESS
30.3% of the surveyed households are landless.
By landless we mean number of households who do not have any
land ...
CROPPING INTENSIFICATION
Plots for agriculture
Including: 1 crop
2 crop
3 crops
Plots for aquaculture
Including: 1 fish
Mi...
CROPPING PATTERNS
Percentage of cropping system in each
sub-category.

Jabusha

Jainkati

Aman

55.5

+++++++

+++++

Boro...
CROPPING PATTERNS
Percentage of cropping system in each
sub-category.

TOTAL

Jabusha

Jainkati

Latabunia

Polder 3

Pold...
WATER USES IN AGRICULTURE
Source of irrigation
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%

0%

TOTAL

Jabusha

Groundwater

...
WATER USES IN AGRICULTURE
System used for irrigation
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%

50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

TOTAL

Jabusha

Electri...
WATER USES IN AGRICULTURE
Drainage practices
Drainage is an important tool to consider the intensification of the
agricult...
WATER USES IN AQUACULTURE
Source of water
100%

90%

Others

80%

River

70%
60%

Canal

50%
40%

Rain water

30%

Groundw...
WATER USES IN AQUACULTURE
System used for flush in/out
100%
90%
80%

Other

70%

By hand

60%

Syphon

50%

40%

Gravitati...
DETERMINANTS OF THE CROPPING
CHOICES
At least three sequences of choices for the household:
1. To which activity will be d...
Household
WMO survey

What do we learn from the survey on…

COMMUNITY WATER
MANAGEMENT
Quick Review on Water Management Organizations in
Polders & Sub-Projects

• Literature Review of
Community
Management

• H...
LITERATURE REVIEW
THE POSITIVES…

•

Inclusion of all stake holders
 All the people in the community should be an integral part of the wate...
THE NEGATIVES…
•

•

•

Relation between Community Management and Politics
 The relationship between Community management...
RESEARCH FINDINGS
Role of the Local Governing Institutions
• Currently, no formal role but:
• Implication in gate operation,
• Implication i...
External and Endogenous Organisations:
Rating the Participatory
process of WMO at the
creation
Very Poor
Rather poor
Rathe...
Income of Water Management Organisation
Percentage of household involved in gate operation and gate maintenance, by locati...
Percentage of household involved in embankment
maintenance, by location

Average Number of days of
voluntary work for cana...
Financial Accountability of WMO:
Estimating the actions and results of the WMO on
financial accountability
Very Poor
Poor,...
Long term cycle
Year of Election Freq.
1998
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2012
Total

1
1
4
4
2
4
3
19

Percent
2.5
2.5
10
10
5...
Inclusion of all stake holders
Land holding, by WMO membership
100%
90%

Sex composition of the EC Freq
Male
178
Female
44...
In terms of Decision Making
Ways the Decision are taken on the operations of
Percentage of
Freq. Percent
household with a ...
In Conclusion…
Guidelines and Policies of WMO

+
Institutions are already in place

•
•
•
•
•

BWDB
LGED
WMCA
WMG
WMO

_
I...
G3 FINDINGS, MESSAGES
AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1st Finding

Poor quality of maintenance induces vulnerability…
…but poor quality of maintenance can be
solved through a t...
Poor quality of maintenance induces
vulnerability…
• Poor quality of the infrastructures is a commonality across
70.0
the ...
…but poor quality of maintenance can
be solved through a three tier strategy.
Community level

UP level

GoB and donors
le...
2nd Finding

Institutional Coordination needs to
improve through a clear water
governance framework.
Institutional Coordination has to be improved
through a clear water governance framework

Top

• Myriad of actors in the s...
Institutional Coordination has to be improved
through a clear water governance framework
• Consequences
Fragmentations of ...
3rd Finding

The role of local representatives
(Union Parishad) in water governance
needs to be formally recognized.
The role of local representatives in water
governance needs to be formally recognized.
Who should act to solve the water r...
4th Finding

Creating Smaller Hydrologic Units can
improve the water governance.
Creating Smaller Hydrologic Units can
improve the water governance.
• What are SMU?
• Dykes, sub division in the polders
•...
Summary: Four finding to be discussed
1. Poor quality of maintenance induces vulnerability… but
quality of maintenance can...
WAY FORWARD
April 2014
Validation and consultation workshops at
community level
Participants:
• Community members
• WMOs members,
• LGI,
• Local ...
Consultation with officials
Participants:
• All the stakeholders met
at the starting point of
the project

January/Februar...
Finalization and publication of the on-going
research outputs

G3
library

OBJECTIVE: At the closure
all the outputs produ...
Finalization and publication of the on-going
research outputs

POLICY PAPER

?

