Evolution of AWM in rainfed crop‐livestock systems of the Volta Basin(Source: P. Cecchi) Sabine Douxchamps Augustine Ayantunde Jennie Barron
introduction evolution of AWM projects’ outcomes conclusions
introduction▪ 395 000 km2 across six countries, 80% in Burkina Faso and Ghana ▪ 20.106 people: Burkina Faso GhanaPoverty (>1$/d) 61% 45%Growth rate 3.4% 2.1%Rainfed crop‐ 90% 76%livestock systems▪ Degraded soils (38 and 11 %)▪ N‐S gradient of rainfall and of farming systems▪ Basin level above threshold of water scarcity (1700 m3 yr‐1 per capita), but North Burkina at 900 m3 yr‐1 per capita. (Source: GLOWA)
introduction Potential yield in the moist semi‐arid tropics Potential yield in the dry semi‐arid tropicsEvolution of cereal yields, livestock heads and agricultural area from 1961 to 2009 (Source: FAO) and potential yields (ICRISAT 2009).▪ demographic pressure ↑▪ pressure on natural resources ↑
introduction (Source: CILSS) (Source: CILSS) AWM strategies in rainfed systems are different ways to influence rainwater flows in order tomaximize infiltration in the soil, retain run‐off and minimize losses, and range from field‐scaletechniques like stone bunds or manure application to watershed‐scale structures like smallreservoirs.
introductionObjectiveTo synthesize existing knowledge, interventions,lessons, and gaps in knowledge regarding AWMQuestions addressed▪ who did what, how, where, with which resultsand why▪ what are the lessons learned for longer termdevelopment efforts and interventions▪ what are the knowledge gapsSources of information▪ 25 key resource informants▪ more than 250 documents from peer‐reviewedresearch papers to grey literature and projectsdocuments, and from 1969 up to now▪ AidData (most complete aid database publiclyavailable)
evolution of AWM Burkina Faso Ghana Aid projects (total nb) 8192 7023 AWM projects (total nb) 195 46 Investments AWM (million US$) 641 258 (Source: AidData) Burkina Faso Ghana 450 450 Aid investments (millions $US) Aid investments (millions $US) AWM AWM 400 400 350 350 300 300 250 250 200 200 150 150 100 100 50 50 0 0 1975‐1979 1980‐1984 1975‐1979 1985‐1989 1980‐1984 1990‐1994 1985‐1989 1995‐1999 1990‐1994 2000‐2004 1995‐1999 2005‐2009 2000‐2004 2005‐2009Evolution of aid investments for AWM projects and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) projects inBurkina Faso and Ghana (Source: AidData).
evolution of AWM Burkina Faso Ghana Aid projects (total nb) 8192 7023 AWM projects (total nb) 195 46 Investments AWM (million US$) 641 258 (Source: AidData) Evolution of aid investments for AWM projects and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) projects inBurkina Faso and Ghana (Source: AidData).
projects’ outcomesFrom research projects▪ numerous technical solutions▪ benefits of AWM strategies for the agricultural system largely studied▪ farmers’ perceptions and factors limiting adoption documentedFrom development projects▪ 200 000 to 300 000 ha restored (zaï and stone bunds), yielding extra 80 000 tons of food annually▪ more than 2500 small dams constructed or rehabilitated in Burkina and Ghana▪ thousands of farmers trained, thousands of households in water users associationsControversy▪ actual impact on livelihoods▪ investments were ineffective ▪ environment in fragile areas of the Basin continues to degrade
conclusionsSome recommendations for AWM projectsLocal capacities▪ play on factors triggering adoption▪ local capacities and agendas should be better accounted forResources management (Source: Deserto Verde Burkinabé) ▪ combine water and nutrient management▪ improve interactions between water, crop and livestock managementInfrastructures management▪ participatory management of water infrastructures, integration of maintenance costs in projectbudget,…Capacity building▪ assumption of more responsibility, ways to deal with turnovers within management committees,…▪ farmers’ capacity building for enlightened risk management and constant adaptation to newvariable conditions
conclusionsKnowledge gaps and research topics▪ Integrated management and system perspective to improve water‐crop‐livestock interactions, todevelop off‐season cultivation options and market access▪ Landscape approaches and ecosystem services to understand ecological landscape processes andtrade‐offs between ecosystem services▪ Socio‐economic studies to assess economic viability of mechanized techniques, to develop marketsand to balance gender benefits repartition▪ Governance and adoption to facilitate management of AWM structures, to raise awareness and tolever the factors limiting adoption▪ Climate change and risk management to foresee the best strategies for adaptation to climatechange and manage risk in the variable environment of the basin▪ Development aid and impact assessment to evaluate the return of aid investments on wateravailability, food security and livelihoods; to develop common indicators for monitoring and impactassessments of AWM projects (Source: Deserto Verde Burkinabé)
Burkina Faso Ghana AWM 9% 6% AGRIC DEVELOPMENT 30% LIVESTOCK FORESTRY 46% 26% 36% FISHING AGRIC RESEARCH EXTENSION AND TRAINING 5% 17% AGRIC POLICY 1% 9% 4% WASH 0% 5% 1% 0% 3% 1% 1%Repartition of aid investments in the area of agriculture and water, for the timeframe 2000‐2009, in (a) Burkina Faso and (b) Ghana (Source: AidData). The category “Agric development” account for all projects that are not part of another category (e.g. linked to post harvest, crop management, industrial crops, or financial services).