Water, food and development
The CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and
                  Food




          Alain VIDAL, CPW...
CPWF and the Agricultural Water
    Productivity Challenge
CGIAR Challenge Programs
•CGIAR= Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research; 15 centres, 63 donor members,
...
CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food
                  (CPWF)
                        Phase 1

 Sixty-six research an...
AREO
CPWF aims to increase water productivity for
agriculture in order to leave more water for
other users and the environment
CPWF contributes to…


Food security at household level

Livelihoods of the poor

Health: Nutrition, reduced
pollution, re...
Why focus on water productivity for
                          agriculture?

2 - 5 litres
   daily



                20 – ...
A consequence: sectoral competition
Food Supply in Calories




                          One liter of water produces
                            one calorie ...
Water productivity for agriculture
Great interest in water issues
Why Water Productivity and Poverty



For smallholder
producers in Africa,
lack of access to
water and soil is the
key con...
Why Water Productivity and Poverty

The poorest people
 - 1 billion worldwide -
depend on fish as
primary source of
protei...
Why Water Productivity and Poverty


Many of the poorest,
most drought-
vulnerable families in
Africa depend on
livestock ...
Water Scarcity 2000




1/3 of the world’s population live in basins that have to deal with water scarcity
What is the challenge ahead?
• Do we have enough water resources
  to grow enough food and meet future
  demand for biofue...
Water challenges
River basins – many rivers running dry
Groundwater over-pumping – especially in agricultural
breadbaskets...
Action to deal with the water crisis




           Today

Practices like today

        CA Scenario




Comprehensive Ass...
Resilience to adapt to climate change



                  Impact of rainfall variability on GDP and
                     ...
Water storage mitigates variability




Water Storage
Mitigates Climate
Variability
But need to re-think
water storage – r...
CPWF achievements
 Phase 1 (2004-2008)
Partnerships for science
Hydrological                Linked Scales of Analysis
interactions
                                                       ...
CPWF: New ways of working

Rapid and complex world changes: climate, economic
uncertainty, trade. Severe implications for ...
CPWF grapples with complex issues

                                                                                   •For...
New ways of working
Investing in partnerships for natural
           resources management research


Complex             Multiple             ...
CPWF: Outstanding partnerships

“The value added by the CPWF is the very important network
capital that is created. It mea...
Moving towards trans-disciplinarity?
Diverse actors involved


                    CGIAR   NARES   ARI   NGO   Total   CPWF
                                   ...
CPWF has brokered water-food links


 Networks drawn by CPWF first call project
implementers in impact pathway workshops
CPWF achievements
      Phase 1 (2004-2008)
Research results for development
Science and impact through partnerships

After 0.7 to 4 years research in CPWF projects
• 200-250 peer-reviewed publicatio...
Projects from the First Competitive Call
Sahelian Ecofarming            Multiple Use Water
                               ...
Projects from the First Competitive Call

Transboundary Water              Community Based
     Governance                ...
Overview of CPWF research scope and results
                in phase 1

Components of field scale water productivity (wate...
CPWF: Linking scales and disciplines

        Example: RURAL AFRICAN ADAPTATIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE

        Four levels of...
Local adaptation to climate change
Policy influence: African Models of Transboundary Water Governance

  Prepared database of >150
  African water treaties, ...
Policy influence: Multiple Use Water Systems

Documented evidence in 5
basins and 10 countries of MUS
that take poor peopl...
A Project of the:   Sponsored by:
                                    Diverse interdisciplinary team. Three basins.
      ...
Young Researchers: resources for present and future


    Example: PLANNING SMALL RESERVOIRS (part of the project)

    Ph...
Example of CPWF synthesis

Increasing water productivity
Major workshop in Ghana, September 2008
CPWF “crop water producti...
CPWF adding value: Aerobic rice

      IRRI began work in China in 2001 (pre-CPWF)

      Through CPWF, the work expanded ...
Aerobic rice extrapolation domains

                         Lower expectation
                          in Africa, but ov...
Cross-scale research


Limpopo Basin
Rainfall ~250 - 1050 mm/yr

    Issues include:

        Poverty and food

        Lo...
Broad donor base


“A particularly positive aspect is the breadth of the
current donor spectrum and the resulting independ...
CPWF Phase 2




“We are continually faced by great opportunities
brilliantly disguised as insoluble problems”

