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G2 Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems

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by Dr.Liz Humphreys & Team …

by Dr.Liz Humphreys & Team
Presented at the GBDC Reflection Workshop,November 2013

Published in: Technology, Business
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  • Working in 4 locations in Bangladesh & 2 in India representing 3 situations
  • 10 formal partners (LoAs)Collaborating with several other projects – e.g. CSISA and CPWF are jointly supporting 3 PhD scholars embedded in the CPWF G2 team
  • Sukanta, Subasis,Dhiman
  • 250 mm on 2 occasions, the first shortly after transplanting; able to get the water off in 3-4 d with systematic operation of the sluice gate
  • Picture of kharif trial
  • In all situations, the improved varities greatly increase yield over the local varietyThe best variety varies depending on land elevation i.e. Degree of water stagnation
  • Photo of Daudpur site
  • Add a scale
  • Change to one site where there was significant increase in gw salinity – is it sustainable with existing level of pumping? What happens if more tubewells/pumping introduced?
  • Soil data for the same site
  • Simplify – 3 Bangladeshi vars, 5 Indian, 2 local (farmer)
  • Similar yield of best BRRI varieties and Indian varieties at both salinity levels, but shorter duration by 15-20 daysGraph with best Indian vsBgd – yield, duration
  • 1 slide on effect of duration1 slide on effect of sowing date
  • graph
  • Both systems have aquaculture throughout the yearOP 2 has rice in the systemOP 4 is only aquaculture
  • Name changed from “year-round aquaculture” to “aquaculture” because aquaculture is year-round in both systems
  • Explain the design for improved mgt – ditch for fish refuge, strong wall so can have deeper water than what farmers traditionally practice
  • This was a huge undertaking in partnership with Feed the Future
  • Main Differences from 20122 short shrimp crops to reduce the risk of disease & because of better price for smaller size 3 new spp in wet season – diversification with benefits for higher productivity and income
  • Contrast seasonal conditions for shrimp phase in shrimp-rice ghers – hence need to evaluate over several yearsSame pattern of course in aquaculture only ghersDry season salinity much higher in aquaculture only ghers in 2012 but similar in 2013
  • Improved systems much more productive than farmersDelay in 2nd stocking greatly reduced productivity of 2nd stocking3. Shrimp production double than that in 2012; Very little shrimp disease this year (surrounding farmers’ ghers had some disease, not as much as last year)
  • All highly profitable – need to do the economics taking into account the capital investment
  • Photo of netting
  • Start depth scale at zero
  • Delay in 2nd stocking greatly reduced productivity of 2nd stockingVery little shrimp disease this year (surrounding farmers’ ghers had some disease, not as much as last year)Shrimp production double that in 2012
  • Lack of water exchange because of lack of direct access to supply channelSolved by removing diseased fish & harvesting larger non-diseased fish to reduce fish biomass
  • Separate Labor and farmer group meetings at each site every month. Also shared in BFRI regional and central workshop and monthly meeting. Updates are presented in G5 bimonthly progress meeting
  • Adding fruit and timber tree will increase profitability and resilience
  • A good way of diversifyinggher food products
  • Reduces soil erosion and increases possibility of integrating livestock within gher system. This can be used as livestock fodder
  • Improve CPWF logo, get SCL logo before the end of the project
  • Why did CPWF pick the coastal zone of the Ganges?It’s an area in desperate need:Many millions of really poor, vulnerable people dependent on agriculture & aquacultureLow productivity – it missed out on the Green RevolutionBuild on 2 of the best projects in CPWF phase 1 – both were IRRI-ledThese projects showed that there is ….I believe that there is potential for Bdg to
  • Why did CPWF pick the coastal zone of the Ganges?It’s an area in desperate need:Many millions of really poor, vulnerable people dependent on agriculture & aquacultureLow productivity – it missed out on the Green RevolutionBuild on 2 of the best projects in CPWF phase 1 – both were IRRI-ledThese projects showed that there is ….I believe that there is potential for Bdg to