Bring answers to our research questions
Po...
Additional research areas to support our
current findings
Comparison analysis of policies and community water management i...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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G3 Water governance and community based management

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by: Dr Marie-Charlotte Buisson, Nandish Kenia and Dr. Malik Ravinder
Presented at the GBDC Reflection Workshop,November 2013

Published in: Technology, Business
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  • PolderSubprojectsLocation (Upazila)AgencyLevel of SalinityWMOs (Yes/No) and projectManagement challengesPolder 3Debhata & KaliganjBWDB HighNo – informal managementShrimp- paddy conflictPolder 24GKeshobpurBWDB IncreasingYes –KJDRPWater logging and salinityPolder 31DaacopeBWDB Average to HighYes – 4th FisheriesSalinity and river erosionPolder 30 BatiaghataBWDBLow to AverageYes –IPSWAMWater loggingPolder 43-2F AmtoliBWDBLow Yes –IPSWAMWater scarcityLatabuniaDumuriaLGEDHighYes- SSWRDPDisaster vulnerabilityJabusha RupshaLGED Average to HighYes –SSWRDPSalinityJainkathi SadarLGED Low Yes –SSWRDPWater scarcityBagarchra-BadurgachaDumuriaLGEDHighYes –SSWRDPDeclining shrimp productivity
  • Outputs51 FGDs 87 KIIs9 Situation analysis reportsPartnersSushilan,IWMIStatusCompleted
  • Outputs9 infrastructure mapsPartnersIWMStatusCompleted
  • Outputs9 flooding maps21 cropping patterns9 canals mapsPartnersIWMStatusCompleted
  • OutputConsultation meetingsPartnersIWMIStatusCompleted, but more can be done
  • Output3 validation workshopsPartnersIWMI, ShushilanStatusCompleted, but more will be done
  • OutputsResearch papersPartnersIWMIStatusCompleted
  • OutputResearch reportPartnersBELAStatusCompleted
  • OutputsKIIsResearch reportPartnersDr ManiruzzamanStatusOn going
  • OutputsKII, FGDEvolution of coastal zone policies in West BengalSituation analysis reportPartnersThe ResearcherStatusOn going
  • Output5 student thesisPartnersBAUStatusCompleted
  • OutputsDatabase 1000 householdsDatabase 40 WMOsDescriptive reportResearch papersPartnersIWMI, ShushilanStatusOn going
  • Update the slide or add few slides if any input can be added based on Shushilan feedback. Few pictures + main interesting points from the discussion.
  • Update the slide or add few slides if any input can be added based on Shushilan feedback. Few pictures + main interesting points from the discussion.
  • Update the slide or add few slides if any input can be added based on Shushilan feedback. Few pictures + main interesting points from the discussion.
  • Update the slide or add few slides if any input can be added based on Shushilan feedback. Few pictures + main interesting points from the discussion.
  • Update the slide or add few slides if any input can be added based on Shushilan feedback. Few pictures + main interesting points from the discussion.
  • G3 Water governance and community based management