Lee Iococca
Building on CPWF basin networks


                     CPWF Volta basin network

                     Line colour = projec...
Focusing the strategy in phase 2


Focusing on the technical content found to be most
promising in phase 1
Focusing even m...
Focusing the strategy in Phase 2


Six river basins (Nile, Volta, Limpopo, Ganges, Mekong,
Andean System) not nine
1-2 dev...
Priority development challenges in each basin




Andes (7 small basins) Benefit-sharing mechanisms to
improve water produ...
Priority development challenges in each basin




Limpopo (Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa)
Small reservoirs and rainwa...
Andes

•   BDC: Benefit-sharing to improve water productivity and reduce
    water-related conflict in selected basins
   ...
Ganges

•   BDC: Integrated agriculture and aquaculture in the Ganges delta
     – Including the development of integrated...
Limpopo

•   BDC: Rainwater management and small reservoirs in Mozambique,
    Southern Zimbabwe and Limpopo Province of S...
Mekong

•   BDC: Multiple use of reservoirs in the 3S border region that
    straddles the tri-point between Vietnam, Lao ...
Nile

• Challenge 1
   – To improve rural livelihoods and their
     resilience through a landscape approach to
     rainw...
Nile

• Challenge 2
   – The effective use of agricultural wastewater in the Nile River
     Delta for multiple uses and l...
Volta

•   BDC: Institutional and technical mechanisms to develop, maintain
    and sustain small reservoirs and other rai...
Secondary development challenges




Andes (7 small basins) Strategies for Andean communities to
adapt to global change
Ni...
Range of Agricultural Water Management Options
          (source David Molden, IWMI)
Flexible cross-basin topic working groups in support of
                     basin research


  Increasing rainwater produ...
Keep on learning…..



“The CGIAR should adopt a flexible and learning-by-doing
approach to designing Challenge Programs (...
www.waterandfood.org
      www.ifwf2.org
CPWF Overview
CPWF Overview
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CPWF Overview

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An overview of the Challenge Program on Water and Food's research-for-development results, and plans to address global challenges, from CPWF Director, Dr Alain Vidal