  • 250 mm on 2 occasions, the first shortly after transplanting; able to get the water off in 3-4 d with systematic operation of the sluice gate
  • Why did CPWF pick the coastal zone of the Ganges?It’s an area in desperate need:Many millions of really poor, vulnerable people dependent on agriculture & aquacultureLow productivity – it missed out on the Green RevolutionBuild on 2 of the best projects in CPWF phase 1 – both were IRRI-ledThese projects showed that there is ….I believe that there is potential for Bdg to
  • Why did CPWF pick the coastal zone of the Ganges?It’s an area in desperate need:Many millions of really poor, vulnerable people dependent on agriculture & aquacultureLow productivity – it missed out on the Green RevolutionBuild on 2 of the best projects in CPWF phase 1 – both were IRRI-ledThese projects showed that there is ….I believe that there is potential for Bdg to
  • Unless we could develop small machineries, production cost will increase due to higher labor cost in intercultural operations
  • 250 mm on 2 occasions, the first shortly after transplanting; able to get the water off in 3-4 d with systematic operation of the sluice gate
  • Water management synchronised with fertiliser application
  • Improve CPWF logo, get SCL logo before the end of the project
  • 3 important elements to emphasiseExplain challenged ponds – show pond picture in next slides
  • As of 8th Oct: Tilapia bred 1-3 times. 1st stock is 150-250gm, Koi 100-290gm, Singh 30-50gm, Magur 50-70gm, Rui, Catla and Silver carp 200-350 gm, Silver barb 20-50gm, Nona tengra 15-20gm
  • Transcript

    • 1. G2 - Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems 1
    • 2. “HIGH SALINITY” •Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm several weeks in aman •River water saline Dec-Jul •High soil salinity in dry season “MEDIUM SALINITY” •Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm several weeks in aman •River water saline mid-Feb-Jun •Medium soil salinity in dry season North 24 Parganas Polder 3 “LOW SALINITY” •Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm several weeks in aman •River water fresh year-round •Mild soil salinity in dry season Polder 30 Patuakhali STU South 24 Parganas Polder 43/2/F West Bengal, India SW& SC Bangladesh Andy Nelson
    • 3. Objectives (5+1) 1. Rice variety evaluation • aus (early rainy season) - low, medium • aman (main rainy season) - low, medium & high salinity • boro (dry season) - low, medium 2. Rice-based cropping system intensification • Rice-rice-rice – low; rice-rice medium • Rice-rice-rabi – low; rice-rabi medium • Rice+fish - brackish water aquaculture - high 3. Homestead production systems analysis & options • literature review & surveys - low, medium, high • evaluation of options for increasing productivity, incomes 4. Year-round brackish water aquaculture systems - high • Evaluation of improved management options 5. Technology & policy recommendations 6. Pilot community water management – CPWF Innovation Grant • 6 ha “compartment” 3
    • 4. SocioConsult CPWF Innovation Project Jahangir Alam 4
    • 5. 5
    • 6. 6
    • 7. Today’s presentation Liz – Bgd Sukanta - Ind 1. Improving rice–based agricultural cropping systems Saha – Bgd Ashutosh - Ind 2. Improving year-round aquaculture & riceaquaculture systems Manoranjan Kabir 3. Community water management pilot 4. Women-led participatory action research – homestead production systems 7
    • 8. Predominant agricultural cropping systems in the low & moderately saline regions of the coastal zone of Bangladesh ……........Fallow…………………... Traditional Rice (2-3.5 t/ha) Sesame, Keshari 0.5-1.0 t/ha) ....Fallow…… Traditional Rice (2-3.5 t/ha) Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun 8
    • 9. With improved water management, varieties & intensification we have achieved the following …..on-farm…..in the polders 9
    • 10. Cropping system intensification for low salinity areas 1. Aus-aman-boro (~16 t/ha) M J J A S O Aus (100-105 d) T. Aman (130-140 d) 1 Aug D J F M A 25 Nov 20 July 1 May N 5 Dec M 5 Apr Boro (140-145 d) Successfully implemented on-farm for 2 years – 7th crop – polder 43/2F HYV Short duration Salt tolerant HYV Medium duration Submergence tolerant Water stagnation tolerant HYV Medium duration “Early” sowing 10
    • 11. Cropping system intensification for low salinity areas 2. Aus-aman-rabi (~10 t/ha rice + 8 t/ha maize OR 3 t/ha sunflower etc) A M J J A S Aus (100-105 d) 10 July N D J F 15 Nov 30 June 10 Apr O T. Aman (130-140 d) M A 1 5Apr Rabi (130-140 d) 1 Dec Successfully implemented on-farm for 2 years – 7th crop – polder 43/2F HYV Short duration Salt tolerant HYV Medium duration Submergence tolerant Water stagnation tolerant HYV Maize Sunflower, Water melon Chilli etc. 11
