G2 - Productive, profitable, resilient
agriculture & aquaculture systems

1
“HIGH SALINITY”
•Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm
several weeks in aman
•River water saline Dec-Jul
•High soil salinity in dry
...
Objectives (5+1)
1. Rice variety evaluation
• aus (early rainy season) - low, medium
• aman (main rainy season) - low, med...
SocioConsult
CPWF
Innovation
Project

Jahangir
Alam

4
5
6
Today’s presentation
Liz – Bgd
Sukanta - Ind

1. Improving rice–based agricultural cropping
systems

Saha – Bgd
Ashutosh -...
Predominant agricultural cropping systems in the
low & moderately saline regions of the coastal zone of Bangladesh

…….......
With improved water
management, varieties &
intensification we have
achieved the following
…..on-farm…..in the polders
9
Cropping system intensification for low salinity areas
1. Aus-aman-boro (~16 t/ha)
M

J

J

A

S

O

Aus (100-105 d)

T. A...
Cropping system intensification for low salinity areas
2. Aus-aman-rabi (~10 t/ha rice + 8 t/ha maize OR 3 t/ha sunflower ...
Cropping system intensification for medium salinity/water short areas
1. Aman-boro (~9 t/ha)
M

J

J

A

S

O

D

J

F

M
...
Cropping system intensification for medium salinity areas
2. Aman-rabi (~5 t/ha rice + 7 t/ha maize, 2-3 t/ha sunflower et...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
6 ha pilot water management unit on polder 30

River
Drainage
canal

Road
Sluice
gate

Canal
(khal)

Drainage
outlet

Rura...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
Khals within polders vary greatly in size, can store fresh water during the dry
season, but often heavily silted up (some ...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders
1. Separation of lands of higher & lower
elevation (mini-water...
Rice variety evaluation for West Bengal
Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI)
RRS Canning Town
Challenges in Indian Ganges Basin
• Rainy season
– Stagnant flooding (0.3-0.5 m for 1+ month)

• Dry season
– Soil salinty...
Study locations:of boro rice cultivation
Present scenario

20 km
Polder 3, BD
Sandeshkhali I

Non-availability of adequate...
Aman Varietal Evaluation
Participatory Varietal
Evaluation
Improved varieties for Aman season in the Coastal West Beng

Variety/Line

Sandeshkhali II*
Highland
Yield
(t/ha)

Sabita ...
Ground water use for Boro rice cultiva

Village: Kheria
Block: Basanti
Dist. : South 24 Parganas
Sample
Irrigation water
F...
Groundwater irrigation at Daudpur
Daudpur (North 24 Parganas)
monitoring of tube wells used
for irrigation

500 m
Salinity dS m-1

Change in Ground Water Salinity
during dry season
8
6

4
2
0
January
Class
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5

EC (dS m-1)
<1...
Soil salinity ECe (dSm-1)

Changes in soil salinity during boro rice
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Sandeshkhali
Gosaba

07.01.12

0...
Rice varietal trial during 2013 Boro season
FARMERS’ FIELDS (low to high salinity)
1

BRRI dhan 47

6

N. Sankar

2

BRRI ...
7

Soil Salinity 3.10 dS/m
Soil Salinity 7.15 dS/m

Grain yield (t ha-1)

6
5
4

3
2
1
0

155 d

155 d
145 d

145 d
On-station experiment for
evaluation of effect of duration & sowing date
on water use & water productivity

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
...
Grain yield & Duration of Boro Rice Varieties
(on-station boro trial 2013, low salinity)
7

180

6

160
140

4
3
2

Days t...
Water use & WUE of Boro rice Varieties
45

160

40
35

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

WUE (kg/ha-cm)

Irrigation water used (cm)

...
Average of 8 varieties

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

06.11.12
28.11.12

No. of irrigations

Amount of irrigation
wat...
Thank U All
Resilient Intensified and
Diversified Agriculture and
Aquaculture System
Bangladesh
Output 2: Rice-aquaculture
for high salinity zone

Output 4: Aquaculture for
high salinity zone
Rice-aquaculture: Salinity fluctuates from
high in dry season to low in rainy season

BANGLADESH

Aquaculture: Salinity fl...
Research Objective
Improved management for enhanced productivity, profitability &
resilience in rice-aquaculture & aquacul...
Before

Drain/Intake canal
Around every gher

Construction

Ponds

47
Aquaculture Treatments in 2013
3 aquaculture treatments in BOTH systems (4 reps) :
1. Farmers’ mgt

: Polyculture
Shrimp+ ...
Some tradeoffs for rice & aquaculture system
Saline water needs to be drained in July to allow leaching of salt by
rainfal...
Management
Practice
Liming

Farmer’s Practice Improved 1 & 2
200 kg ha-1
200 kg ha-1

Water filtering
Water depth
Predator...
Timeline (Output 2 & 4)
Dry season (DS)
March

Shrimp
& fish
Stocking 1

April

May

Wet season (WS)

July

Aug.

Harvest ...
Water salinity (2012 versus 2013)
Rice-aquaculture

1

Salinity (ppt)

FP(70 cm)
Mono(70 cm)
Poly(70 cm)

2012

30
25
20
1...
Findings – Rice-aquaculture
Depth of water during dry season

2013
80

Water Depth (cm)

70
60
50

40
30
20

FP(50 cm)

Mono(50 cm)

Mono(70 cm)

Poly...
Dry season 2013 production (kg/ha) rice-aquaculture
Culture
pattern

1st crop
2nd crop
(Shrimp 70 days, (Shrimp 52 days,
F...
Economics of dry season rice- aquaculture production
Tk X 1000/ha

Culture
pattern

Mono
(50 cm)
Poly
(50 cm)
Mono
(70 cm)...
Progress of wet season production

Water drained out for rice transplantation

T-aman was affected by salinity from
seepag...
Findings - aquaculture
Depth of water during dry (March-July) season

80

FP
Mono
Poly

2013

60
40

20
0
1
7
14
21
28
35
42
49
56
63
70
77
84
91...
Dry season 2013 production (kg/ha) aquaculture

Culture
pattern

1st crop
(Shrimp 70 days,
Fish 55 days)
Shrimp

Farmer’s
...
Economics of dry season aquaculture production
Tk X 1000/ha

Culture
pattern
Monoculture

Polyculture

Total
variable
cost...
Progress of wet season production

Partitioning of 4 ponds

Tilapia disease due to lack of water exchange

Stocking of new...
Knowledge Sharing
Labor group meeting

Farmer group meeting

Participation in seminar/workshops
Key challenges
Markets
• Scarcity of quality shrimp and fish seed
• Lack of quality feed in local market
Aquaculture manag...
Lessons Learned
• Short duration shrimp production
appeared as less risky.
• High demand for big size fingerlings in
the l...
Other improvements

You can make your saline gher dike green and environment
friendly by adding trees
Other improvements

Vegetable can be grown on saline gher dikes during wet season
Other improvements

Local variety of grass grows very well on saline gher dikes
which can be used as fodder
Output 2: More productive, profitable, resilient &
diversified rice-based cropping systems

Paddy- Fish Culture in
South 2...
How India and Bangladesh work is different ?

