Evolution of Agricultural Water Management in Livestock-Crop Systems in the Volta River Basin

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AWM strategies in rainfed systems are different ways to influence rainwater flows in order to maximize infiltration in the soil, retain run-off and minimize losses, and range from field-scale …

AWM strategies in rainfed systems are different ways to influence rainwater flows in order to maximize infiltration in the soil, retain run-off and minimize losses, and range from field-scale techniques like stone bunds or manure application to watershed-scale structures like small reservoirs.

Objective
To synthesize existing knowledge, interventions, lessons, and gaps in knowledge regarding AWM

Questions addressed
▪ who did what, how, where, with which results and why
▪ what are the lessons learned for longer term development efforts and interventions
▪ what are the knowledge gaps

Sources of information
▪ 25 key resource informants
▪ more than 250 documents from peer-reviewed research papers to grey literature and projects documents, and from 1969 up to now
▪ AidData (most complete aid database publicly available)

Knowledge gaps and research topics

▪ Integrated management and system perspective to improve water-crop-livestock interactions, to develop off-season cultivation options and market access

▪ Landscape approaches and ecosystem services to understand ecological landscape processes and trade-offs between ecosystem services

▪ Socio-economic studies to assess economic viability of mechanized techniques, to develop markets and to balance gender benefits repartition

▪ Governance and adoption to facilitate management of AWM structures, to raise awareness and to lever the factors limiting adoption

▪ Climate change and risk management to foresee the best strategies for adaptation to climate change and manage risk in the variable environment of the basin

▪ Development aid and impact assessment to evaluate the return of aid investments on water availability, food security and livelihoods; to develop common indicators for monitoring and impact assessments of AWM projects

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  • Agricultural water management (AWM): activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources for agricultural purposes, through a suite of strategies. Classification of agricultural water management (AWM) strategies according to their source and their main purpose for the Volta Basin. Micro scale is field scale and macro scale is watershed scale.AWM sector comprises all types of agricultural systems, from rainfed to fully irrigated, with water sources varying between rainwater, surface water or groundwater.
  • Agricultural water management (AWM): activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources for agricultural purposes, through a suite of strategies. Classification of agricultural water management (AWM) strategies according to their source and their main purpose for the Volta Basin. Micro scale is field scale and macro scale is watershed scale.AWM sector comprises all types of agricultural systems, from rainfed to fully irrigated, with water sources varying between rainwater, surface water or groundwater.
  • Agricultural water management (AWM): activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources for agricultural purposes, through a suite of strategies. Classification of agricultural water management (AWM) strategies according to their source and their main purpose for the Volta Basin. Micro scale is field scale and macro scale is watershed scale.AWM sector comprises all types of agricultural systems, from rainfed to fully irrigated, with water sources varying between rainwater, surface water or groundwater.
  • (crop water use efficiency, yields, nutrients uptake, run-off, soil water content, livestock production, biodiversity, combined nutrient and water management, water productivity of small reservoirs, food security, income,…)(destruction of vegetation cover, depletion of soil fertility and intense erosion)
  • no stone rows should be promoted where stones are not easily available, no mechanized systems where there is no well functioning microcredit system to sustain it, no irrigation for vegetables where there is no market, no low-cost irrigation technologies where there is no simultaneous development of supply chains
  • Technological aspects, not much scope for improvement