    • 12. Cropping system intensification for medium salinity/water short areas 1. Aman-boro (~9 t/ha) M J J A S O D J F M A 25 Nov 20 July T. Aman (130-140 d) 1 Aug N 5 Dec Successfully implemented on-farm – polder 30 HYV Medium duration Submergence tolerant Water stagnation tolerant M 5 Apr Boro (140-145 d) HYV “Early” sowing Cold tolerant 12
    • 13. Cropping system intensification for medium salinity areas 2. Aman-rabi (~5 t/ha rice + 7 t/ha maize, 2-3 t/ha sunflower etc) A M J J A S O N D J F 15 Nov 10 July T. Aman (130-140 d) M A 1 5Apr Rabi (130-140 d) 1 Dec HYV Medium duration Submergence tolerant Water stagnation tolerant HYV Maize Sunflower, Water melon etc Chilli etc. 13
    • 14. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 14
    • 15. 6 ha pilot water management unit on polder 30 River Drainage canal Road Sluice gate Canal (khal) Drainage outlet Rural road 15
    • 16. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 16
    • 17. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 17
    • 18. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 4. Intake of water from rivers until they become too saline for irrigation In some areas lots of fresh water in the rivers almost year-round - untapped Polder 30 (Station-2, Pussur river) 16.00 Polder 43-2f (Station-2 (Out Side),Paira River) 24.0 Salinity (ppt) 20.0 12.00 4.00 -Aug-13 -Jun-13 -Apr-13 -Feb-13 -Dec-12 -Oct-12 -Aug-12 -Jun-12 -Apr-12 -Feb-12 0.00 -Dec-11 2-Mar 22-Nov 14-Aug 6-May 26-Jan Date 18-Oct 10-Jul 1-Apr 23-Dec 14-Sep 6-Jun 26-Feb 0.0 -Oct-11 4.0 8.00 -Aug-11 8.0 -Jun-11 12.0 -Apr-11 Salinity (ppt) 16.0 18
    • 19. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 4. Intake of water from rivers until they become too saline for irrigation In some areas lots of fresh water in the rivers almost year-round - untapped 5. De-silting of khals (CPWF phase 1) ..Increases storage capacity for irrigation when river too saline ..Facilitates drainage 19
    • 20. Khals within polders vary greatly in size, can store fresh water during the dry season, but often heavily silted up (some no longer exist), blocked… 20
    • 21. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 4. Intake of water from rivers until they become too saline for irrigation In some areas lots of fresh water in the rivers almost year-round - untapped 5. De-silting of khals ..Increases storage capacity for irrigation when river too saline ..Facilitates drainage 6. “Early” establishment of boro rice after aman (sow mid-Nov) Reduces storage requirement for fresh water to finish the crop off after the rivers become too saline Polder 30 - sufficient storage for 15-20% of land to grow boro rice 21 - desilting of khals  roughly double the possible boro ric
    • 22. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 4. Intake of water from rivers until they become too saline for irrigation In some areas lots of fresh water in the rivers almost year-round - untapped 5. De-silting of khals (CPWF phase 1) ..Increases storage capacity for irrigation when river too saline ..Facilitates drainage 6. “Early” establishment of boro rice after aman (sow mid-Nov – CPWF phase 1) Reduces storage requirement for fresh water to finish the crop off after the rivers become too saline 7. High yielding/value rabi crops during the dry season in water short areas Only need 2-3 irrigations 22
    • 23. Rice variety evaluation for West Bengal Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI) RRS Canning Town
    • 24. Challenges in Indian Ganges Basin • Rainy season – Stagnant flooding (0.3-0.5 m for 1+ month) • Dry season – Soil salinty – Lack of fresh water (some ground water pumping, but is it sustainable? – salinisation of aquifer) • Variety evaluation – Rainy season (aman) – land elevation/flooding depth tolerance – Dry season (boro) – salinity tolerance • Cropping system – Objective – reduce irrigation requirement for boro • Timely aman establishment-early boro establishment • Shorter duration
    • 25. Study locations:of boro rice cultivation Present scenario 20 km Polder 3, BD Sandeshkhali I Non-availability of adequate number of varieties for different salinity Sandeshkhali II Canning Delayed in seed bed preparation and planting Often planting with old seedlings Labour scarcity during planting Basanti Increasing expenditure on crop management especially water Shortage of irrigation water during ripening phase Exposing to hot weather during heading stage Crop lodging due to high wind during post-flowering period High cost involvement Gosaba Soil: Heavy texture Land type: Mostly ( 84%) low lying & flat topography Salinity: 5-15 dSm-1