Bangladesh
Rice and fish in the same gher
(large, shallow “pond”
e.g. 0.5-5 ...
Paddy-Fish calendar
Jul Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

DEC

Wet season

Jan

Feb

Mar

May Jun

Apr

Wet

Dry season
[

Bangladesh

...
Objectives
1. to evaluate pond area/agricultural land area ratio
(what size pond is large enough to grow boro rice in Dry
...
2 Experimental sites

Kakdwip Block: Vill – Shibkalinagar
Namkhana Block: Vill- Madanganj,
Experimental location and treatment
Locations 1 & 2
2 pond areas
(20%, 30% of total field)
2 harvesting treatments (single...
Before excavation of pond

After excavation of pond
DESIGN LAYOUT OF PADDY CUM FISH CULTURE (KHARIF)
Paddy Cultivation Area

Fish Culture
without phase harvest

Partition of ...
Catla

Catla ,Rohu ,Mrigala and Scampi

Scampi

Catla,Rohu,Mrigala and Scampi
Monitoring of pond water and fish
• Inputs
(Lime, Feed, Fertiliser, advance
fingerlings)
• Water quality fortnightly
- Tem...
Sampling

Weighing of fish

Plankton sampling

Weighing of prawn

Taking length of fish
Monitoring of rice
•
•
•
•

Inputs e.g. Fertiliser
Growth, development
Grain & straw yield
Yield components
Rainfall (mm)

2013

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

October rainfall 538 mm – long time avera...
At the time of paddy plantation

Mid way stage

Present stage
•All parameters similar except salinity
•Conditions were within the optimum range for fish growth at all sites
Growth of fish in different pond area
Future Plan
Will continue for 2014 dry & rainy seasons & 2015 dry
season if possible
• Harvesting rainy season rice
• Star...
THANK YOU
Implementing community level
water management in coastal
Bangladesh

Manoranjan Mondal, Elizabeth Humphreys
T P Tuong and ...
Low Saline Area: Aus-Aman-Boro
A

M

J

Aus

J

A

S

O

N
Aman

Rainfall-River Water w/Suppl Irrigation

D

J

F

M

Boro...
Low Saline Area: Aus-Aman-Rabi
A

M

J

Aus

J

A

S

O

N

D

Aman
Aus
Aman

J

F

M

Rabi

Terminal Drainage

Rainfall-R...
Moderate Saline Area: Aman-Rabi
M

J

J

A

S

O

Aman (140 d)

15 July

N

D

15 Nov

J

F

M

A

Rabi (120-140 d)

Dec/J...
Moderate Saline Area: Aman-Boro
M

J

J

A

S

O

Aman (140 d)

N

D

15 Nov

J

F

M

Boro (150 d)

10 Dec

15 July
Rainf...
High Saline Area: Shrimp-[Aman+Fish]
J

F

M

A

M

J

Shrimp+Tilapia

J

A

S

O

N

Rice+Fish

D

J
Main causes of low productivity
M

J

J

A

S

O

N

T. Aman (140-160 d)

1. Prolonged water logging ~ 30 cm water depth a...
Can the problem of water too deep for HYV rice solved?
YES – by
• Systematic operation of the sluice
gates (open at low ti...
Gravity drainage - an example of polder 30
Kazibacha river
High tide water level 2.9 m

Area (Percent)
0

40

60

80

100
...
What we have done to improve productivity of coastal BD?
• Obtain the agreement of a group of farmers to create a
hydrolog...
6 ha pilot water management unit on polder 30

River
Drainage
canal

Road

Sluice
gate
Outlet

Canal
(khal)

Rural
road
98
What we have done to improve productivity of coastal BD?
• Obtained the agreement
of the farmers to grow
– HYV rice
– High...
What we wanted to achieve?
M

J

J

A

S

O

HYV Aman

July

N

D

J

Nov

F

M

HYV Rabi

Dec/Jan
Terminal Drainage
Resid...
What We Achieved & Lesson Learned
• Only about 50% farmer
cultivated HYV
• Reasons
– ~50% leasing land: tenant
has to bear all expenses,
crop share is only ...
Lesson 2: Drainage during aman season
• Constructed internal
drains/bunds to separate high
and low land & outlet
• Install...
Drainage during aman season
• Farmers operated the sluice gate systematically to
quickly drain out excess water during the...
Rainfall & Water depth (mm)

Lesson 3: Late drainage at the end of wet season- soil too
wet for early rabi crop establishm...
Lesson 4: Rabi crop establishment
• Early establishment of rabi crops possible by dibbling
– 2 farmers established sunflow...
Effect of LATE establishment of rabi crops
Sesame seeds were broadcast during 14-28 February
2013
Mungbean and sesame in pilot watershed on 18 May
2013
264 mm rain (19-31May 2013) flooded the crop field
Flooded (0.3 m deep) sesame field on 23 May 2013
Damaged sesame field in pilot watershed on 25 May
2013
Damaged mungbean field in pilot watershed on 31 May
2013
Effect of EARLY established rabi crops
Sunflower established on 1st January 2013, harvested
before cyclone (yield = 1.5 t/ha, well-irrigated, no
fertiliser)
Maize established on 24 February 2013 was in late grain
filling at time of rains & farmer harvested 5 t/ha (~ 1/2
fertilis...
Aman 2013: Rice-Fish

HYV Rice
(Re comme nde d mngt)
Traditional + HYV Rice
(Farme rs’ mngt)

Stocke d FISH in 6 ha –
both...
Aman Rice in 2013: ~ 5-6 t/ha from HYV
31-Oct

24-Oct

17-Oct

10-Oct

3-Oct

26-Sep

19-Sep

Rainfall (mm)

120

12-Sep

140

5-Sep

29-Aug

22-Aug

15-Aug

8-A...
Future potentials of
community water management
• Community water management is the key to outscaling
improved agricultura...
THANK YOU

SCL
Women led participatory action research on
homestead challenged pond aquaculture
Objectives and research questions
Objective
to increase productivity, improve nutrition & income and empowerment of
women
...
Locations & new partners – under umbrella of G2
Farid
pur