    1. 1. WATER GOVERNANCE AND COMMUNITY BASED MANAGEMENT – G3 GBDC Science and Communication Workshop 12th November 2013 - Dhaka
    2. 2. PRESENTATION 1. G3 objectives 2. G3 research activities 3. Highlights from the household survey on Food, Land and Water 4. Highlights from the survey on community water management 5. G3 findings, messages and recommendations 6. Way forward
    3. 3. ? G3 OBJECTIVES
    4. 4. OBJECTIVES Understanding the actors, communities and institutions
    5. 5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • Is community management the best way of managing coastal polders? If so, under what circumstances does it work? • If community management is indeed the way forward, what are the constraints that communities face in polder management? • What kind of policies and institution are needed so that communities can participate in management of polders?
    6. 6. OUTCOME LOGIC MODEL OUTCOMES Change in Knowledge, Attitude, Skills OUTPUTS Nuanced understanding of what constitutes "good" polder governance and the problems faced in achieving good governance from the perspectives of various stakeholders Based on stakeholder consultations and research, create a tool kit of "best practises" and what works and what does not work in the context of polder management in Bangladesh Create awareness among local communities, academics, students, governments and donors about the challenges involved and ways of achieving better polder governance in Bangladesh Polder communities (farmers, fishermen, landless labourers...) Government officials (BWDB, LGED, Planning Commission) and elected representatives Various stakeholder groups fully appreciate the complexities involved in polder governance and internalize the fact that various stakeholder groups may have different needs and that "good" polder governance will happen only when all interests are discussed openly and taken into consideration while devising formal or informal institutions Higher level government officials and elected representatives will be made aware of the project findings and given concrete suggestions on how to change practice and behaviour in the future through dissemination workshops. WMOs; BWDB; LGED (local offices), Local government institutions (LGIs) such as Upazila Parishad Better understand and appreciate the role of communities in polder governance which may then lead to improved capacity for governance of polders IMPACTS Change in Practice / Behaviour Higher level government officials and elected representatives will be made aware of the project findings and given concrete suggestions on how to change practice and behaviour in the future through dissemination workshops. Senior level officials from BWDB, LGED and Government of Bangladesh in charge of coastal zone management and livelihoods in these areas - Scaling up are made aware of challenges involved in polder governance and possible solutions emanating from our research studies. This will be done through a series of diseemintation workshops. Improved polder governance which allows farmers and fishermen to maximise crop, fish and animal production within sustainable limits thereby increasing incomes and alleviating poverty.
    7. 7. OUTCOME LOGIC MODEL Outputs OUTCOMES Change in Knowledge, Attitude, Skills OUTPUTS Nuanced understanding of what constitutes "good" polder governance and the problems faced in achieving good governance from the perspectives of various stakeholders Based on stakeholder consultations and research, create a tool kit of "best practises" and what works and what does not work in the context of polder management in Bangladesh Create awareness among local communities, academics, students, governments and donors about the challenges involved and ways of achieving better polder governance in Bangladesh Polder communities (farmers, fishermen, landless labourers...) Government officials (BWDB, LGED, Planning Commission) and elected representatives Various stakeholder groups fully appreciate the complexities involved in polder governance and internalize the fact that various stakeholder groups may have different needs and that "good" polder governance will happen only when all interests are discussed openly and taken into consideration while devising formal or informal institutions Higher level government officials and elected representatives will be made aware of the project findings and given concrete suggestions on how to change practice and behaviour in the future through dissemination workshops. WMOs; BWDB; LGED (local offices), Local government institutions (LGIs) such as Upazila Parishad Better understand and appreciate the role of communities in polder governance which may then lead to improved capacity for governance of polders IMPACTS Change in Practice / Behaviour Higher level government officials and elected representatives will be made aware of the project findings and given concrete suggestions on how to change practice and behaviour in the future through dissemination workshops. Senior level officials from BWDB, LGED and Government of Bangladesh in charge of coastal zone management and livelihoods in these areas - Scaling up are made aware of challenges involved in polder governance and possible solutions emanating from our research studies. This will be done through a series of diseemintation workshops. Improved polder governance which allows farmers and fishermen to maximise crop, fish and animal production within sustainable limits thereby increasing incomes and alleviating poverty.