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CPWF Overview

  1. 1. Water, food and development The CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food Alain VIDAL, CPWF Director
  2. 2. CPWF and the Agricultural Water Productivity Challenge
  3. 3. CGIAR Challenge Programs •CGIAR= Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research; 15 centres, 63 donor members, 5 challenge programs •CGIAR Challenge Programs mobilise broad scientific input on most challenging issues in agricultural research •Time bound and reform-oriented •Help change the way the CGIAR does business, expanding range of partnerships
  4. 4. CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF) Phase 1 Sixty-six research and capacity building projects Value added through synthesis research Over 200 partners, with research in 30 developing countries of 9 river basins Around USD 65 million of investment from 12 donors in 2004-2008
  5. 5. AREO
  6. 6. CPWF aims to increase water productivity for agriculture in order to leave more water for other users and the environment
  7. 7. CPWF contributes to… Food security at household level Livelihoods of the poor Health: Nutrition, reduced pollution, reduced disease Environment: Water quality, sustainability of wetlands
  8. 8. Why focus on water productivity for agriculture? 2 - 5 litres daily 20 – 500 litres daily 500 – 3000 litres per kg 2000 l/day - vegetarian diet 5000 l/day - grainfed meat diet
  9. 9. A consequence: sectoral competition
  10. 10. Food Supply in Calories One liter of water produces one calorie on average
  11. 11. Water productivity for agriculture
  12. 12. Great interest in water issues
  13. 13. Why Water Productivity and Poverty For smallholder producers in Africa, lack of access to water and soil is the key constraint to production
  14. 14. Why Water Productivity and Poverty The poorest people - 1 billion worldwide - depend on fish as primary source of protein. As rivers dry up, fish production declines and the poor lose as consumers and producers.
  15. 15. Why Water Productivity and Poverty Many of the poorest, most drought- vulnerable families in Africa depend on livestock production. Animal feed production is the most important user of agricultural water in the Nile basin.
  16. 16. Water Scarcity 2000 1/3 of the world’s population live in basins that have to deal with water scarcity
  17. 17. What is the challenge ahead? • Do we have enough water resources to grow enough food and meet future demand for biofuels? • The Comprehensive Assessment answered… – No… with today’s practices, doubling food production in 2050 would require to almost double agricultural water use (from 7130 km3 to 13000 km3) – …Unless we change the way we think and act on water issues • A simple and ideal scenario: if we would double the amount of food produced per m3 of water, we would be safe 17
  18. 18. Water challenges River basins – many rivers running dry Groundwater over-pumping – especially in agricultural breadbaskets Fisheries – ocean and freshwater at a limit, aquaculture will become more prevalent Livestock – limit on extent of grazing land, more will come from crop-livestock systems and industrialized production Help poor rural households to withstand shocks (“resilience”)
  19. 19. Action to deal with the water crisis Today Practices like today CA Scenario Comprehensive Assessment (CA) scenario: Policies for productivity gains, upgrading rainfed, revitalized irrigation, trade
  20. 20. Resilience to adapt to climate change Impact of rainfall variability on GDP and Agricultural GDP growth 80 25 20 60 15 40 10 20 5 0 % 0 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 1982 1994 1999 -5 -20 -10 -40 -15 rainfall variability -20 -60 GDP growth -25 -80 Ag GDP growth -30 year Source: Grey & Sadoff, 2008. in Water Policy: Ethiopia
  21. 21. Water storage mitigates variability Water Storage Mitigates Climate Variability But need to re-think water storage – role of groundwater Source: World Bank
  22. 22. CPWF achievements Phase 1 (2004-2008) Partnerships for science
  23. 23. Hydrological Linked Scales of Analysis interactions BASIN Surface & groundwater allocation Agro-ecosystems Upstream- downstream users SYSTEM distribution Economic drivers Poverty distribution & causes FIELD Institutional aspects application of management
  24. 24. CPWF: New ways of working Rapid and complex world changes: climate, economic uncertainty, trade. Severe implications for the poor. Innovative research approaches are required to solve them. “Complex multi-sector problems need new ways of working: “The really important issues facing society … cannot be tackled by any organization acting alone” Huxham and Vangen, 2005
  25. 25. CPWF grapples with complex issues •Formulaic solutions have Far from limited applicability •Past success is no guarantee of future success Socially •Expertise can help but is not Agreement Complicated Build sufficient; relationships are key relationships, create common Zone of •Uncertainty of outcome ground Complexity remains Close to Simple Technically Complicated Plan, control Experiment, coordinate expertise Close to Certainty Far from Source: Patton, 2007
  26. 26. New ways of working
  27. 27. Investing in partnerships for natural resources management research Complex Multiple Action research challenges organizations Social learning Implications Partnership investments required Time lag in results Results more difficult to predict a priori (planning implications) IPGs grow from local research