Jess
ore

Polder 3: G2, AAS

Region 2: Non SalineBari
sal

Pold...
PAR Process & team building

Research team (RT): experts under different themes from participating projects
Implementation...
Designing the research: Community consultation
Identifying resources and opportunities
Prioritizing farmers preference
Und...
Participatory Mapping of HFS
Water availability in homestead ponds, use pattern
and preference
Women are Interested in Aquaculture research
Fish Preference by Women
Fish Feed Preference by Women

Commercial
Feed

Home made
feed

Kitchen
waste

Insects &
other
naturally
available
feed
Women Preference for
Participating Different
Activities of
Aquaculture

Fish sale

Fish feeding
monitoring

Fish harvest

...
Summary of community consultation output and individual farmer
interview result were considered in designing the research
Experimental Design

Region: Two regions (saline & non saline)
Treatments: Polyculture with 3 different species compositio...
Empowering women by building awareness & research Capacity

Technical
Support

Gender &
nutrition
awareness

Women farmers...
Empowering women by building awareness & research Capacity
Empowering women by building awareness & research Capacity
Current status:
– Tilapia started breeding in ponds
– Fish growth & survival satisfactory

Lessons learned:
– Timely imple...
Outcomes so far:
– Farmers started regular harvesting & consumption
– To date no problems regarding pond water use in othe...
Plans to closure late 2014
1. Research activities
• 2014 boro & aus variety trials in farmers fields (polders 30, 43/2/F)
...
Research questions for the future (many)
Common across aquatic-agriculture systems:
1. How can we implement improved commu...
G2   Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems
G2   Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems
G2   Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems
G2   Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems
G2   Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems
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G2 Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems

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by Dr.Liz Humphreys & Team
Presented at the GBDC Reflection Workshop,November 2013

Published in: Technology, Business
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  • Working in 4 locations in Bangladesh &amp; 2 in India representing 3 situations
  • 10 formal partners (LoAs)Collaborating with several other projects – e.g. CSISA and CPWF are jointly supporting 3 PhD scholars embedded in the CPWF G2 team
  • Sukanta, Subasis,Dhiman
  • 250 mm on 2 occasions, the first shortly after transplanting; able to get the water off in 3-4 d with systematic operation of the sluice gate
  • Picture of kharif trial
  • In all situations, the improved varities greatly increase yield over the local varietyThe best variety varies depending on land elevation i.e. Degree of water stagnation
  • Photo of Daudpur site
  • Add a scale
  • Change to one site where there was significant increase in gw salinity – is it sustainable with existing level of pumping? What happens if more tubewells/pumping introduced?
  • Soil data for the same site
  • Simplify – 3 Bangladeshi vars, 5 Indian, 2 local (farmer)
  • Similar yield of best BRRI varieties and Indian varieties at both salinity levels, but shorter duration by 15-20 daysGraph with best Indian vsBgd – yield, duration
  • 1 slide on effect of duration1 slide on effect of sowing date
  • graph
  • Both systems have aquaculture throughout the yearOP 2 has rice in the systemOP 4 is only aquaculture
  • Name changed from “year-round aquaculture” to “aquaculture” because aquaculture is year-round in both systems
  • Explain the design for improved mgt – ditch for fish refuge, strong wall so can have deeper water than what farmers traditionally practice
  • This was a huge undertaking in partnership with Feed the Future
  • Main Differences from 20122 short shrimp crops to reduce the risk of disease &amp; because of better price for smaller size 3 new spp in wet season – diversification with benefits for higher productivity and income
  • Contrast seasonal conditions for shrimp phase in shrimp-rice ghers – hence need to evaluate over several yearsSame pattern of course in aquaculture only ghersDry season salinity much higher in aquaculture only ghers in 2012 but similar in 2013
  • Improved systems much more productive than farmersDelay in 2nd stocking greatly reduced productivity of 2nd stocking3. Shrimp production double than that in 2012; Very little shrimp disease this year (surrounding farmers’ ghers had some disease, not as much as last year)
  • All highly profitable – need to do the economics taking into account the capital investment
  • Photo of netting
  • Start depth scale at zero
  • Delay in 2nd stocking greatly reduced productivity of 2nd stockingVery little shrimp disease this year (surrounding farmers’ ghers had some disease, not as much as last year)Shrimp production double that in 2012
  • Lack of water exchange because of lack of direct access to supply channelSolved by removing diseased fish &amp; harvesting larger non-diseased fish to reduce fish biomass
  • Separate Labor and farmer group meetings at each site every month. Also shared in BFRI regional and central workshop and monthly meeting. Updates are presented in G5 bimonthly progress meeting
  • Adding fruit and timber tree will increase profitability and resilience
  • A good way of diversifyinggher food products
  • Reduces soil erosion and increases possibility of integrating livestock within gher system. This can be used as livestock fodder
  • Improve CPWF logo, get SCL logo before the end of the project
  • Why did CPWF pick the coastal zone of the Ganges?It’s an area in desperate need:Many millions of really poor, vulnerable people dependent on agriculture &amp; aquacultureLow productivity – it missed out on the Green RevolutionBuild on 2 of the best projects in CPWF phase 1 – both were IRRI-ledThese projects showed that there is ….I believe that there is potential for Bdg to
  • Why did CPWF pick the coastal zone of the Ganges?It’s an area in desperate need:Many millions of really poor, vulnerable people dependent on agriculture &amp; aquacultureLow productivity – it missed out on the Green RevolutionBuild on 2 of the best projects in CPWF phase 1 – both were IRRI-ledThese projects showed that there is ….I believe that there is potential for Bdg to
  • 250 mm on 2 occasions, the first shortly after transplanting; able to get the water off in 3-4 d with systematic operation of the sluice gate
  • Why did CPWF pick the coastal zone of the Ganges?It’s an area in desperate need:Many millions of really poor, vulnerable people dependent on agriculture &amp; aquacultureLow productivity – it missed out on the Green RevolutionBuild on 2 of the best projects in CPWF phase 1 – both were IRRI-ledThese projects showed that there is ….I believe that there is potential for Bdg to
  • Why did CPWF pick the coastal zone of the Ganges?It’s an area in desperate need:Many millions of really poor, vulnerable people dependent on agriculture &amp; aquacultureLow productivity – it missed out on the Green RevolutionBuild on 2 of the best projects in CPWF phase 1 – both were IRRI-ledThese projects showed that there is ….I believe that there is potential for Bdg to
  • Unless we could develop small machineries, production cost will increase due to higher labor cost in intercultural operations
  • 250 mm on 2 occasions, the first shortly after transplanting; able to get the water off in 3-4 d with systematic operation of the sluice gate
  • Water management synchronised with fertiliser application
  • Improve CPWF logo, get SCL logo before the end of the project
  • 3 important elements to emphasiseExplain challenged ponds – show pond picture in next slides
  • As of 8th Oct: Tilapia bred 1-3 times. 1st stock is 150-250gm, Koi 100-290gm, Singh 30-50gm, Magur 50-70gm, Rui, Catla and Silver carp 200-350 gm, Silver barb 20-50gm, Nona tengra 15-20gm
  • G2 Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems

    1. 1. G2 - Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems 1
    2. 2. “HIGH SALINITY” •Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm several weeks in aman •River water saline Dec-Jul •High soil salinity in dry season “MEDIUM SALINITY” •Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm several weeks in aman •River water saline mid-Feb-Jun •Medium soil salinity in dry season North 24 Parganas Polder 3 “LOW SALINITY” •Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm several weeks in aman •River water fresh year-round •Mild soil salinity in dry season Polder 30 Patuakhali STU South 24 Parganas Polder 43/2/F West Bengal, India SW& SC Bangladesh Andy Nelson
    3. 3. Objectives (5+1) 1. Rice variety evaluation • aus (early rainy season) - low, medium • aman (main rainy season) - low, medium & high salinity • boro (dry season) - low, medium 2. Rice-based cropping system intensification • Rice-rice-rice – low; rice-rice medium • Rice-rice-rabi – low; rice-rabi medium • Rice+fish - brackish water aquaculture - high 3. Homestead production systems analysis & options • literature review & surveys - low, medium, high • evaluation of options for increasing productivity, incomes 4. Year-round brackish water aquaculture systems - high • Evaluation of improved management options 5. Technology & policy recommendations 6. Pilot community water management – CPWF Innovation Grant • 6 ha “compartment” 3
    4. 4. SocioConsult CPWF Innovation Project Jahangir Alam 4
    5. 5. 5
    6. 6. 6
    7. 7. Today’s presentation Liz – Bgd Sukanta - Ind 1. Improving rice–based agricultural cropping systems Saha – Bgd Ashutosh - Ind 2. Improving year-round aquaculture & riceaquaculture systems Manoranjan Kabir 3. Community water management pilot 4. Women-led participatory action research – homestead production systems 7
    8. 8. Predominant agricultural cropping systems in the low & moderately saline regions of the coastal zone of Bangladesh ……........Fallow…………………... Traditional Rice (2-3.5 t/ha) Sesame, Keshari 0.5-1.0 t/ha) ....Fallow…… Traditional Rice (2-3.5 t/ha) Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun 8
    9. 9. With improved water management, varieties & intensification we have achieved the following …..on-farm…..in the polders 9
    10. 10. Cropping system intensification for low salinity areas 1. Aus-aman-boro (~16 t/ha) M J J A S O Aus (100-105 d) T. Aman (130-140 d) 1 Aug D J F M A 25 Nov 20 July 1 May N 5 Dec M 5 Apr Boro (140-145 d) Successfully implemented on-farm for 2 years – 7th crop – polder 43/2F HYV Short duration Salt tolerant HYV Medium duration Submergence tolerant Water stagnation tolerant HYV Medium duration “Early” sowing 10
    11. 11. Cropping system intensification for low salinity areas 2. Aus-aman-rabi (~10 t/ha rice + 8 t/ha maize OR 3 t/ha sunflower etc) A M J J A S Aus (100-105 d) 10 July N D J F 15 Nov 30 June 10 Apr O T. Aman (130-140 d) M A 1 5Apr Rabi (130-140 d) 1 Dec Successfully implemented on-farm for 2 years – 7th crop – polder 43/2F HYV Short duration Salt tolerant HYV Medium duration Submergence tolerant Water stagnation tolerant HYV Maize Sunflower, Water melon Chilli etc. 11
    12. 12. Cropping system intensification for medium salinity/water short areas 1. Aman-boro (~9 t/ha) M J J A S O D J F M A 25 Nov 20 July T. Aman (130-140 d) 1 Aug N 5 Dec Successfully implemented on-farm – polder 30 HYV Medium duration Submergence tolerant Water stagnation tolerant M 5 Apr Boro (140-145 d) HYV “Early” sowing Cold tolerant 12
    13. 13. Cropping system intensification for medium salinity areas 2. Aman-rabi (~5 t/ha rice + 7 t/ha maize, 2-3 t/ha sunflower etc) A M J J A S O N D J F 15 Nov 10 July T. Aman (130-140 d) M A 1 5Apr Rabi (130-140 d) 1 Dec HYV Medium duration Submergence tolerant Water stagnation tolerant HYV Maize Sunflower, Water melon etc Chilli etc. 13
    14. 14. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 14
    15. 15. 6 ha pilot water management unit on polder 30 River Drainage canal Road Sluice gate Canal (khal) Drainage outlet Rural road 15
    16. 16. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 16
    17. 17. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 17
    18. 18. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 4. Intake of water from rivers until they become too saline for irrigation In some areas lots of fresh water in the rivers almost year-round - untapped Polder 30 (Station-2, Pussur river) 16.00 Polder 43-2f (Station-2 (Out Side),Paira River) 24.0 Salinity (ppt) 20.0 12.00 4.00 -Aug-13 -Jun-13 -Apr-13 -Feb-13 -Dec-12 -Oct-12 -Aug-12 -Jun-12 -Apr-12 -Feb-12 0.00 -Dec-11 2-Mar 22-Nov 14-Aug 6-May 26-Jan Date 18-Oct 10-Jul 1-Apr 23-Dec 14-Sep 6-Jun 26-Feb 0.0 -Oct-11 4.0 8.00 -Aug-11 8.0 -Jun-11 12.0 -Apr-11 Salinity (ppt) 16.0 18
    19. 19. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 4. Intake of water from rivers until they become too saline for irrigation In some areas lots of fresh water in the rivers almost year-round - untapped 5. De-silting of khals (CPWF phase 1) ..Increases storage capacity for irrigation when river too saline ..Facilitates drainage 19
    20. 20. Khals within polders vary greatly in size, can store fresh water during the dry season, but often heavily silted up (some no longer exist), blocked… 20
    21. 21. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 4. Intake of water from rivers until they become too saline for irrigation In some areas lots of fresh water in the rivers almost year-round - untapped 5. De-silting of khals ..Increases storage capacity for irrigation when river too saline ..Facilitates drainage 6. “Early” establishment of boro rice after aman (sow mid-Nov) Reduces storage requirement for fresh water to finish the crop off after the rivers become too saline Polder 30 - sufficient storage for 15-20% of land to grow boro rice 21 - desilting of khals  roughly double the possible boro ric
    22. 22. Water mgt ingredients for a Green Revolution in the Polders 1. Separation of lands of higher & lower elevation (mini-water mgt units) Prevent accumulation of drainage in lowlands – enable cultivation of rice/HYV 2. Strategic drainage during the rainy season Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (mid-Nov) 3. Drainage shortly before aman harvest (early Nov) Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops 4. Intake of water from rivers until they become too saline for irrigation In some areas lots of fresh water in the rivers almost year-round - untapped 5. De-silting of khals (CPWF phase 1) ..Increases storage capacity for irrigation when river too saline ..Facilitates drainage 6. “Early” establishment of boro rice after aman (sow mid-Nov – CPWF phase 1) Reduces storage requirement for fresh water to finish the crop off after the rivers become too saline 7. High yielding/value rabi crops during the dry season in water short areas Only need 2-3 irrigations 22