    8. 8. OUTCOME LOGIC MODEL Stakeholders OUTCOMES Change in Knowledge, Attitude, Skills OUTPUTS Nuanced understanding of what constitutes "good" polder governance and the problems faced in achieving good governance from the perspectives of various stakeholders Based on stakeholder consultations and research, create a tool kit of "best practises" and what works and what does not work in the context of polder management in Bangladesh Create awareness among local communities, academics, students, governments and donors about the challenges involved and ways of achieving better polder governance in Bangladesh Polder communities (farmers, fishermen, landless labourers...) Government officials (BWDB, LGED, Planning Commission) and elected representatives Various stakeholder groups fully appreciate the complexities involved in polder governance and internalize the fact that various stakeholder groups may have different needs and that "good" polder governance will happen only when all interests are discussed openly and taken into consideration while devising formal or informal institutions Higher level government officials and elected representatives will be made aware of the project findings and given concrete suggestions on how to change practice and behaviour in the future through dissemination workshops. WMOs; BWDB; LGED (local offices), Local government institutions (LGIs) such as Upazila Parishad Better understand and appreciate the role of communities in polder governance which may then lead to improved capacity for governance of polders IMPACTS Change in Practice / Behaviour Higher level government officials and elected representatives will be made aware of the project findings and given concrete suggestions on how to change practice and behaviour in the future through dissemination workshops. Senior level officials from BWDB, LGED and Government of Bangladesh in charge of coastal zone management and livelihoods in these areas - Scaling up are made aware of challenges involved in polder governance and possible solutions emanating from our research studies. This will be done through a series of diseemintation workshops. Improved polder governance which allows farmers and fishermen to maximise crop, fish and animal production within sustainable limits thereby increasing incomes and alleviating poverty.
    9. 9. OUTCOME LOGIC MODEL Outcomes OUTCOMES Change in Knowledge, Attitude, Skills OUTPUTS Nuanced understanding of what constitutes "good" polder governance and the problems faced in achieving good governance from the perspectives of various stakeholders Based on stakeholder consultations and research, create a tool kit of "best practises" and what works and what does not work in the context of polder management in Bangladesh Create awareness among local communities, academics, students, governments and donors about the challenges involved and ways of achieving better polder governance in Bangladesh Polder communities (farmers, fishermen, landless labourers...) Government officials (BWDB, LGED, Planning Commission) and elected representatives Various stakeholder groups fully appreciate the complexities involved in polder governance and internalize the fact that various stakeholder groups may have different needs and that "good" polder governance will happen only when all interests are discussed openly and taken into consideration while devising formal or informal institutions Higher level government officials and elected representatives will be made aware of the project findings and given concrete suggestions on how to change practice and behaviour in the future through dissemination workshops. WMOs; BWDB; LGED (local offices), Local government institutions (LGIs) such as Upazila Parishad Better understand and appreciate the role of communities in polder governance which may then lead to improved capacity for governance of polders IMPACTS Change in Practice / Behaviour Higher level government officials and elected representatives will be made aware of the project findings and given concrete suggestions on how to change practice and behaviour in the future through dissemination workshops. Senior level officials from BWDB, LGED and Government of Bangladesh in charge of coastal zone management and livelihoods in these areas - Scaling up are made aware of challenges involved in polder governance and possible solutions emanating from our research studies. This will be done through a series of diseemintation workshops. Improved polder governance which allows farmers and fishermen to maximise crop, fish and animal production within sustainable limits thereby increasing incomes and alleviating poverty.
    10. 10. OUTCOME LOGIC MODEL Impacts OUTCOMES Change in Knowledge, Attitude, Skills OUTPUTS Nuanced understanding of what constitutes "good" polder governance and the problems faced in achieving good governance from the perspectives of various stakeholders Based on stakeholder consultations and research, create a tool kit of "best practises" and what works and what does not work in the context of polder management in Bangladesh Create awareness among local communities, academics, students, governments and donors about the challenges involved and ways of achieving better polder governance in Bangladesh Polder communities (farmers, fishermen, landless labourers...) Government officials (BWDB, LGED, Planning Commission) and elected representatives Various stakeholder groups fully appreciate the complexities involved in polder governance and internalize the fact that various stakeholder groups may have different needs and that "good" polder governance will happen only when all interests are discussed openly and taken into consideration while devising formal or informal institutions Higher level government officials and elected representatives will be made aware of the project findings and given concrete suggestions on how to change practice and behaviour in the future through dissemination workshops. WMOs; BWDB; LGED (local offices), Local government institutions (LGIs) such as Upazila Parishad Better understand and appreciate the role of communities in polder governance which may then lead to improved capacity for governance of polders IMPACTS Change in Practice / Behaviour Higher level government officials and elected representatives will be made aware of the project findings and given concrete suggestions on how to change practice and behaviour in the future through dissemination workshops. Senior level officials from BWDB, LGED and Government of Bangladesh in charge of coastal zone management and livelihoods in these areas - Scaling up are made aware of challenges involved in polder governance and possible solutions emanating from our research studies. This will be done through a series of diseemintation workshops. Improved polder governance which allows farmers and fishermen to maximise crop, fish and animal production within sustainable limits thereby increasing incomes and alleviating poverty.
    11. 11. STUDY AREA
    12. 12. G3 RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
    13. 13. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Litterature reviews
    14. 14. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Desk reviews Qualitative survey
    15. 15. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Desk reviews Infrastructures mapping Qualitative survey