  28. 28. CPWF: Outstanding partnerships “The value added by the CPWF is the very important network capital that is created. It means that many organisations are involved in the program and NARS consider [the CPWF] to be more equal in its partnership approach than other CGIAR led programs. Through the competitive process linking partners, especially in transboundary work, [the CPWF] has been able to tackle issues that would have been impossible to cover by individual CGIAR centres or NARS.” European Initiative for Agricultural Research for Development (EIARD), December 2007
  29. 29. Moving towards trans-disciplinarity?
  30. 30. Diverse actors involved CGIAR NARES ARI NGO Total CPWF Consortium members Different 11 112 39 43 205 15 institutions that participate Different 10 7 8 9 34 8 institutions that lead projects Number of 36 8 10 12 66 34 projects led by % of project 42% 46% 7% 5% 100% 32% funds
  31. 31. CPWF has brokered water-food links Networks drawn by CPWF first call project implementers in impact pathway workshops
  32. 32. CPWF achievements Phase 1 (2004-2008) Research results for development
  33. 33. Science and impact through partnerships After 0.7 to 4 years research in CPWF projects • 200-250 peer-reviewed publications with 190 citations • Additionally about 120 papers to be presented at this Second Forum • At least 200 MSc and PhD students • Early impact in about 60% of projects
  34. 34. Projects from the First Competitive Call Sahelian Ecofarming Multiple Use Water Systems Livestock Management in Nile River Basin
  35. 35. Projects from the First Competitive Call Transboundary Water Community Based Governance Fish Culture Livelihood Resilience in Dry Areas
  36. 36. Overview of CPWF research scope and results in phase 1 Components of field scale water productivity (water harvesting; conservation agriculture; stress-tolerant varieties) Stakeholder dialogue and negotiation (multi-stakeholder governance and role-playing to develop it; payment for environmental services; multiple use water systems) Integrated river basin analysis (ecosystem services and smallholder agriculture; integration of fisheries; livestock-water relations) Policies and the global context (water rights; water transfer schemes; adaptations of small farm agriculture to climate change)
  37. 37. CPWF: Linking scales and disciplines Example: RURAL AFRICAN ADAPTATIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE Four levels of analysis: Household, Basin, National, Regional New insights on local perceptions of - and adaptive capacity to - climate change at household and province level (U Pretoria, EDRI) Combined global CGE model that includes agriculture, water & livelihood effects and distributional impacts of climate change (IFPRI and U Hamburg) Interaction with policy makers to develop national adaptation strategies (Ethiopian Economics Association, U Pretoria)
  38. 38. Local adaptation to climate change
  39. 39. Policy influence: African Models of Transboundary Water Governance Prepared database of >150 African water treaties, many of which were previously unknown to today’s water scientists and policy makers. Shared at workshop with African decision makers as basis for discussing African water law. Giving Africans access to their own knowledge resources. www.africanwaterlaw.org
  40. 40. Policy influence: Multiple Use Water Systems Documented evidence in 5 basins and 10 countries of MUS that take poor people’s water needs into account Reduced poverty and conflict, increased water productivity, gender-friendliness, ownership, willingness to pay, water quality awareness. Workshops at WWF4 & WWF5 attracted 300 people for major discussion Integrated investment opportunities among sectors
  41. 41. A Project of the: Sponsored by: Diverse interdisciplinary team. Three basins. Produced “Small Reservoirs Tool Kit”.
  42. 42. Young Researchers: resources for present and future Example: PLANNING SMALL RESERVOIRS (part of the project) PhD student in Volta showed that evapo-transpiration was half that expected. Also accurately estimated storage volume. His approaches/findings incorporated by U-Zimbabwe & EMBRAPA. His work also led to an MSc by a Ghanaian student on delineation of small reservoirs from satellite imagery All together 20 BSc, 30 MSc, 9 PhDs trained compared to 4 originally planned
  43. 43. Example of CPWF synthesis Increasing water productivity Major workshop in Ghana, September 2008 CPWF “crop water productivity” projects and outside experts 26 papers from 18 countries Looking at multi-scale and multi-disciplinary issues: • Increasing in-field rain water harvesting • Supplemental irrigation • Water balance and water productivity • Modeling to optimize water and land productivity • Upstream/downstream interactions • Farmer adoption
  44. 44. CPWF adding value: Aerobic rice IRRI began work in China in 2001 (pre-CPWF) Through CPWF, the work expanded to Indo-Gangetic plains, Mekong uplands and Philippines CPWF impact pathways mapping (including extrapolation domain and scenario analysis) increased researchers thinking about scaling-out and scaling-up CPWF basin focus leading to further work on downstream consequences and year to year variability Partners: IRRI, CAU, IARI, PhilRice, NAFRI (Lao PDR)
  45. 45. Aerobic rice extrapolation domains Lower expectation in Africa, but over Huge 2m km2 ‘of interest’ potential in India and Indochina / Thailand?
  46. 46. Cross-scale research Limpopo Basin Rainfall ~250 - 1050 mm/yr Issues include: Poverty and food Low productivity rainfed agriculture Irrigation development Ecosystem degradation Loss of biodiversity Source: CSIRO
  47. 47. Broad donor base “A particularly positive aspect is the breadth of the current donor spectrum and the resulting independence of the CPWF on individual donors.” CPWF External Review. Phase 1 budget (2003-2008) USD 65 million Projected Phase 2 budget (2009-2013) USD 60-90 million
  48. 48. CPWF Phase 2 “We are continually faced by great opportunities brilliantly disguised as insoluble problems” Lee Iococca