    23. 23. Rice variety evaluation for West Bengal Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI) RRS Canning Town
    24. 24. Challenges in Indian Ganges Basin • Rainy season – Stagnant flooding (0.3-0.5 m for 1+ month) • Dry season – Soil salinty – Lack of fresh water (some ground water pumping, but is it sustainable? – salinisation of aquifer) • Variety evaluation – Rainy season (aman) – land elevation/flooding depth tolerance – Dry season (boro) – salinity tolerance • Cropping system – Objective – reduce irrigation requirement for boro • Timely aman establishment-early boro establishment • Shorter duration
    25. 25. Study locations:of boro rice cultivation Present scenario 20 km Polder 3, BD Sandeshkhali I Non-availability of adequate number of varieties for different salinity Sandeshkhali II Canning Delayed in seed bed preparation and planting Often planting with old seedlings Labour scarcity during planting Basanti Increasing expenditure on crop management especially water Shortage of irrigation water during ripening phase Exposing to hot weather during heading stage Crop lodging due to high wind during post-flowering period High cost involvement Gosaba Soil: Heavy texture Land type: Mostly ( 84%) low lying & flat topography Salinity: 5-15 dSm-1
    26. 26. Aman Varietal Evaluation
    27. 27. Participatory Varietal Evaluation
    28. 28. Improved varieties for Aman season in the Coastal West Beng Variety/Line Sandeshkhali II* Highland Yield (t/ha) Sabita (local) Amal-Mana CSRC (D) 12-8-12 Swarna sub 1 LSD (0.05) Farmers’ choice 2.68 3.80 (42%) 3.52 (31%) 4.15 (55%) 0.38 Gosaba** Medium land Yield (t/ha) Farmers’ choice 3.15 2nd 1st 4.55 (44%) 4.15 (32%) 4.38 (39%) 0.39 Basanti*** Lowland Yield (t/ha) Farmers’ choice 2.60 1st 2nd 4.40 (69%) 4.80 (85%) 4.20 (61%) 0.41 2nd 1st
    29. 29. Ground water use for Boro rice cultiva Village: Kheria Block: Basanti Dist. : South 24 Parganas Sample Irrigation water Field water Soil pH 6.77 6.97 7.03 EC 6.70 7.70 6.26
    30. 30. Groundwater irrigation at Daudpur
    31. 31. Daudpur (North 24 Parganas) monitoring of tube wells used for irrigation 500 m
    32. 32. Salinity dS m-1 Change in Ground Water Salinity during dry season 8 6 4 2 0 January Class C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 EC (dS m-1) <1.5 1.5 – 3 3–5 5 – 10 >10 February March Quality characteristics Normal waters Low saline waters Medium saline waters Saline waters High saline waters April
    33. 33. Soil salinity ECe (dSm-1) Changes in soil salinity during boro rice 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Sandeshkhali Gosaba 07.01.12 02.02.12 16.03.12 20.04.12
    34. 34. Rice varietal trial during 2013 Boro season FARMERS’ FIELDS (low to high salinity) 1 BRRI dhan 47 6 N. Sankar 2 BRRI dhan 55 7 S. Sankar 3 4 5 BINA dhan 8 Parijat Bidhan-2 8 WGL-20471 9 Local 1 10 Local 2
    35. 35. 7 Soil Salinity 3.10 dS/m Soil Salinity 7.15 dS/m Grain yield (t ha-1) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 155 d 155 d 145 d 145 d
    36. 36. On-station experiment for evaluation of effect of duration & sowing date on water use & water productivity • • • • • • • • BRRI dhan 47 BRRI dhan 53 BRRI dhan 55 BINA dhan 8 CSR 34, CSR 22 IR 10206-29-2-1-1 CSRC (S) 50-2-1-1-4-B Dates of sowing: 06.11.12 & 28.11.12
    37. 37. Grain yield & Duration of Boro Rice Varieties (on-station boro trial 2013, low salinity) 7 180 6 160 140 4 3 2 Days to maturity Grain yield (t ha-1) 5 120 100 80 60 40 1 0 20 0
    38. 38. Water use & WUE of Boro rice Varieties 45 160 40 35 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 WUE (kg/ha-cm) Irrigation water used (cm) 140 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
    39. 39. Average of 8 varieties 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 06.11.12 28.11.12 No. of irrigations Amount of irrigation water applied (cm) 17% Less irrigation water required by early sowing crop due to utilization of residual soil moisture & earlier maturity in cooler weather
    40. 40. Thank U All
    41. 41. Resilient Intensified and Diversified Agriculture and Aquaculture System Bangladesh
    42. 42. Output 2: Rice-aquaculture for high salinity zone Output 4: Aquaculture for high salinity zone
    43. 43. Rice-aquaculture: Salinity fluctuates from high in dry season to low in rainy season BANGLADESH Aquaculture: Salinity fluctuates from high in dry season to medium in rainy season
    44. 44. Research Objective Improved management for enhanced productivity, profitability & resilience in rice-aquaculture & aquaculture systems 407-870 m2 24 mini-ghers for rice-aquaculture 866-1463 m2 12 mini-ghers for aquaculture
    45. 45. Before Drain/Intake canal Around every gher Construction Ponds 47
    46. 46. Aquaculture Treatments in 2013 3 aquaculture treatments in BOTH systems (4 reps) : 1. Farmers’ mgt : Polyculture Shrimp+ several fish spp, multiple stockings & harvests 2. Improved mgt 1: Rotational monoculture Dry season - shrimp (2 short crops) Wet season - monoculture tilapia; monoculture cat fish 3. Improved mgt 2: Rotational polyculture Dry season - shrimp+tilapia (2 short crops) Wet season - polyculture tilapia + carp + catfish Catfish (3 spp) Shrimp Singh & Magur Tilapia Carp ……………….Wet Nona tengra ……………Dry
    47. 47. Some tradeoffs for rice & aquaculture system Saline water needs to be drained in July to allow leaching of salt by rainfall prior to rice transplanting Higher brackish water aquaculture production if saline water is kept for longer Need shallow water after transplanting rice (<20 cm) This is very shallow for aquaculture (importance of trenches) Better rice productivity with shallower water Better aquaculture productivity with deeper water Rice-aquaculture system Therefore 2 water depth treatments (50 cm, 70 cm) in rice-aquaculture system, both seasons
    48. 48. Management Practice Liming Farmer’s Practice Improved 1 & 2 200 kg ha-1 200 kg ha-1 Water filtering Water depth Predatory Fish Fertilization Shrimp seed Feed Water replenishment Post stocking fertilization Fish seed Unfiltered Lower Not eradicated No fertilizer Not PCR tested No feed When needed Very insufficient Some wild Filtered Higher Eradicated Fertilizer & dolomite PCR tested Feeding When needed When primary production is low All from hatcheries