    16. 16. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Desk reviews Infrastructures mapping Qualitative survey Participatory maps
    17. 17. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Official consultations Desk reviews Infrastructures mapping Qualitative survey Participatory maps
    18. 18. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Official consultations Desk reviews Infrastructures mapping Qualitative survey Community consultations Participatory maps
    19. 19. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Official consultations Desk reviews Infrastructures mapping Qualitative survey Experimental games Participatory maps Community consultations
    20. 20. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Conflict case study Official consultations Desk reviews Infrastructures mapping Experimental games Participatory Qualitative maps survey Community consultations
    21. 21. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Conflict case study Official consultations Desk reviews Gender case study Infrastructures mapping Experimental games Participatory Qualitative maps survey Community consultations
    22. 22. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Conflict case study Official consultations Desk reviews Gender case study Infrastructures mapping Community consultations West Bengal case study Experimental games Participatory Qualitative maps survey
    23. 23. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Conflict case study Students thesis Official consultations Desk reviews Gender case study Infrastructures mapping Community consultations West Bengal case study Experimental games Participatory Qualitative maps survey
    24. 24. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Conflict case study Students thesis Official consultations Desk reviews Gender case study Infrastructures mapping Household WMO survey Community consultations West Bengal case study Experimental games Participatory Qualitative maps survey
    25. 25. ACTIVITIES AND OUTPUTS Conflict case study Students thesis Official consultations Desk reviews Gender case study Infrastructures mapping Household WMO survey Community consultations West Bengal case study Experimental games Participatory Qualitative maps survey
    26. 26. OVER 3000 PEOPLE WERE CONSULTED
    27. 27. THE PROBLEMS Conflicts low/high land Inactive WMO Conflicts shrimp/paddy Lack of coordination Elite capture Decision making not open to all the stakeholders No formal role of UP Silted canals Embankments at risk Disrepair of the gates Intrusion of saline water Lack of funding for maintenance Misuse of the funds, corruption Water logging, lack of drainage Costly and unsustainable alternatives for irrigation
    28. 28. THE PROBLEMS Conflicts low/high land Inactive WMO Elite capture Conflicts shrimp/paddy Lack of coordination Decision making not open to all the stakeholders Adoption of improved technologies is locked. No formal role of UP Silted canals Embankments at risk Disrepair of the gates Water management is the essential key to unlock the adoption of improved technologies in agriculture and aquaculture. Intrusion of saline water Lack of funding for maintenance Misuse of the funds, corruption Water logging, lack of drainage Costly and unsustainable alternatives for irrigation
    29. 29. Household WMO survey What do we learn from the survey on… FOOD, LAND AND WATER
    30. 30. SAMPLE OF THE SURVEY Number of Number households of villages Latabunia Jabusa Jainkati Polder 30 Polder 3 Poler 43-2F TOTAL 104 2,267 71 8462 35356 6457 52,542 1 2 1 44 117 12 177 Number of sampled households 40 80 36 280 280 284 1000 Number of sampled villages 1 2 1 14 14 12 44
    31. 31. INSTRUMENTS Household questionnaire Section 1 – Identification Section 2 – Demography Section 3 – Housing and assets Section 4 – Lands Section 5 – Agriculture Section 6 – Aquaculture Section 7 – IGA Section 8 – Saving and credit Section 9 – Social capital Section 10 – WMO Water Management Organization questionnaire Section 1 – Identification Section 2 – Institutional features Section 3 – Financial features, income Section 4 – Financial features, expenses Section 5 – operation and maintenance
    32. 32. SIZE OF OPERATED AREAS Most of the farmers (64%) operate very small areas of land (less than 4 bighas) 100% 90% 80% Land holding, size of operated area 70% 60% 50% Large farmer (more than 2.5 acres) Medium farmer (1.5 - 2.49 acres) 40% 30% Small farmer (0.5 - 1.49 acres) 20% Marginal farmer (less than 0.5 acres) 10% 0%
    33. 33. FOOD SECURITY 70 60 Paddy stock and paddy buying 50 Percentage of households relying on their stock all the year long 40 30 Percentage of households buying paddy all the year long 20 10 0 Jabusha Jainkati Latabunia Polder 3 Polder 30 Polder 432F 100 Some location are highly dependant on agriculture (paddy) for their own-consumption. - Security - Vulnerability: Climatic hazards, lean season 90 TOTAL Percentage of household using their own production of paddy for cooking 80 70 60 50 Jabusha Jainkati 40 Latabunia 30 Polder 3 20 Polder 30 10 Polder 43-2F 0
    34. 34. FOOD SECURITY AND ADAPTATION Dependency on agriculture for food security has clear consequences on the adaptation of improved technologies. 90 80 First reason to explain the choice between HYV and LV 70 60 Characteristics of the technology 50 40 Prices 30 Taste and food security 20 10 0 Polder 3 Polder 30 Polder 43-2F Jabusha Jainkati Latabunia Total • Taste and food security is the 1st reason to explain the choice between HYV and LV in for 20.8% of the households.
    35. 35. LANDLESS 30.3% of the surveyed households are landless. By landless we mean number of households who do not have any land ownership  But from them significant amount are involved in agriculture or in aquaculture practices. ie: have leased in land  How do we consider them in terms of decision making for water management?
    36. 36. CROPPING INTENSIFICATION Plots for agriculture Including: 1 crop 2 crop 3 crops Plots for aquaculture Including: 1 fish Mixed fish Plots for agriculture and aquaculture Including: 1 crop 2 crops TOTAL 70.3 26.1 48.8 25.1 22.3 27.0 73.0 Jabusha 83.0 75.0 25.0 0.0 17.0 7.4 92.5 7.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 Jainkati 97.4 24.3 59.5 16.2 2.6 Latabunia 15.9 92.3 7.7 0.0 9.8 Polder 3 50.5 42.3 34.9 22.8 42.4 40.8 59.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 74.4 100.0 0.0 7.1 81.0 19.1 100.0 Polder 30 Polder 43-2F 71.9 87.0 18.8 19.4 74.7 34.2 6.5 46.4 23.4 12.8 21.6 8.3 78.4 91.7 4.7 82.6 17.4 Cropping patterns, by location, activity and number of crop/fish Intensification strategy should differ in each location based on the natural condition, and current patterns. 0.2 100.0 0.0