    • 26. Aman Varietal Evaluation
    • 27. Participatory Varietal Evaluation
    • 28. Improved varieties for Aman season in the Coastal West Beng Variety/Line Sandeshkhali II* Highland Yield (t/ha) Sabita (local) Amal-Mana CSRC (D) 12-8-12 Swarna sub 1 LSD (0.05) Farmers’ choice 2.68 3.80 (42%) 3.52 (31%) 4.15 (55%) 0.38 Gosaba** Medium land Yield (t/ha) Farmers’ choice 3.15 2nd 1st 4.55 (44%) 4.15 (32%) 4.38 (39%) 0.39 Basanti*** Lowland Yield (t/ha) Farmers’ choice 2.60 1st 2nd 4.40 (69%) 4.80 (85%) 4.20 (61%) 0.41 2nd 1st
    • 29. Ground water use for Boro rice cultiva Village: Kheria Block: Basanti Dist. : South 24 Parganas Sample Irrigation water Field water Soil pH 6.77 6.97 7.03 EC 6.70 7.70 6.26
    • 30. Groundwater irrigation at Daudpur
    • 31. Daudpur (North 24 Parganas) monitoring of tube wells used for irrigation 500 m
    • 32. Salinity dS m-1 Change in Ground Water Salinity during dry season 8 6 4 2 0 January Class C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 EC (dS m-1) <1.5 1.5 – 3 3–5 5 – 10 >10 February March Quality characteristics Normal waters Low saline waters Medium saline waters Saline waters High saline waters April
    • 33. Soil salinity ECe (dSm-1) Changes in soil salinity during boro rice 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Sandeshkhali Gosaba 07.01.12 02.02.12 16.03.12 20.04.12
    • 34. Rice varietal trial during 2013 Boro season FARMERS’ FIELDS (low to high salinity) 1 BRRI dhan 47 6 N. Sankar 2 BRRI dhan 55 7 S. Sankar 3 4 5 BINA dhan 8 Parijat Bidhan-2 8 WGL-20471 9 Local 1 10 Local 2
    • 35. 7 Soil Salinity 3.10 dS/m Soil Salinity 7.15 dS/m Grain yield (t ha-1) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 155 d 155 d 145 d 145 d
    • 36. On-station experiment for evaluation of effect of duration & sowing date on water use & water productivity • • • • • • • • BRRI dhan 47 BRRI dhan 53 BRRI dhan 55 BINA dhan 8 CSR 34, CSR 22 IR 10206-29-2-1-1 CSRC (S) 50-2-1-1-4-B Dates of sowing: 06.11.12 & 28.11.12
    • 37. Grain yield & Duration of Boro Rice Varieties (on-station boro trial 2013, low salinity) 7 180 6 160 140 4 3 2 Days to maturity Grain yield (t ha-1) 5 120 100 80 60 40 1 0 20 0
    • 38. Water use & WUE of Boro rice Varieties 45 160 40 35 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 WUE (kg/ha-cm) Irrigation water used (cm) 140 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
    • 39. Average of 8 varieties 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 06.11.12 28.11.12 No. of irrigations Amount of irrigation water applied (cm) 17% Less irrigation water required by early sowing crop due to utilization of residual soil moisture & earlier maturity in cooler weather
    • 40. Thank U All
    • 41. Resilient Intensified and Diversified Agriculture and Aquaculture System Bangladesh
    • 42. Output 2: Rice-aquaculture for high salinity zone Output 4: Aquaculture for high salinity zone
    • 43. Rice-aquaculture: Salinity fluctuates from high in dry season to low in rainy season BANGLADESH Aquaculture: Salinity fluctuates from high in dry season to medium in rainy season
    • 44. Research Objective Improved management for enhanced productivity, profitability & resilience in rice-aquaculture & aquaculture systems 407-870 m2 24 mini-ghers for rice-aquaculture 866-1463 m2 12 mini-ghers for aquaculture
    • 45. Before Drain/Intake canal Around every gher Construction Ponds 47
    • 46. Aquaculture Treatments in 2013 3 aquaculture treatments in BOTH systems (4 reps) : 1. Farmers’ mgt : Polyculture Shrimp+ several fish spp, multiple stockings & harvests 2. Improved mgt 1: Rotational monoculture Dry season - shrimp (2 short crops) Wet season - monoculture tilapia; monoculture cat fish 3. Improved mgt 2: Rotational polyculture Dry season - shrimp+tilapia (2 short crops) Wet season - polyculture tilapia + carp + catfish Catfish (3 spp) Shrimp Singh & Magur Tilapia Carp ……………….Wet Nona tengra ……………Dry
    • 47. Some tradeoffs for rice & aquaculture system Saline water needs to be drained in July to allow leaching of salt by rainfall prior to rice transplanting Higher brackish water aquaculture production if saline water is kept for longer Need shallow water after transplanting rice (<20 cm) This is very shallow for aquaculture (importance of trenches) Better rice productivity with shallower water Better aquaculture productivity with deeper water Rice-aquaculture system Therefore 2 water depth treatments (50 cm, 70 cm) in rice-aquaculture system, both seasons