    49. 49. Timeline (Output 2 & 4) Dry season (DS) March Shrimp & fish Stocking 1 April May Wet season (WS) July Aug. Harvest 2 Stocking - WS Harvest 1 Stocking 2 Rice transplanting Sept. Nov. Dec. Rice harvest Fish harvest Complete draining
    50. 50. Water salinity (2012 versus 2013) Rice-aquaculture 1 Salinity (ppt) FP(70 cm) Mono(70 cm) Poly(70 cm) 2012 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 15 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 Days of culture FP(50 cm) Mono(50 cm) Poly(50 cm) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Mono (50 cm) FP (70 cm) Poly (70 cm) Salinity (ppt) FP (50cm) Poly (50 cm) Mono (70 cm) 2012 FP Mono Poly 1 15 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 Days of culture 2013 FP Mono Poly 30 Salinity (ppt) Salinity (ppt) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Aquaculture 25 2013 20 15 10 5 0 1 14 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 Days of Culture 1 14 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 Days of Culture
    51. 51. Findings – Rice-aquaculture
    52. 52. Depth of water during dry season 2013 80 Water Depth (cm) 70 60 50 40 30 20 FP(50 cm) Mono(50 cm) Mono(70 cm) Poly(50 cm) 10 FP(70 cm) Poly(70 cm) 0 1 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105112119 Days of Culture
    53. 53. Dry season 2013 production (kg/ha) rice-aquaculture Culture pattern 1st crop 2nd crop (Shrimp 70 days, (Shrimp 52 days, Fish 55 days) Fish 41days) Shrimp Tilapia Shrimp* Tilapia* Total DS (March-July) Shrimp Tilapia 135 kg/ha shrimp 165 kg/ha fish to September (complete harvest December) Farmer’s practice Mono (50 cm) 388 ±22 - 271 ±52 - 659 - Poly (50 cm) 361 ±60 1625 ±56 255 ±67 775 ±23 616 2400 Mono (70 cm) 501 ±132 - 309 ±17 - 810 - Poly (70 cm) 381 ±57 1624 ±62 255 ±75 652 ±61 636 2276 * 2nd stocking delayed 15 days due to unavailability of quality seed shrimp & tilapia
    54. 54. Economics of dry season rice- aquaculture production Tk X 1000/ha Culture pattern Mono (50 cm) Poly (50 cm) Mono (70 cm) Poly (70 cm) Total Variable cost Total Return Gross margin 175 277 102 320 475 155 178 340 162 296 472 176
    55. 55. Progress of wet season production Water drained out for rice transplantation T-aman was affected by salinity from seepage from adjacent ghers & groundwater influx Transplantation of rice Tilapia harvesting
    56. 56. Findings - aquaculture
    57. 57. Depth of water during dry (March-July) season 80 FP Mono Poly 2013 60 40 20 0 1 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119 Water depth (cm) 100 Days of culture
    58. 58. Dry season 2013 production (kg/ha) aquaculture Culture pattern 1st crop (Shrimp 70 days, Fish 55 days) Shrimp Farmer’s practice Tilapia 2nd crop (Shrimp 52 days, Fish 41days) Shrimp* Tilapia* Total DS Shrimp Tilapia 73.19 kg/ha bagda, 13 kg/ha harina, 144 kg tilapia and 8.61 kg/ha to September. (complete harvest December) Monoculture 565±31 Polyculture 373±27 1744 ±212 - 291±124 - 856 - 193±64 777±47 566 2521 * 2nd stocking delayed 15 days due to unavailability of quality seed shrimp & ti
    59. 59. Economics of dry season aquaculture production Tk X 1000/ha Culture pattern Monoculture Polyculture Total variable cost Total Return Gross margin 180 359 179 293 464 171
    60. 60. Progress of wet season production Partitioning of 4 ponds Tilapia disease due to lack of water exchange Stocking of new cat fish Tilapia harvesting
    61. 61. Knowledge Sharing Labor group meeting Farmer group meeting Participation in seminar/workshops
    62. 62. Key challenges Markets • Scarcity of quality shrimp and fish seed • Lack of quality feed in local market Aquaculture management • Prevention of escaping cat fish through dikes • Aquatic weed control Community • Poor feeder canal for gravitational water exchange (need community system) • Poaching risk increases (need to increase productivity of all ghers to lessen predation of individual gher – share the predation more evenly!)
    63. 63. Lessons Learned • Short duration shrimp production appeared as less risky. • High demand for big size fingerlings in the locality – an expanding industry
    64. 64. Other improvements You can make your saline gher dike green and environment friendly by adding trees
    65. 65. Other improvements Vegetable can be grown on saline gher dikes during wet season
    66. 66. Other improvements Local variety of grass grows very well on saline gher dikes which can be used as fodder
    67. 67. Output 2: More productive, profitable, resilient & diversified rice-based cropping systems Paddy- Fish Culture in South 24 Paraganas, West Bengal, India In collaboration with CSSRI ,Canning
    68. 68. How India and Bangladesh work is different ? Bangladesh Rice and fish in the same gher (large, shallow “pond” e.g. 0.5-5 ha) India Deep pond at one end Rainy season – fish in pond & rice crop Dry season – fish in pond only; rice irrigated from pond
    69. 69. Paddy-Fish calendar Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov DEC Wet season Jan Feb Mar May Jun Apr Wet Dry season [ Bangladesh India Rice+fish+prawn Rice Fish in field & pond Shrimp+fish Dry season Boro rice Fish in pond Jul
    70. 70. Objectives 1. to evaluate pond area/agricultural land area ratio (what size pond is large enough to grow boro rice in Dry Seasons ?) 2 treatments - 20% (current practice; not enough for boro rice) - 30% (enough for boro rice?) 2. to evaluate harvesting method 2 treatments – single harvest in Mar - phased harvesting (monthly, Dec- Mar)
    71. 71. 2 Experimental sites Kakdwip Block: Vill – Shibkalinagar Namkhana Block: Vill- Madanganj,
    72. 72. Experimental location and treatment Locations 1 & 2 2 pond areas (20%, 30% of total field) 2 harvesting treatments (single, phased) 3 replicates
    73. 73. Before excavation of pond After excavation of pond
    74. 74. DESIGN LAYOUT OF PADDY CUM FISH CULTURE (KHARIF) Paddy Cultivation Area Fish Culture without phase harvest Partition of pond and paddy field by Net Fish Culture with phase harvest Earthen Embankment Dyke cropping with horticultural crops Variety-1 (Amalmana) Trench Paddy Pond area
    75. 75. Catla Catla ,Rohu ,Mrigala and Scampi Scampi Catla,Rohu,Mrigala and Scampi