    37. 37. CROPPING PATTERNS Percentage of cropping system in each sub-category. Jabusha Jainkati Aman 55.5 +++++++ +++++ Boro 11.8 + Betel leaves 8.8 8.4 Aman + Sesame 18.0 Aman + Pulses 10.6 Aman + Oil seed 48.0 Aman + Pulses + Boro 3.6 +++++ ++++ + 13.5 Aman + Oilseeds + Boro +++++ 3.6 Aus + Aman + Pulses Polder 432F 44.3 Aman + Boro Polder 30 + Vegetables Latabunia Polder 3 +++ TOTAL AGRICULTURE PLOTS 1 crop 2 crops 3 crops ++ +++ + ++ ++++++++ ++++++ +++ +++++++ Main cropping systems, agriculture ++ + +++++ +++++ ++ +
    38. 38. CROPPING PATTERNS Percentage of cropping system in each sub-category. TOTAL Jabusha Jainkati Latabunia Polder 3 Polder 30 ++++++++ Polder 432F +++ AQUACULTURE PLOTS 1 fish Bagda Golda 18.6 Pangas Mixed fishes 62.79 5.81 Bagda + Mixed fishes 21.9 ++++++ +++ +++++ Bagda + Crabs Golda + Mixed fishes Other mixed fishes 7.7 67.0 ++ ++ +++++++ +++ +++++++ ++ + AGRI AND AQUA SYSTEM Aman + Bagda 36.8 Boro + Golda 3.8 Aman + Mixed fishes 29.2 ++++ ++ Boro + Mixed fishes 9.4 +++ ++++ Main cropping systems, aquaculture and agri/aqua +++++ +
    39. 39. WATER USES IN AGRICULTURE Source of irrigation 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% TOTAL Jabusha Groundwater Jainkati Latabunia Canal Polder 3 River Polder 30 Polder 43-2F Other Clear differences • Polder 43-2F and Jainkati, low saline area, canal is the main source of irrigation. • When farmers don’t have access to canal irrigation, the have to rely on groundwater as an alternative: • Polder 3, canals are saline and dedicated to aquaculture • Jabusha, canal lease in? Question: how costly and how sustainable is the alternative?
    40. 40. WATER USES IN AGRICULTURE System used for irrigation 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% TOTAL Jabusha Electric pump Jainkati Diesel pump Polder 3 Gravitation Polder 30 By hand Polder 43-2F Other • When canal water or river water can be used, gravitation system (Polder 43-2F, polder 30, Jainkati), low cost, only maintenance of the ditch/dyke. • Low development of electric pump (only Jabusha) Cost • Most of the farmers rely in diesel pump for irrigation of irrigation for boro (per • 10% of the households have a diesel pump bigha) • 140 BDT if GW + diesel pump • 70 BDT if canal + diesel pump • Free if canal + gravitation
    41. 41. WATER USES IN AGRICULTURE Drainage practices Drainage is an important tool to consider the intensification of the agriculture system (adoption of 3 crops system). • Only 16% of the crop were drained last year • More common in agri/aqua system (Latabunia) • Aman + mixed fishes required drainage in 40% of the cases TOTAL TOTAL 12.5 Agriculture and aquatic system 21.9 Jainkati 8.8 Latabunia 12.2 Polder 3 Polder 30 Polder 43-2F 13.0 17.4 10.1 27.6 19.3 12.8 16.3 Agriculture system Jabusha 48.8 Percentage of the crops drained by the location and plot use
    42. 42. WATER USES IN AQUACULTURE Source of water 100% 90% Others 80% River 70% 60% Canal 50% 40% Rain water 30% Groundwater 20% 10% 0% Total Polder 3 Polder 30 Polder 43-2F Jabusha Latabunia Clear differences • Polder 43-2F, Jabusha, polder 30, rainwater is the main source (fresh water fishes) • For bagda cultivation (Latabunia, polder 3), access to canal or river water • Use of groundwater for filling the ponds is introduced is several locations.
    43. 43. WATER USES IN AQUACULTURE System used for flush in/out 100% 90% 80% Other 70% By hand 60% Syphon 50% 40% Gravitation 30% Diesel pump 20% Electric pump 10% 0% Renewal of water required quite often in aquaculture (37 times per year on average for bagda) • Gravitation system is always preferred for flush in fresh water and flushing out waste water in aquaculture. • When gravitation is impossible, diesel pumps are the alternative.
    44. 44. DETERMINANTS OF THE CROPPING CHOICES At least three sequences of choices for the household: 1. To which activity will be dedicated the plot? Agriculture, aquaculture, mixed cropping system 2. How many crop will be cultivated in the plot? 3. Which crops will be cultivated? (additionally to paddy) Determinants of the cropping choices Characteristics of the plot • • • • • Water quantity (irrigation/drainage) Water quality (salinity) Soil Size Situation of the neighbouring plots Characteristics of the farm • • • Area operated (economies of scale?) Number of plots cultivated Technology access, productive assets Characteristic of the household • • • Age, level of education Number of household member Additional income generating activities Village/Institutional characteristics • • • • Market access, procurement Prices Social structure, choices of the other farmers Climatic suitability
    45. 45. Household WMO survey What do we learn from the survey on… COMMUNITY WATER MANAGEMENT
    46. 46. Quick Review on Water Management Organizations in Polders & Sub-Projects • Literature Review of Community Management • Highlights from the quantitative survey
    47. 47. LITERATURE REVIEW
    48. 48. THE POSITIVES… • Inclusion of all stake holders  All the people in the community should be an integral part of the water management organisations. The organisation should comprise of elite people, poor people, women, migrants etc and after their inclusion they should be able to participate in all further decision making process. Often it is noticed that poor participants have better income earning opportunities if they migrate to towns as labourers or rickshaw pullers in the kharif season but they are required to perform guard duty or they would lose access. Thompson, 2003 • Income of Water Management Organisation:  After forming the Water management organisations there should be flow of income for the organisation to survive. Sustainability is the key to maintaining the polders, dykes, and these organisations. The payments for the fishing rights should be equally shared between organisations. Thompson, 2003 • Governance of WMO:  Every year the financial accounts and a report should be drafted about the work and maintenance taken place in that organisation. The records should be updated every year and shared with UP and shared amongst the community as well • Co-ordination with Local Governing Institutions  One of the most important reasons for the failure of the water management organisations is the co-ordination with the local governing bodies. These organisations have externally defined functions and organisational structures which are generally defined without consulting people at the local level on whether they conform with their own organisational practices. Jennifer Duyne, 1998
