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Albert Norström's introduction to resilience, at the CPWF Resilience TWG inception workshop, Tempe 11 March 2011

Albert Norström's introduction to resilience, at the CPWF Resilience TWG inception workshop, Tempe 11 March 2011

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  • Background - understand these substantial undesirable shifts in marine ecosystems and the ecological and social elements that cause them but also can reverse them.
  • -Set the context in which resilience is increasingly being seen as a framework that can help sustainable human-ecosystem interactions -Humanity is a major force in global change and shapes ecosystem dynamics from local levels to the biosphere as a whole
  • Humanity is the major force of change of the earth system
  • Humanitys influence on marine ecosystems also very high
  • At the same time human societies and globally interconnected economies rely on ecosystem services and support. The MA described the state of ES and the magnitude of human use. What is worrying
  • We seem to be reaching several planetary boundaries - biophysical thresholds that when passed may tip the whole earth system away from the relatively stabel conditions (for humanity that have existed for the past 10,000 yrs)
  • Roots of resilience are actually from ecology and work from different schools of thought on how ecosystem dynamics play out
  • Traditionellt så har man ett perspektiv att ekosystem är linjära och ganska förutsägbara system. Ett antagande är a)...
  • Men stämmer det här riktigt? Nej! Man observerade i flera ekosystem att systemet kan hoppa från ett läge till en annan. Ofta svårt att “rulla tillbaka”, återhämtning kanske var omöjlig eller i alla fall tog väldigt lång tid!
  • Men stämmer det här riktigt? Nej! Man observerade i flera ekosystem att systemet kan hoppa från ett läge till en annan. Ofta svårt att “rulla tillbaka”, återhämtning kanske var omöjlig eller i alla fall tog väldigt lång tid!
  • This phase shift was very persistent. We describe it as a regime shift to an alternative stabel state.
  • Men stämmer det här riktigt? Nej! Man observerade i flera ekosystem att systemet kan hoppa från ett läge till en annan. Ofta svårt att “rulla tillbaka”, återhämtning kanske var omöjlig eller i alla fall tog väldigt lång tid!
  • Resilience thinking gathers similar concept from other disciplines to see similarities and differences in behaviour. Systems thinking background. Fuzziness can be a strenght in this context.
  • Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the na- tional level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that pro- vided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives.

Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to resilience thinking Albert Norström Stockholm Resilience Centre [email_address]
  • 2. The context
  • 3. Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 4. Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 5. Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 6. Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 7. We are in the anthropocene Rapid change in major processes and resources Human use of goods and services is increasing Most ecosystem services are decreasing We seem to be approaching thresholds Governance systems that makes it possible for society to relate with environmental assets in a fashion that secures their capacity to support societal development for a long time in the future. Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 8. Ability to maintain functioning despite stress, shocks or disturbance Reflects ability of system to self-organize; build capacity for learning and adaptation Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 9. Engineering vs ecosystem resilience
  • 10.
    • Natural systems were treated as predictable systems with single equilibria
    Ecosystems as linear systems Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 11. Ecosystems as linear systems Natural systems were treated as predictable systems with single equilibria Disturbance Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 12. Ecosystems as linear systems Natural systems were treated as predictable systems with single equilibria Recovery Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 13.
  • 14. Natural systems were treated as predictable systems with single equilibria Ecosystems as linear systems Engineering resilience Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 15.
  • 16. Ecosystems with multiple equilibria Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 17. Alternative regimes Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 18. Alternative regimes Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 19. Alternative regimes Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 20.
  • 21. Linear system Predictable Ecosystem sys Example: Management of fisheries based on MSY When stocks are overfished, just stop fishing! Or? Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 22. Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. Low High Fishing pressure State Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 26. Low High Fishing pressure State Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 27. Shocks Slow changes in underlying variables Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 28.
  • 29. Herbivores Habitat builders Predators Pollinators Seed dispersers Functional diversity confers resilience
  • 30. Herbivores Habitat builders Predators Pollinators Seed dispersers Functional diversity confers resilience
  • 31. Functional redundancy confers resilience Herbivores
  • 32.
  • 33. Regime shifts Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 34. Shocks Slow changes in underlying variables Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40. 1. Hurricane Allen (1980) 2. sea urchin disease (1983) extensive coral mortality mass mortality of sea urchins coral recruitment algal recruitment algal recruitment grazing no grazing
  • 41. Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 42. Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 43. Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 44. Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 45. Time Space Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 46. Social-ecological resilience
  • 47. RESILIENCE Anthropology Environmental psychology Cultural theory Common property research Human geography Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 48. Resilience thinking is a lens & a cluster of concepts and methods Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 49. Social-ecological systems Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 50. Social-ecological traps Scarcity of goods and services Overharvesting, destructive gear use Ecosystem Positive feedbacks Socio-economic system Positive feedbacks Coral fisheries SES Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 51. Transformations
  • 52. Transformations Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 53. Transformations Ecological knowledge Experimental management Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 54. Transformations Political turbulence Recognition of undesirable regime Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 55. Transformations Shadow networks Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking
  • 56. Resilience concepts Characteristics Focus on Context Engineering Return time, efficiency Recovery, constancy Vicinity of a stable equilibrium Ecosystem Buffer capacity, withstand shock, maintain function Persistence, robustness Multiple equilibria, stability landscapes Social-ecological Interplay disturbance reorganization, sustaining and developing Adaptive capacity, transformability, learning, innovation Integrated system feedback, cross-scale dynamic interactions Albert Norström
        • Stockholm Resilience Centre
      • Introduction to resilience thinking