    76. 76. Monitoring of pond water and fish • Inputs (Lime, Feed, Fertiliser, advance fingerlings) • Water quality fortnightly - Temperature, pH, dissolved Oxygen, salinity, total alkalinity, ammoniacal– N, nitrate–N, phosphate • Growth & survival fortnightly • Feed intake weekly • Production
    77. 77. Sampling Weighing of fish Plankton sampling Weighing of prawn Taking length of fish
    78. 78. Monitoring of rice • • • • Inputs e.g. Fertiliser Growth, development Grain & straw yield Yield components
    79. 79. Rainfall (mm) 2013 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct October rainfall 538 mm – long time average 130mm
    80. 80. At the time of paddy plantation Mid way stage Present stage
    81. 81. •All parameters similar except salinity •Conditions were within the optimum range for fish growth at all sites
    82. 82. Growth of fish in different pond area
    83. 83. Future Plan Will continue for 2014 dry & rainy seasons & 2015 dry season if possible • Harvesting rainy season rice • Start fish harvesting in December. • Nursery raising for boro rice December • Transplant boro rice Feb 14 • Final fish harvest March 2014. • Restocking of pond • Water budgeting
    84. 84. THANK YOU
    85. 85. Implementing community level water management in coastal Bangladesh Manoranjan Mondal, Elizabeth Humphreys T P Tuong and Alamgir Chowdhury SCL
    86. 86. Low Saline Area: Aus-Aman-Boro A M J Aus J A S O N Aman Rainfall-River Water w/Suppl Irrigation D J F M Boro Irrigation A
    87. 87. Low Saline Area: Aus-Aman-Rabi A M J Aus J A S O N D Aman Aus Aman J F M Rabi Terminal Drainage Rainfall-River Water w/Suppl Irrigation Residual Moisture A
    88. 88. Moderate Saline Area: Aman-Rabi M J J A S O Aman (140 d) 15 July N D 15 Nov J F M A Rabi (120-140 d) Dec/Jan Terminal Drainage Rainfall-River Water Residual Soil Moisture M 30 Apr
    89. 89. Moderate Saline Area: Aman-Boro M J J A S O Aman (140 d) N D 15 Nov J F M Boro (150 d) 10 Dec 15 July Rainfall-River Water Irrigation A M 30 Apr
    90. 90. High Saline Area: Shrimp-[Aman+Fish] J F M A M J Shrimp+Tilapia J A S O N Rice+Fish D J
    91. 91. Main causes of low productivity M J J A S O N T. Aman (140-160 d) 1. Prolonged water logging ~ 30 cm water depth at the beginning of aman season prevents adoption of HYV rice cultivation D J F M A M J Rabi (130-140 d) 2. Delayed establishment of rabi crops 3. Pre-monsoon rainfall
    92. 92. Can the problem of water too deep for HYV rice solved? YES – by • Systematic operation of the sluice gates (open at low tide, close at high tide) • Separation of lands of different elevation with small levees • Strategic investments in infrastructure e.g. culverts under polder roads blocking natural drainage lines • Desilting drainage canals (khals) BUT • Need community participation
    93. 93. Gravity drainage - an example of polder 30 Kazibacha river High tide water level 2.9 m Area (Percent) 0 40 60 80 100 4 Average water level 1.3 m Area-Elevation curve 3.5 Land level (mPWD) Low tide water level 0.0 m 20 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Area (sqkm) Lower-Shalta river High tide water level 2.7 m Average water level 1.0 m Low tide water level -0.50 m Elevation (above mean sea level, m) <0. 2 <0.6 <1.0 <1.2 <1.6 <1.8 % 0 15 61 80 95 98 60
    94. 94. What we have done to improve productivity of coastal BD? • Obtain the agreement of a group of farmers to create a hydrologically separate pilot watershed area on polder 30 and operate the sluice gate systematically 97
    95. 95. 6 ha pilot water management unit on polder 30 River Drainage canal Road Sluice gate Outlet Canal (khal) Rural road 98
    96. 96. What we have done to improve productivity of coastal BD? • Obtained the agreement of the farmers to grow – HYV rice – High value and traditional rabi crops in the watershed area • Provided seed & training in recommended management for rice and rabi crops • Provided year-round coaching 99
    97. 97. What we wanted to achieve? M J J A S O HYV Aman July N D J Nov F M HYV Rabi Dec/Jan Terminal Drainage Residual soil water River water EC 1-4 dSm-1 A M Apr
    98. 98. What We Achieved & Lesson Learned
    99. 99. • Only about 50% farmer cultivated HYV • Reasons – ~50% leasing land: tenant has to bear all expenses, crop share is only 1/3rd; pressure from land owners for traditional rice – Lower price of HYV in local market at that time – Need cash to buy inputs: fertilizer, pesticide – Higher cost of transplanting HYV due to closer spacing. Farmer cultivated rice (%) Lesson 1: HYV rice cultivation 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 HYV Local
    100. 100. Lesson 2: Drainage during aman season • Constructed internal drains/bunds to separate high and low land & outlet • Installed drainage outlet • The crop was submerged twice • 8-14 August 2012: 264 mm rainfall, drained out within 4 days. • 3-5 September 2012: 246 mm rainfall, drained out within 3 days. • With this drainage network, watershed farmers successfully drained excess water.
    101. 101. Drainage during aman season • Farmers operated the sluice gate systematically to quickly drain out excess water during the rainy season • BUT couldn’t drain on time for rabi establishment because of late maturing traditional varieties
    102. 102. Rainfall & Water depth (mm) Lesson 3: Late drainage at the end of wet season- soil too wet for early rabi crop establishment 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Target drainage time – but irrigation! because local variety late maturing Transplanting Surface water gone but weather cold, foggy, soil too wet for tillage
    103. 103. Lesson 4: Rabi crop establishment • Early establishment of rabi crops possible by dibbling – 2 farmers established sunflower by dibbling on 1 January 2013, harvested before the cyclone. – BUT dibbling cultivation requires more labour to spade the land, increasing production cost. (if not cultivated, how to apply fertilizer? soil cracks leading to root breakage, irrigation water loss down cracks-need small scale mechanization)
    104. 104. Effect of LATE establishment of rabi crops
    105. 105. Sesame seeds were broadcast during 14-28 February 2013
    106. 106. Mungbean and sesame in pilot watershed on 18 May 2013
    107. 107. 264 mm rain (19-31May 2013) flooded the crop field
    108. 108. Flooded (0.3 m deep) sesame field on 23 May 2013
    109. 109. Damaged sesame field in pilot watershed on 25 May 2013
    110. 110. Damaged mungbean field in pilot watershed on 31 May 2013
    111. 111. Effect of EARLY established rabi crops