    • 48. Management Practice Liming Farmer’s Practice Improved 1 & 2 200 kg ha-1 200 kg ha-1 Water filtering Water depth Predatory Fish Fertilization Shrimp seed Feed Water replenishment Post stocking fertilization Fish seed Unfiltered Lower Not eradicated No fertilizer Not PCR tested No feed When needed Very insufficient Some wild Filtered Higher Eradicated Fertilizer & dolomite PCR tested Feeding When needed When primary production is low All from hatcheries
    • 49. Timeline (Output 2 & 4) Dry season (DS) March Shrimp & fish Stocking 1 April May Wet season (WS) July Aug. Harvest 2 Stocking - WS Harvest 1 Stocking 2 Rice transplanting Sept. Nov. Dec. Rice harvest Fish harvest Complete draining
    • 50. Water salinity (2012 versus 2013) Rice-aquaculture 1 Salinity (ppt) FP(70 cm) Mono(70 cm) Poly(70 cm) 2012 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 15 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 Days of culture FP(50 cm) Mono(50 cm) Poly(50 cm) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Mono (50 cm) FP (70 cm) Poly (70 cm) Salinity (ppt) FP (50cm) Poly (50 cm) Mono (70 cm) 2012 FP Mono Poly 1 15 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 Days of culture 2013 FP Mono Poly 30 Salinity (ppt) Salinity (ppt) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Aquaculture 25 2013 20 15 10 5 0 1 14 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 Days of Culture 1 14 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 Days of Culture
    • 51. Findings – Rice-aquaculture
    • 52. Depth of water during dry season 2013 80 Water Depth (cm) 70 60 50 40 30 20 FP(50 cm) Mono(50 cm) Mono(70 cm) Poly(50 cm) 10 FP(70 cm) Poly(70 cm) 0 1 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105112119 Days of Culture
    • 53. Dry season 2013 production (kg/ha) rice-aquaculture Culture pattern 1st crop 2nd crop (Shrimp 70 days, (Shrimp 52 days, Fish 55 days) Fish 41days) Shrimp Tilapia Shrimp* Tilapia* Total DS (March-July) Shrimp Tilapia 135 kg/ha shrimp 165 kg/ha fish to September (complete harvest December) Farmer’s practice Mono (50 cm) 388 ±22 - 271 ±52 - 659 - Poly (50 cm) 361 ±60 1625 ±56 255 ±67 775 ±23 616 2400 Mono (70 cm) 501 ±132 - 309 ±17 - 810 - Poly (70 cm) 381 ±57 1624 ±62 255 ±75 652 ±61 636 2276 * 2nd stocking delayed 15 days due to unavailability of quality seed shrimp & tilapia
    • 54. Economics of dry season rice- aquaculture production Tk X 1000/ha Culture pattern Mono (50 cm) Poly (50 cm) Mono (70 cm) Poly (70 cm) Total Variable cost Total Return Gross margin 175 277 102 320 475 155 178 340 162 296 472 176
    • 55. Progress of wet season production Water drained out for rice transplantation T-aman was affected by salinity from seepage from adjacent ghers & groundwater influx Transplantation of rice Tilapia harvesting
    • 56. Findings - aquaculture
    • 57. Depth of water during dry (March-July) season 80 FP Mono Poly 2013 60 40 20 0 1 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119 Water depth (cm) 100 Days of culture
    • 58. Dry season 2013 production (kg/ha) aquaculture Culture pattern 1st crop (Shrimp 70 days, Fish 55 days) Shrimp Farmer’s practice Tilapia 2nd crop (Shrimp 52 days, Fish 41days) Shrimp* Tilapia* Total DS Shrimp Tilapia 73.19 kg/ha bagda, 13 kg/ha harina, 144 kg tilapia and 8.61 kg/ha to September. (complete harvest December) Monoculture 565±31 Polyculture 373±27 1744 ±212 - 291±124 - 856 - 193±64 777±47 566 2521 * 2nd stocking delayed 15 days due to unavailability of quality seed shrimp & ti
    • 59. Economics of dry season aquaculture production Tk X 1000/ha Culture pattern Monoculture Polyculture Total variable cost Total Return Gross margin 180 359 179 293 464 171
    • 60. Progress of wet season production Partitioning of 4 ponds Tilapia disease due to lack of water exchange Stocking of new cat fish Tilapia harvesting
    • 61. Knowledge Sharing Labor group meeting Farmer group meeting Participation in seminar/workshops
    • 62. Key challenges Markets • Scarcity of quality shrimp and fish seed • Lack of quality feed in local market Aquaculture management • Prevention of escaping cat fish through dikes • Aquatic weed control Community • Poor feeder canal for gravitational water exchange (need community system) • Poaching risk increases (need to increase productivity of all ghers to lessen predation of individual gher – share the predation more evenly!)