Transcript

  • 1. (Source: P. Cecchi) Evolution of AWM in rainfed crop-livestock systems of the Volta Basin Sabine Douxchamps Augustine Ayantunde Jennie Barron
  • 2. introduction evolution of AWM projects’ outcomes conclusions
  • 3. introduction ▪ 395 000 km2 across six countries, 80% in Burkina Faso and Ghana ▪ 20.106 people: Burkina Faso Ghana Poverty (>1$/d) 61% 45% Growth rate 3.4% 2.1% Rainfed croplivestock systems 90% 76% ▪ Degraded soils (38 and 11 %) ▪ N-S gradient of rainfall and of farming systems ▪ Basin level above threshold of water scarcity (1700 m3 yr-1 per capita), but North Burkina at 900 m3 yr-1 per capita. (Source: GLOWA)
  • 4. introduction Burkina Faso Cereal yields (kg/ha) 3200 Ghana Potential yield in the moist semi-arid tropics 2800 2400 2000 Potential yield in the dry semi-arid tropics 1600 1200 800 400 80000 70000 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 19… 20… 20… 20… 20… 20… Evolution of cereal yields, livestock heads and agricultural area from 1961 to 2009 (Source: FAO) and potential yields (ICRISAT 2009). Livestock (1000 heads) 0 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 2009 2007 2005 2003 2001 1999 1997 1995 1993 1991 1989 1987 1985 1983 1981 1979 1977 1975 1973 1971 1969 1967 1965 1963 1961 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 ▪ demographic pressure ↑ ▪ pressure on natural resources ↑ Agricultural Area (1000 ha) 0 Years
  • 5. introduction Rainwater / run-off Groundwater Macro-catchment Micro-catchment In-situ, soil storage Washing and cooking Irrigation, livestock watering “Zaï” Tied ridging Earth/stone rows Half-moon Organic material (Source: CILSS) Live barriers Straw mulching Manure Small well Small reservoir Rooftop Drinking water Small-scale agriculture Domestic Industrial, large-scale agriculture Main purpose Mineral material Drilled well Large dam (Source: CILSS)
  • 6. introduction Rainwater / run-off Groundwater Macro-catchment Micro-catchment In-situ, soil storage Washing and cooking Irrigation, livestock watering “Zaï” Tied ridging Earth/stone rows Half-moon Organic material (Source: CILSS) Live barriers Straw mulching Manure Small well Small reservoir Rooftop Drinking water Small-scale agriculture Domestic Industrial, large-scale agriculture Main purpose Mineral material Drilled well Large dam (Source: CILSS)
  • 7. introduction Rainwater / run-off Groundwater Macro-catchment Micro-catchment In-situ, soil storage Washing and cooking Irrigation, livestock watering “Zaï” Tied ridging Earth/stone rows Half-moon Organic material (Source: CILSS) Live barriers Straw mulching Manure Small well (Source: CILSS) Small reservoir Rooftop Drinking water Small-scale agriculture Industrial, large-scale agriculture Domestic Main purpose Mineral material Drilled well Large dam AWM strategies in rainfed systems are different ways to influence rainwater flows in order to maximize infiltration in the soil, retain run-off and minimize losses, and range from field-scale techniques like stone bunds or manure application to watershed-scale structures like small reservoirs.
  • 8. introduction Objective To synthesize existing knowledge, interventions, lessons, and gaps in knowledge regarding AWM Questions addressed ▪ who did what, how, where, with which results and why ▪ what are the lessons learned for longer term development efforts and interventions ▪ what are the knowledge gaps Sources of information ▪ 25 key resource informants ▪ more than 250 documents from peer-reviewed research papers to grey literature and projects documents, and from 1969 up to now ▪ AidData (most complete aid database publicly available)
  • 9. Creation of the PAGIRE Creation of Ministry of Water and Environment Creation of the WRC Political stability in Burkina Creation of first research networks Awareness of economic and land reform aspects Political stability in Ghana Creation of the ONBI Creation of the GIDA Creation of CILSS Independences erosion control cash crops Droughts climate change awareness resources degradation awareness demographic pressure Technology transfer Participatory approaches Participatory and gender approaches integrated NR management soil and water conservation techniques NR and livelihood land husbandry cropping system intensification sustainable land management staple food production ecosystem research farming system research mechanized zaï small scale irrigation half-moon TECHNIQUES PROMOTED TECHNIQUES PROMOTED MAIN ACTORS GHANA Droughts improved zaï small reservoirs earth bunds MAIN ACTORS BURKINA FASO FOCUS / CONCEPT GLOBAL DRVIERS AND EVENTS evolution of AWM Societies of intervention stone bunds Bilateral and multilateral cooperation NGOs and farmers’ organizations Regional Directions International research organizations Individual initiatives Regional Organisms of Development Burkinabe and French researchers earth bunds small reservoirs State medium and large reservoirs Industrials improved stone bunds GIDA small scale irrigation mulching earth and stone bunds small reservoirs National and international research organizations NGOs Bilateral and multilateral cooperation District assemblies and WUA