    49. 49. THE NEGATIVES… • • • Relation between Community Management and Politics  The relationship between Community management and Politics is not clearly defined on paper but it does exist in reality. Sometimes the people who do not find an opportunity to ‘participate’ in water management through formal groups organised by external agencies, organise themselves independently to pursue their own water management requirements. Jennifer Duyne, 1998.  Sometimes the politicization of NGO’s make the field level implementation worse as the local elite’s/ lease holders take advantage of the politically weak position of the NGO’s. Local level Administration becomes reluctant to take part proactively when something becomes too political. Mohammed A. Rabi, 2009 Long Term cycle:  There has been a trend in the project cycles in Bangladesh. It is noticed that all the projects have a period of 3 years or so and then after the completion of the project the activities start withering away and slowly the project unwinds in a couple of years. External and Endogenous Organisations:  One of the reasons why attempts to enhance participation in the water sector in Bangladesh fails because exogenous organisations model were mechanically applied to different context. They hardly make an attempt to understand and build upon indigenous water management and organisational practices.. Jennifer Duyne, 1998.
    50. 50. RESEARCH FINDINGS
    51. 51. Role of the Local Governing Institutions • Currently, no formal role but: • Implication in gate operation, • Implication in conflicts resolution, • Role in case of urgency, natural calamity. Trust in elected representatives Who should act to solve the water related problems? Other 2% LGED 9% Community people 24% WMO 2% BWDB 28% UP 35%
    52. 52. External and Endogenous Organisations: Rating the Participatory process of WMO at the creation Very Poor Rather poor Rather Good Good Total Who took the initiative for creating these committees, by location Freq. 3 6 10 21 40 Percent 7.5 15 25 52.5 100 5 1 4 7 12 5 2 Polder 3 BWDB IPSWAM Polder 30 Union Parishad Polder 43-2F Influencial people Others Relation between WMO and Politics Only 3 villages are affiliated to political parties. Ie: Chaltabaria (Polder 3), Iliapur ( Jabusha) and Kharhat (Polder 3)
    53. 53. Income of Water Management Organisation Percentage of household involved in gate operation and gate maintenance, by location 35 30 Physical participation for gate operation 25 Participation in decision making for gate operation 20 15 Financial contribution for gate operation 10 Voluntary work for gate maintenance 5 Financial contribution for gate maintenance 0 Only 1 WMO receive incomes apart from the members Ie: Jabusa Percentage of household involved in canal maintenance, by location 25 20 15 Voluntary work for canal maintenance 10 5 0 Financial contribution for canal maintenance
    54. 54. Percentage of household involved in embankment maintenance, by location Average Number of days of voluntary work for canal and embankment 20 18 12.0 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Voluntary work for embankment maintenance Financial contribution for embankment maintenance 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 3 HH contributions is hardly seen across polders. Out of the contributors most of them contribute in the savings funds. 30 43 JB JK LT No of days worked voluntary last yr to maintian the canal No of days worked voluntary last yr to maintian the embankment
    55. 55. Financial Accountability of WMO: Estimating the actions and results of the WMO on financial accountability Very Poor Poor, some problem Rather poor Rather Good Good Very Good Freq. 200 229 273 180 91 14 None of the WMO’s are registered in Polder 3. Most of the WMO’s are registered in Polder 30 and Polder 43/2F Percent 20.26 23.2 27.66 18.24 9.22 1.42
    56. 56. Long term cycle Year of Election Freq. 1998 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 Total 1 1 4 4 2 4 3 19 Percent 2.5 2.5 10 10 5 10 7.5 47.5 No of times the WMO meet in the last 1 year 0 1 3 4 7 12 14 52 The year In which the last Freq. meeting was held 2009 1 2010 1 2011 1 2012 21 Percent 4.17 4.17 4.17 87.5 Freq. Percent 12 6 4 3 1 6 1 1 30 15 10 7.5 2.5 15 2.5 2.5
    57. 57. Inclusion of all stake holders Land holding, by WMO membership 100% 90% Sex composition of the EC Freq Male 178 Female 44 Total 222 80% Large farmer (more than 2.5 acres) 70% Medium farmer (1.5 - 2.49 acres) 60% 50% Small farmer (0.5 - 1.49 acres) 40% Marginal farmer (less than 0.5 acres) 30% 20% 10% 0% WMO members Non WMO members Percent 80.18 19.82 100
    58. 58. In terms of Decision Making Ways the Decision are taken on the operations of Percentage of Freq. Percent household with a the gate WMO member Polder 3 0.4 Polder 30 13.9 Polder 43-2F 10.9 Jabusha 10 Jainkati 47.2 Latabunia 42.5 TOTAL 11.3 Collective decision by all the stake holders Collective decision by the land owners Collective decision by people living near the gate Decision by gher owners/ influencial people WMCA, WMG Gate & Beel Committee UP Others Total 158 128 62 302 150 107 31 62 1,000 15.8 12.8 6.2 30.2 15 10.7 3.1 6.2 100
    59. 59. In Conclusion… Guidelines and Policies of WMO + Institutions are already in place • • • • • BWDB LGED WMCA WMG WMO _ Implementation Problems • Lack of Co-ordination between local governing institutions • Financial Accountability • Elite Capture
    60. 60. G3 FINDINGS, MESSAGES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    61. 61. 1st Finding Poor quality of maintenance induces vulnerability… …but poor quality of maintenance can be solved through a three tier strategy.
    62. 62. Poor quality of maintenance induces vulnerability… • Poor quality of the infrastructures is a commonality across 70.0 the polders and subprojects. 60.0 50.0 Bad or very bad • Gates condition of the 40.0 embankment • Canals 30.0 20.0 Bad or very bad • Embankments condition of the gates 10.0 0.0 Bad or very bad condition of the canals Reasons • Deferred maintenance • Conflicts • Design of the infrastructures or of the projects • Weak institutions Consequences • Communities are at at risk in case of natural calamity • Infrastructures don’t play their roles • Costly alternatives for the farmers (use of groundwater)