    • 63. Lessons Learned • Short duration shrimp production appeared as less risky. • High demand for big size fingerlings in the locality – an expanding industry
    • 64. Other improvements You can make your saline gher dike green and environment friendly by adding trees
    • 65. Other improvements Vegetable can be grown on saline gher dikes during wet season
    • 66. Other improvements Local variety of grass grows very well on saline gher dikes which can be used as fodder
    • 67. Output 2: More productive, profitable, resilient & diversified rice-based cropping systems Paddy- Fish Culture in South 24 Paraganas, West Bengal, India In collaboration with CSSRI ,Canning
    • 68. How India and Bangladesh work is different ? Bangladesh Rice and fish in the same gher (large, shallow “pond” e.g. 0.5-5 ha) India Deep pond at one end Rainy season – fish in pond & rice crop Dry season – fish in pond only; rice irrigated from pond
    • 69. Paddy-Fish calendar Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov DEC Wet season Jan Feb Mar May Jun Apr Wet Dry season [ Bangladesh India Rice+fish+prawn Rice Fish in field & pond Shrimp+fish Dry season Boro rice Fish in pond Jul
    • 70. Objectives 1. to evaluate pond area/agricultural land area ratio (what size pond is large enough to grow boro rice in Dry Seasons ?) 2 treatments - 20% (current practice; not enough for boro rice) - 30% (enough for boro rice?) 2. to evaluate harvesting method 2 treatments – single harvest in Mar - phased harvesting (monthly, Dec- Mar)
    • 71. 2 Experimental sites Kakdwip Block: Vill – Shibkalinagar Namkhana Block: Vill- Madanganj,
    • 72. Experimental location and treatment Locations 1 & 2 2 pond areas (20%, 30% of total field) 2 harvesting treatments (single, phased) 3 replicates
    • 73. Before excavation of pond After excavation of pond
    • 74. DESIGN LAYOUT OF PADDY CUM FISH CULTURE (KHARIF) Paddy Cultivation Area Fish Culture without phase harvest Partition of pond and paddy field by Net Fish Culture with phase harvest Earthen Embankment Dyke cropping with horticultural crops Variety-1 (Amalmana) Trench Paddy Pond area
    • 75. Catla Catla ,Rohu ,Mrigala and Scampi Scampi Catla,Rohu,Mrigala and Scampi
    • 76. Monitoring of pond water and fish • Inputs (Lime, Feed, Fertiliser, advance fingerlings) • Water quality fortnightly - Temperature, pH, dissolved Oxygen, salinity, total alkalinity, ammoniacal– N, nitrate–N, phosphate • Growth & survival fortnightly • Feed intake weekly • Production
    • 77. Sampling Weighing of fish Plankton sampling Weighing of prawn Taking length of fish
    • 78. Monitoring of rice • • • • Inputs e.g. Fertiliser Growth, development Grain & straw yield Yield components
    • 79. Rainfall (mm) 2013 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct October rainfall 538 mm – long time average 130mm
    • 80. At the time of paddy plantation Mid way stage Present stage
    • 81. •All parameters similar except salinity •Conditions were within the optimum range for fish growth at all sites
    • 82. Growth of fish in different pond area
    • 83. Future Plan Will continue for 2014 dry & rainy seasons & 2015 dry season if possible • Harvesting rainy season rice • Start fish harvesting in December. • Nursery raising for boro rice December • Transplant boro rice Feb 14 • Final fish harvest March 2014. • Restocking of pond • Water budgeting
    • 84. THANK YOU
    • 85. Implementing community level water management in coastal Bangladesh Manoranjan Mondal, Elizabeth Humphreys T P Tuong and Alamgir Chowdhury SCL
    • 86. Low Saline Area: Aus-Aman-Boro A M J Aus J A S O N Aman Rainfall-River Water w/Suppl Irrigation D J F M Boro Irrigation A
    • 87. Low Saline Area: Aus-Aman-Rabi A M J Aus J A S O N D Aman Aus Aman J F M Rabi Terminal Drainage Rainfall-River Water w/Suppl Irrigation Residual Moisture A
    • 88. Moderate Saline Area: Aman-Rabi M J J A S O Aman (140 d) 15 July N D 15 Nov J F M A Rabi (120-140 d) Dec/Jan Terminal Drainage Rainfall-River Water Residual Soil Moisture M 30 Apr
    • 89. Moderate Saline Area: Aman-Boro M J J A S O Aman (140 d) N D 15 Nov J F M Boro (150 d) 10 Dec 15 July Rainfall-River Water Irrigation A M 30 Apr
    • 90. High Saline Area: Shrimp-[Aman+Fish] J F M A M J Shrimp+Tilapia J A S O N Rice+Fish D J
    • 91. Main causes of low productivity M J J A S O N T. Aman (140-160 d) 1. Prolonged water logging ~ 30 cm water depth at the beginning of aman season prevents adoption of HYV rice cultivation D J F M A M J Rabi (130-140 d) 2. Delayed establishment of rabi crops 3. Pre-monsoon rainfall
    • 92. Can the problem of water too deep for HYV rice solved? YES – by • Systematic operation of the sluice gates (open at low tide, close at high tide) • Separation of lands of different elevation with small levees • Strategic investments in infrastructure e.g. culverts under polder roads blocking natural drainage lines • Desilting drainage canals (khals) BUT • Need community participation