  • 10. 641 7023 100 46 50 Burkina Faso 1985-1989 258 Ghana 450 Aid investments (millions $US) 450 AWM 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 2005-2009 2000-2004 1995-1999 1990-1994 1985-1989 2005-2009 2000-2004 1995-1999 1990-1994 1985-1989 1980-1984 0 1975-1979 0 AWM 400 1980-1984 Aid investments (millions $US) 1980-1984 0 1975-1979 2000-2004 1980-1984 (Source: AidData) 2005-2009 Investments AWM (million US$) 1995-1999 195 1975-1979 0 AWM projects (total nb) 1990-1994 50 8192 150 1985-1989 100 Aid projects (total nb) Ghana 2005-2009 200 150 250 Burkina Faso 200 2000-2004 250 300 1995-1999 300 WASH 350 1990-1994 evolution of AWM 350 AWM 400 1975-1979 Aid investments (millions $U WASH Aid investments (millions $U AWM 400 Evolution of aid investments for AWM projects and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) projects in Burkina Faso and Ghana (Source: AidData).
  • 11. evolution of AWM Burkina Faso Ghana Aid projects (total nb) 8192 7023 AWM projects (total nb) 195 46 Investments AWM (million US$) 641 258 (Source: AidData) Burkina Faso Ghana 450 AWM 400 WASH 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Aid investments (millions $US) AWM 400 WASH 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Burkina Faso Ghana 2005-2009 2000-2004 1995-1999 1990-1994 1985-1989 1975-1979 2005-2009 2000-2004 1995-1999 1990-1994 1985-1989 1980-1984 0 1975-1979 0 1980-1984 Aid investments (millions $US) 450 400 $US) $US) Evolution of aid investments for AWM projects and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) projects in 450 450 Burkina Faso and Ghana (Source: AidData). AWM AWM 400
  • 12. projects’ outcomes From research projects ▪ numerous technical solutions ▪ benefits of AWM strategies for the agricultural system largely studied ▪ farmers’ perceptions and factors limiting adoption documented From development projects ▪ 200 000 to 300 000 ha restored (zaï and stone bunds), yielding extra 80 000 tons of food annually ▪ more than 2500 small dams constructed or rehabilitated in Burkina and Ghana ▪ thousands of farmers trained, thousands of households in water users associations Controversy ▪ actual impact on livelihoods ▪ investments were ineffective ▪ environment in fragile areas of the Basin continues to degrade
  • 13. conclusions Some recommendations for AWM projects Local capacities ▪ play on factors triggering adoption ▪ local capacities and agendas should be better accounted for Resources management (Source: Deserto Verde Burkinabé) ▪ combine water and nutrient management ▪ improve interactions between water, crop and livestock management Infrastructures management ▪ participatory management of water infrastructures, integration of maintenance costs in project budget,… Capacity building ▪ assumption of more responsibility, ways to deal with turnovers within management committees,… ▪ farmers’ capacity building for enlightened risk management and constant adaptation to new variable conditions
  • 14. conclusions Knowledge gaps and research topics ▪ Integrated management and system perspective to improve water-crop-livestock interactions, to develop off-season cultivation options and market access ▪ Landscape approaches and ecosystem services to understand ecological landscape processes and trade-offs between ecosystem services ▪ Socio-economic studies to assess economic viability of mechanized techniques, to develop markets and to balance gender benefits repartition ▪ Governance and adoption to facilitate management of AWM structures, to raise awareness and to lever the factors limiting adoption ▪ Climate change and risk management to foresee the best strategies for adaptation to climate change and manage risk in the variable environment of the basin ▪ Development aid and impact assessment to evaluate the return of aid investments on water availability, food security and livelihoods; to develop common indicators for monitoring and impact assessments of AWM projects (Source: Deserto Verde Burkinabé)
  • 15. Thank you!
  • 16. Burkina Faso Ghana Ghana 6% 6% AWM 46% 26% LIVESTOCK LIVESTOCK FORESTRY FORESTRY FISHING 36% AGRIC RESEARCH FISHING FISHING AGRIC POLICY 36% AWM LIVESTOCK 30% 30% AWM AGRIC DEVELOPMENTAGRIC DEVELOPMENT FORESTRY 9% AGRIC POLICY AGRIC POLICY WASH WASH AGRIC DEVELOPMENT AGRIC RESEARCH AGRIC RESEARCH EXTENSION AND TRAINING EXTENSION AND TRAINING EXTENSION AND TRAINING 5% 17% 9% 0% 1% 3% 17% 1% 4% 5% 4% WASH 0% 5% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% Repartition of aid investments in the area of agriculture and water, for the timeframe 2000-2009, in (a) Burkina Faso and (b) Ghana (Source: AidData). The category “Agric development” account for all projects that are not part of another category (e.g. linked to post harvest, crop management, industrial crops, or financial services).