    63. 63. …but poor quality of maintenance can be solved through a three tier strategy. Community level UP level GoB and donors level Improving the contributions of the community members • Homogeneous WMOs with shared interests in water management (conditions for membership) • Relating contributions to benefits (microcredit, fishing rights…) • Income generating activities for the WMOs • Creating strong institutions with ownership of the infrastructures Involving the local representative, Union Parishad Using social safety nets for water infrastructure maintenance Donor-Government Trust Fund for Maintenance of Water related infrastructure in Bangladesh • Allocation per polder and per year of maintenance funds
    64. 64. 2nd Finding Institutional Coordination needs to improve through a clear water governance framework.
    65. 65. Institutional Coordination has to be improved through a clear water governance framework Top • Myriad of actors in the sector of water management in the Coastal Zone of Bangladesh Actors involved in water management in polders (more than 1000 ha), BWDB Actors involved in water management in subprojects (less than 1000 ha), LGED Other actors BWDB Top – Down scale LGED Union Parishad WMA WMG WMCA Down Gate committees Gher/beel committees Formal Formal – Informal scale Informal
    66. 66. Institutional Coordination has to be improved through a clear water governance framework • Consequences Fragmentations of the roles and responsibilities - Overlaps Conflicts, power dynamics, some stakeholders not taken into consideration - Gaps  Defaulting behaviours and responsibilities, disrepair of the infrastructures Fragmentation of the different scales • From gate committee (few hectares) to Water Management Association (thousand of hectares). • Where is the institutional coordination, the integration of each level? • Recommendations • Revising the water policy to bring more clarity on the institutional governance framework. • Clear role and responsibility of each actor • Integrated water management • Institutional Coordination have to happen between the actors
    67. 67. 3rd Finding The role of local representatives (Union Parishad) in water governance needs to be formally recognized.
    68. 68. The role of local representatives in water governance needs to be formally recognized. Who should act to solve the water related problems? • Currently, no formal role but: • Implication in gate operation, • Implication in conflicts resolution, • Role in case of urgency, natural calamity. Trust in elected representatives. • Advantages • Conflict resolution • Coordination of all the stakeholders • Social safety nets for maintenance of water infrastructures (gate, canal reexcavation, embankments). • Not a new institutional layer added • Strengthen capacities of local governments Other 2% LGED 9% Community people 24% BWDB 28% UP 35% • Example Union Parishad Coordination Committee WMO 2%
    69. 69. 4th Finding Creating Smaller Hydrologic Units can improve the water governance.
    70. 70. Creating Smaller Hydrologic Units can improve the water governance. • What are SMU? • Dykes, sub division in the polders • Based on coherent hydro ecological sub-basins • Why is it useful? • Because scale matters, experience from LGED sub-projects • Many conflicts are in fact high/low land conflicts: shrimp/paddy, water logging, opening/closing the gates, crop calendars… • Advantages • Creating units with commonality of interest • Reducing conflicts • Drainage, irrigation for introducing more intensive cropping patterns(G2) • Challenge • Rethinking the polders and their infrastructures
    71. 71. Summary: Four finding to be discussed 1. Poor quality of maintenance induces vulnerability… but quality of maintenance can be solved through a three tier strategy. • • • Improving the contributions of the community members Involving the local representative, Union Parishad Donor-Government Trust Fund for Maintenance 2. Institutional Coordination has to be improved through a clear water governance framework. 3. The role of local representatives (Union Parishad) in water governance needs to be formally recognized. 4. Creating Smaller Hydrologic Units can improve the water governance. Incorporated in the 6 key messages from the GBDC
    72. 72. WAY FORWARD April 2014
    73. 73. Validation and consultation workshops at community level Participants: • Community members • WMOs members, • LGI, • Local officials Khulna, 10th November Patuakhali, 8th November Additional workshops may be organized Purposes: • Discussion of the findings, reformulation • Appropriation of the message at the field level • Collective reflection on the way to implement the changes
    74. 74. Consultation with officials Participants: • All the stakeholders met at the starting point of the project January/February 2014 Dhaka Individual meetings Policy brief as a support Purpose: • Sharing with policy makers our main finding/messages • Discussing the implementation and scaling-up
    75. 75. Finalization and publication of the on-going research outputs G3 library OBJECTIVE: At the closure all the outputs produce through the G3 project should be made available.
    76. 76. Finalization and publication of the on-going research outputs POLICY PAPER ? Bring answers to our research questions Point out the policy recommendations with their justification OBJECTIVE: At the closure Targeted to policy makers all the outputs produce through the G3 project should be made available.
    77. 77. Additional research areas to support our current findings Comparison analysis of policies and community water management in West Bengal and in Coastal Bangladesh Based on Situation analysis reports from 9 polders in Bangladesh and case study in West Bengal Case study: The role of social safety nets in water management, the NREGA experience, which opportunities for Bangladesh? Determinants and Impacts of participation in WMOs Based on the household and WMO data collected Case study: Groundwater uses in Coastal zone of Bangladesh Experimental games from a sociological perspective, understanding the external validity Based on the recording of post-games discussions Women and water management in Coastal zone of Bangladesh Synthesis from case study, qualitative data and quantitative survey
    78. 78. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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