    • 93. Gravity drainage - an example of polder 30 Kazibacha river High tide water level 2.9 m Area (Percent) 0 40 60 80 100 4 Average water level 1.3 m Area-Elevation curve 3.5 Land level (mPWD) Low tide water level 0.0 m 20 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Area (sqkm) Lower-Shalta river High tide water level 2.7 m Average water level 1.0 m Low tide water level -0.50 m Elevation (above mean sea level, m) <0. 2 <0.6 <1.0 <1.2 <1.6 <1.8 % 0 15 61 80 95 98 60
    • 94. What we have done to improve productivity of coastal BD? • Obtain the agreement of a group of farmers to create a hydrologically separate pilot watershed area on polder 30 and operate the sluice gate systematically 97
    • 95. 6 ha pilot water management unit on polder 30 River Drainage canal Road Sluice gate Outlet Canal (khal) Rural road 98
    • 96. What we have done to improve productivity of coastal BD? • Obtained the agreement of the farmers to grow – HYV rice – High value and traditional rabi crops in the watershed area • Provided seed & training in recommended management for rice and rabi crops • Provided year-round coaching 99
    • 97. What we wanted to achieve? M J J A S O HYV Aman July N D J Nov F M HYV Rabi Dec/Jan Terminal Drainage Residual soil water River water EC 1-4 dSm-1 A M Apr
    • 98. What We Achieved & Lesson Learned
    • 99. • Only about 50% farmer cultivated HYV • Reasons – ~50% leasing land: tenant has to bear all expenses, crop share is only 1/3rd; pressure from land owners for traditional rice – Lower price of HYV in local market at that time – Need cash to buy inputs: fertilizer, pesticide – Higher cost of transplanting HYV due to closer spacing. Farmer cultivated rice (%) Lesson 1: HYV rice cultivation 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 HYV Local
    • 100. Lesson 2: Drainage during aman season • Constructed internal drains/bunds to separate high and low land & outlet • Installed drainage outlet • The crop was submerged twice • 8-14 August 2012: 264 mm rainfall, drained out within 4 days. • 3-5 September 2012: 246 mm rainfall, drained out within 3 days. • With this drainage network, watershed farmers successfully drained excess water.
    • 101. Drainage during aman season • Farmers operated the sluice gate systematically to quickly drain out excess water during the rainy season • BUT couldn’t drain on time for rabi establishment because of late maturing traditional varieties
    • 102. Rainfall & Water depth (mm) Lesson 3: Late drainage at the end of wet season- soil too wet for early rabi crop establishment 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Target drainage time – but irrigation! because local variety late maturing Transplanting Surface water gone but weather cold, foggy, soil too wet for tillage
    • 103. Lesson 4: Rabi crop establishment • Early establishment of rabi crops possible by dibbling – 2 farmers established sunflower by dibbling on 1 January 2013, harvested before the cyclone. – BUT dibbling cultivation requires more labour to spade the land, increasing production cost. (if not cultivated, how to apply fertilizer? soil cracks leading to root breakage, irrigation water loss down cracks-need small scale mechanization)
    • 104. Effect of LATE establishment of rabi crops
    • 105. Sesame seeds were broadcast during 14-28 February 2013
    • 106. Mungbean and sesame in pilot watershed on 18 May 2013
    • 107. 264 mm rain (19-31May 2013) flooded the crop field
    • 108. Flooded (0.3 m deep) sesame field on 23 May 2013
    • 109. Damaged sesame field in pilot watershed on 25 May 2013
    • 110. Damaged mungbean field in pilot watershed on 31 May 2013
    • 111. Effect of EARLY established rabi crops
    • 112. Sunflower established on 1st January 2013, harvested before cyclone (yield = 1.5 t/ha, well-irrigated, no fertiliser)
    • 113. Maize established on 24 February 2013 was in late grain filling at time of rains & farmer harvested 5 t/ha (~ 1/2 fertiliser )
    • 114. Aman 2013: Rice-Fish HYV Rice (Re comme nde d mngt) Traditional + HYV Rice (Farme rs’ mngt) Stocke d FISH in 6 ha – both are as (Tilapia, Mola) 117
    • 115. Aman Rice in 2013: ~ 5-6 t/ha from HYV
    • 116. 31-Oct 24-Oct 17-Oct 10-Oct 3-Oct 26-Sep 19-Sep Rainfall (mm) 120 12-Sep 140 5-Sep 29-Aug 22-Aug 15-Aug 8-Aug 1-Aug Rainfall & Water Depth (mm) Paddy water depth in 2013 aman season 180 160 Water depth (mm) 100 80 60 40 20 0
    • 117. Future potentials of community water management • Community water management is the key to outscaling improved agricultural technologies for food security of the communities living in coastal polders of BD. • Productivity & income could be increased integrating small indigenous fish with rice in the watershed area. • This will – Improve food & nutrition – More home consumption by children & women. – Increase aquatic agricultural diversity.
