Water, food and ecosystemsA productivity lens vs. a resilience lens<br />Alain Vidal & Marcela Quintero<br />CGIAR Challen...
Global food crisis: a poverty “countdown”<br />3 billion poor below US$2.5/day<br />	2 billion suffer from malnutrition<br...
Alleviating hunger means reducing rural poverty</li></ul>Reducing rural poverty<br /><ul><li>Increase the income of the ru...
Ensure they can cope with short-term and long-term changes</li></ul>2<br />
The resilience challenge<br />	Food production communities and ecosystems should be able to cope with local and global cha...
What exactly is resilience?<br />The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change, wh...
CPWF aims to increase the resilience of social and ecological systems through better water management for food production<...
Why is water so central?	<br />No food production without water for crops, livestock and fish (quantity and quality)<br />...
Productivity vs. resilience<br />Restoring ecosystem services in the Andes<br />
Downstream – where the concern for ecosystem services emerged<br />8<br />High altitude wetland (paramo) degraded by potat...
Restoring upstream and downstream ecosystem services <br />9<br />Paramo restored through conservation tillage and oat/pot...
Understanding resulting changes on upstream water<br />10<br />Conservation <br />agriculture<br />More water stored, rest...
Understanding triggers for change between alternate resilient states<br />11<br />Conservation agriculture and paramo rest...
CPWF lessons learnt on productivity vs. resilience<br />Water productivity approaches « more crop per drop » tend to<br />...
The resilience lens:adaptability vs. transformability<br />Degraded social-ecological systems are often locked in resilien...
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CPWF productivity vs. resilience lens IUCN Workshop Dec 10

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CPWF presentation made during the IUCN Workshop on Managing Ecosystems for Food and Nutrition Security, Gland (Switzerland), Dec 2010

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CPWF productivity vs. resilience lens IUCN Workshop Dec 10

  1. 1. Water, food and ecosystemsA productivity lens vs. a resilience lens<br />Alain Vidal & Marcela Quintero<br />CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food<br />IUCN Workshop on <br />Managing Ecosystems for Food and Nutrition Security<br />Gland, Switzeland, 13-14 December 2010<br />
  2. 2. Global food crisis: a poverty “countdown”<br />3 billion poor below US$2.5/day<br /> 2 billion suffer from malnutrition<br /> 1 billion suffer from hunger <br /><ul><li>75% of them are rural poor
  3. 3. Alleviating hunger means reducing rural poverty</li></ul>Reducing rural poverty<br /><ul><li>Increase the income of the rural poor to enable food security and investment into productivity
  4. 4. Ensure they can cope with short-term and long-term changes</li></ul>2<br />
  5. 5. The resilience challenge<br /> Food production communities and ecosystems should be able to cope with local and global changes (climate, economy, demography, migrations…), ie becomemore resilient<br /><ul><li>Achieved through improved water productivity (more food with less water) together with empowerment, equity, market access, health and ecosystemservices</li></ul>3<br />
  6. 6. What exactly is resilience?<br />The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change, while retaining essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks (Walker et al. 2004)<br />Example<br />4<br />
  7. 7. CPWF aims to increase the resilience of social and ecological systems through better water management for food production<br />Through its broad partnerships, it conducts research that leads to impact on the poor and to policy change <br />5<br />
  8. 8. Why is water so central? <br />No food production without water for crops, livestock and fish (quantity and quality)<br />Water links ecosystems with food production through its flow and quality, and its interactions with land, soil, vegetation, animals, people and societies<br />Water is key to productivity and social-ecological resilience<br />6<br />
  9. 9. Productivity vs. resilience<br />Restoring ecosystem services in the Andes<br />
  10. 10. Downstream – where the concern for ecosystem services emerged<br />8<br />High altitude wetland (paramo) degraded by potato cropping and overgrazing <br />Eutrophication and shrinking of Fuquene Lake (downstream)<br />
  11. 11. Restoring upstream and downstream ecosystem services <br />9<br />Paramo restored through conservation tillage and oat/potato rotation <br />Water quality and downstream ecosystem services from Fuquene Lake improved <br />
  12. 12. Understanding resulting changes on upstream water<br />10<br />Conservation <br />agriculture<br />More water stored, restoring the buffer role of paramo<br />Traditional <br />agriculture<br />% Volumetric Water<br />Better soil porosity, filtration, increased carbon storage<br />Conservation <br />agriculture<br />Accumulated Organic Matter (g/g)<br />Traditional <br />agriculture<br />
  13. 13. Understanding triggers for change between alternate resilient states<br />11<br />Conservation agriculture and paramo restoration supported by revolving fund <br />Annual net income:<br />US$ 2,183/ha<br />Farmers‘ insufficient gain and risk aversion: only 11% converted<br />Revolving fund credit: <br />+180 farmers /year<br />Potato cropping, grazing pressure, degradation of paramo<br />S<br />Annual net income:<br />US$ 1,870/ha<br />
  14. 14. CPWF lessons learnt on productivity vs. resilience<br />Water productivity approaches « more crop per drop » tend to<br />Neglect the constraints of the poorest and most vulnerable who do not have the capacity to invest into productivity<br />Overlook ecosystem services<br />Looking beyond water productivity requires using a resilience lens <br />But productivity should not be dropped because it is a source of income and livelihood<br />12<br />
  15. 15. The resilience lens:adaptability vs. transformability<br />Degraded social-ecological systems are often locked in resilient (poverty) traps<br /> Institutional and technical innovations mostly enable adaptation (transformation seems to require more time and dramatic changes)<br />Long-term efforts required to strengthen the resilience of desired states<br />Negative feedbacks (innovation adoption vs. risk-aversion)<br />Precariousness<br />13<br />
  16. 16. What are the challenges?<br />Sharing the benefits from water<br />How do we estimate them?<br />How can ecosystem services support enhance food security?<br />How do ecosystem services work in larger basins?<br />Which partners & disciplines are required?<br />More ideas later today…<br />14<br />
  17. 17. Thank you<br />a.vidal@cgiar.org<br />www.waterandfood.org <br />
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