    112. 112. Sunflower established on 1st January 2013, harvested before cyclone (yield = 1.5 t/ha, well-irrigated, no fertiliser)
    113. 113. Maize established on 24 February 2013 was in late grain filling at time of rains & farmer harvested 5 t/ha (~ 1/2 fertiliser )
    114. 114. Aman 2013: Rice-Fish HYV Rice (Re comme nde d mngt) Traditional + HYV Rice (Farme rs’ mngt) Stocke d FISH in 6 ha – both are as (Tilapia, Mola) 117
    115. 115. Aman Rice in 2013: ~ 5-6 t/ha from HYV
    116. 116. 31-Oct 24-Oct 17-Oct 10-Oct 3-Oct 26-Sep 19-Sep Rainfall (mm) 120 12-Sep 140 5-Sep 29-Aug 22-Aug 15-Aug 8-Aug 1-Aug Rainfall & Water Depth (mm) Paddy water depth in 2013 aman season 180 160 Water depth (mm) 100 80 60 40 20 0
    117. 117. Future potentials of community water management • Community water management is the key to outscaling improved agricultural technologies for food security of the communities living in coastal polders of BD. • Productivity & income could be increased integrating small indigenous fish with rice in the watershed area. • This will – Improve food & nutrition – More home consumption by children & women. – Increase aquatic agricultural diversity.
    118. 118. THANK YOU SCL
    119. 119. Women led participatory action research on homestead challenged pond aquaculture
    120. 120. Objectives and research questions Objective to increase productivity, improve nutrition & income and empowerment of women Specific research questions: 1. 2. How to increase productivity, income and household consumption of fish from small shaded ponds without hampering regular household pond water uses ? How women’s capacity of decision making and control of resources can be improved through their involvement in shaded pond fish farming?
    121. 121. Locations & new partners – under umbrella of G2 Farid pur Jess ore Polder 3: G2, AAS Region 2: Non SalineBari sal Polder 30: G2, AAS P39 Polder 43: G2, FtF-Aq P30 P3 P5 Region 1:Saline Polder 5: SmartFarm P43 Polder 39: SmartFarm Barisal: CSISA Faridpur: CSISA Jessore: CSISA
    122. 122. PAR Process & team building Research team (RT): experts under different themes from participating projects Implementation monitoring team (IMT): Respective PO/TS/ADO of concerned project at each site Women’s groups: <1 ha land and pond with >60% shade throughout the day
    123. 123. Designing the research: Community consultation Identifying resources and opportunities Prioritizing farmers preference Understanding gender and nutrition status Defining women role in participatory technology development
    124. 124. Participatory Mapping of HFS
    125. 125. Water availability in homestead ponds, use pattern and preference
    126. 126. Women are Interested in Aquaculture research
    127. 127. Fish Preference by Women
    128. 128. Fish Feed Preference by Women Commercial Feed Home made feed Kitchen waste Insects & other naturally available feed
    129. 129. Women Preference for Participating Different Activities of Aquaculture Fish sale Fish feeding monitoring Fish harvest Fish stocking
    130. 130. Summary of community consultation output and individual farmer interview result were considered in designing the research
    131. 131. Experimental Design Region: Two regions (saline & non saline) Treatments: Polyculture with 3 different species composition for each region focused on regular fish consumption and increased income Replication: 4 replications Control: Monitoring of 10 shaded pond in each area Management: Low cost feeding & management Monitoring: • Baseline & impact survey • Record keeping in WF record book • FARMER GROUP MEETING TWICE IN A MONTH • Collecting WQ & BW sampling data monthly
    132. 132. Empowering women by building awareness & research Capacity Technical Support Gender & nutrition awareness Women farmers have improved research interest & capacity and more empowered in decision making & accessing resources
    133. 133. Empowering women by building awareness & research Capacity
    134. 134. Empowering women by building awareness & research Capacity
    135. 135. Current status: – Tilapia started breeding in ponds – Fish growth & survival satisfactory Lessons learned: – Timely implementation of planned activities depends on national political stability – Need to develop local quality input suppliers – Success depends much on field staff motivation & sincerity
    136. 136. Outcomes so far: – Farmers started regular harvesting & consumption – To date no problems regarding pond water use in other household activities. – Women farmers are highly motivated for action research (solving their problems: e.g. less or no productivity from shaded ponds) – Women farmer researchers already getting more importance in their families and communities Future plans: Continue for next couple of years focusing on total pond ecosystem, natural recruitment, connectivity with open water, monoculture/commercial aquaculture culture
    137. 137. Plans to closure late 2014 1. Research activities • 2014 boro & aus variety trials in farmers fields (polders 30, 43/2/F) • continue cropping system demos to end of boro/rabi (30), aus (43/2/F) • continue pilot watershed to end of rabi 2014 • participatory adaptive trial of brackish water aquaculture technologies in • women-led participatory action research in 2014 • data analysis & writing 2. Outscaling activities - partnership with BRAC in • community watershed pilots • brackish water aquaculture outscaling • outscaling of agricultural cropping system intensification 3. Dissemination materials • scientific papers • brochures, videos for farmers & extensionists • presentations to high level officials, policy makers, donors 4. Seek opportunities/develop proposals for funding to build on achievements 142
    138. 138. Research questions for the future (many) Common across aquatic-agriculture systems: 1. How can we implement improved community management to demonstrate the benefits of improved production systems? (about water & much more; agricultural cropping systems, aquaculture systems) 2. Is implementation of improved drainage/water management systems in polders economic? 3. Nutrient cycling in rice-shrimp systems Many others specific to: • rice varietal improvement (e.g. short duration, cold tolerant boro) • homestead production systems (e.g. pond-ecosystem approach) • sustainability of groundwater pumping for boro rice • establishment of rabi crops • aquaculture in saline areas 143
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