  49. 49. Building on CPWF basin networks CPWF Volta basin network Line colour = project Look to foster research synergy in organizations involved in more than one project (e.g., SARI, ISSER, WRI) A good balance of in-basin (red) and out-of-basin (blue) organizations
  50. 50. Focusing the strategy in phase 2 Focusing on the technical content found to be most promising in phase 1 Focusing even more on research that will begin development impact within the 15 year CPWF time frame All research is interdisciplinary, includes cross-scale analysis and focuses on resilience Phase 2: 2009-2013; intended Phase 3 to 2018
  51. 51. Focusing the strategy in Phase 2 Six river basins (Nile, Volta, Limpopo, Ganges, Mekong, Andean System) not nine 1-2 development challenges in specific parts of each basin (building on phase 1 results) CPWF as the platform for partners to contribute their specialist expertise With expected minimum budget of USD 60 million can handle one challenge per basin; aiming for USD 90 million and two challenges
  52. 52. Priority development challenges in each basin Andes (7 small basins) Benefit-sharing mechanisms to improve water productivity and reduce water-related conflict Mekong (especially the “3S” border area Laos- Cambodia-Vietnam) Multiple use of reservoirs Nile (especially Ethiopian highlands) A landscape approach to rainwater management
  53. 53. Priority development challenges in each basin Limpopo (Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa) Small reservoirs and rainwater management Volta (Burkina Faso/northern Ghana) Small reservoirs and rainwater management Ganges delta Integrated agriculture and aquaculture
  54. 54. Andes • BDC: Benefit-sharing to improve water productivity and reduce water-related conflict in selected basins – Where “benefit-sharing” is understood to include “cost-sharing”. – Will build on experiences with existing instances of benefit- sharing mechanisms (BSM) in different Andean countries • Projects – Designing and implementing BSM – Anticipating and assessing the consequences of BSM – Learning from history: consequences of alternative land and water use practices – Coordination
  55. 55. Ganges • BDC: Integrated agriculture and aquaculture in the Ganges delta – Including the development of integrated solutions to saline intrusion – Methods for improving the agricultural productivity of flood plains • Projects – Agriculture in salt-affected areas – Water allocation between agriculture and aquaculture in coastal zones (includes improved agricultural and aquacultural practices) – Coordination
  56. 56. Limpopo • BDC: Rainwater management and small reservoirs in Mozambique, Southern Zimbabwe and Limpopo Province of South Africa • Projects: – Technical and institutional innovation in rainwater management and small reservoirs – Targeting innovation and understanding its consequences – Scaling out – Coordination
  57. 57. Mekong • BDC: Multiple use of reservoirs in the 3S border region that straddles the tri-point between Vietnam, Lao PDR and Cambodia – Understood to embrace water use in small and large reservoirs created by new and existing dams, and – The downstream consequences for different water uses and users of reservoir management strategies • Projects: – Reservoir management and its consequences – Agent-based modeling (interim title) – Transboundary policy issues – (Helping displaced communities – uncertain) – Coordination
  58. 58. Nile • Challenge 1 – To improve rural livelihoods and their resilience through a landscape approach to rainwater management • Projects – Learning from past experience on rainwater management research – Integrated rainwater management strategies – technologies, institutions and policies – Spatial targeting of innovation strategies – Assessing and anticipating the cross-scale and downstream consequences of innovation
  59. 59. Nile • Challenge 2 – The effective use of agricultural wastewater in the Nile River Delta for multiple uses and livelihoods needs • Projects – Improving technologies and planning strategies of the Nile Delta – Treated water for livelihoods – Opportunies from water reuse systems for poor people – Reuse of agricultural water for ‘new lands’ and resilience of the Nile Delta agricultural and livelihoods system
  60. 60. Volta • BDC: Institutional and technical mechanisms to develop, maintain and sustain small reservoirs and other rainwater management approaches to improve the livelihoods of the poor in the dry-lands of Southern Burkina Faso and Northern Ghana, taking into account implications for downstream users. • Projects: – Small reservoirs and other approaches to improved rainwater management – Institutions and governance – Coordination
  61. 61. Secondary development challenges Andes (7 small basins) Strategies for Andean communities to adapt to global change Nile (Egypt) Multiple use of agricultural wastewater in the Delta Ganges delta The integrated management of groundwater Mekong The sustainable management of upland agricultural water
  62. 62. Range of Agricultural Water Management Options (source David Molden, IWMI)
  63. 63. Flexible cross-basin topic working groups in support of basin research Increasing rainwater productivity Multiple use systems Water benefit sharing Global drivers of change Learning to innovate Participation and gender (There will be periodic additions, mergers and deletions)
  64. 64. Keep on learning….. “The CGIAR should adopt a flexible and learning-by-doing approach to designing Challenge Programs (CPs)” CGIAR Change Management Design Team, 2001 “Working virtually with very large networks? Please write the handbook for us….” Martha Maznevski and Jim Dowd, IMD Lausanne, in conversation with CPWF management, July 2007
  65. 65. www.waterandfood.org www.ifwf2.org

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