    • 118. THANK YOU SCL
    • 119. Women led participatory action research on homestead challenged pond aquaculture
    • 120. Objectives and research questions Objective to increase productivity, improve nutrition & income and empowerment of women Specific research questions: 1. 2. How to increase productivity, income and household consumption of fish from small shaded ponds without hampering regular household pond water uses ? How women’s capacity of decision making and control of resources can be improved through their involvement in shaded pond fish farming?
    • 121. Locations & new partners – under umbrella of G2 Farid pur Jess ore Polder 3: G2, AAS Region 2: Non SalineBari sal Polder 30: G2, AAS P39 Polder 43: G2, FtF-Aq P30 P3 P5 Region 1:Saline Polder 5: SmartFarm P43 Polder 39: SmartFarm Barisal: CSISA Faridpur: CSISA Jessore: CSISA
    • 122. PAR Process & team building Research team (RT): experts under different themes from participating projects Implementation monitoring team (IMT): Respective PO/TS/ADO of concerned project at each site Women’s groups: <1 ha land and pond with >60% shade throughout the day
    • 123. Designing the research: Community consultation Identifying resources and opportunities Prioritizing farmers preference Understanding gender and nutrition status Defining women role in participatory technology development
    • 124. Participatory Mapping of HFS
    • 125. Water availability in homestead ponds, use pattern and preference
    • 126. Women are Interested in Aquaculture research
    • 127. Fish Preference by Women
    • 128. Fish Feed Preference by Women Commercial Feed Home made feed Kitchen waste Insects & other naturally available feed
    • 129. Women Preference for Participating Different Activities of Aquaculture Fish sale Fish feeding monitoring Fish harvest Fish stocking
    • 130. Summary of community consultation output and individual farmer interview result were considered in designing the research
    • 131. Experimental Design Region: Two regions (saline & non saline) Treatments: Polyculture with 3 different species composition for each region focused on regular fish consumption and increased income Replication: 4 replications Control: Monitoring of 10 shaded pond in each area Management: Low cost feeding & management Monitoring: • Baseline & impact survey • Record keeping in WF record book • FARMER GROUP MEETING TWICE IN A MONTH • Collecting WQ & BW sampling data monthly
    • 132. Empowering women by building awareness & research Capacity Technical Support Gender & nutrition awareness Women farmers have improved research interest & capacity and more empowered in decision making & accessing resources
    • 133. Empowering women by building awareness & research Capacity
    • 134. Empowering women by building awareness & research Capacity
    • 135. Current status: – Tilapia started breeding in ponds – Fish growth & survival satisfactory Lessons learned: – Timely implementation of planned activities depends on national political stability – Need to develop local quality input suppliers – Success depends much on field staff motivation & sincerity
    • 136. Outcomes so far: – Farmers started regular harvesting & consumption – To date no problems regarding pond water use in other household activities. – Women farmers are highly motivated for action research (solving their problems: e.g. less or no productivity from shaded ponds) – Women farmer researchers already getting more importance in their families and communities Future plans: Continue for next couple of years focusing on total pond ecosystem, natural recruitment, connectivity with open water, monoculture/commercial aquaculture culture
    • 137. Plans to closure late 2014 1. Research activities • 2014 boro & aus variety trials in farmers fields (polders 30, 43/2/F) • continue cropping system demos to end of boro/rabi (30), aus (43/2/F) • continue pilot watershed to end of rabi 2014 • participatory adaptive trial of brackish water aquaculture technologies in • women-led participatory action research in 2014 • data analysis & writing 2. Outscaling activities - partnership with BRAC in • community watershed pilots • brackish water aquaculture outscaling • outscaling of agricultural cropping system intensification 3. Dissemination materials • scientific papers • brochures, videos for farmers & extensionists • presentations to high level officials, policy makers, donors 4. Seek opportunities/develop proposals for funding to build on achievements 142
    • 138. Research questions for the future (many) Common across aquatic-agriculture systems: 1. How can we implement improved community management to demonstrate the benefits of improved production systems? (about water & much more; agricultural cropping systems, aquaculture systems) 2. Is implementation of improved drainage/water management systems in polders economic? 3. Nutrient cycling in rice-shrimp systems Many others specific to: • rice varietal improvement (e.g. short duration, cold tolerant boro) • homestead production systems (e.g. pond-ecosystem approach) • sustainability of groundwater pumping for boro rice • establishment of rabi crops • aquaculture in saline areas 143

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