India Sanitation Program Overview (by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation)

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Presentations from the National Conference on Social Innovation for Improving Urban Sanitation: Lessons for Scaling-up, 14 December 2016.

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India Sanitation Program Overview (by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation)

  1. 1. CONFIDENTIAL INDIA SANITATION PROGRAM OVERVIEW ICPR Workshop on Changing the Urban Landscape Madhu Krishna December 14, 2016 © 2016 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  2. 2. CONFIDENTIAL • High burden due to fecal-oral contamination • Low coverage and scale • Non viable markets & delivery networks • Expensive expert solutions • Limited innovation capacity © Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 2 ROOTS OF THE SANITATION CRISIS Picture courtesy: WaterAid
  3. 3. URBANIZATION IN INDIA DEMANDS NEW RESPONSES India Trends • 33 percent in 2015 • 40 percent by 2030 • Or 1.47 billion in 2030, an additional 194 million from 2015 • In 2011 65 million in slums, estimated to grow to 104 million by 2017 – a growth of 37%! Implications • Demand for housing, services, infrastructure • Without tenure often unable to connect to services • Risks of water insecurity and inequitable services • Integrated approaches: Ø Across all areas Ø Linking services, planning and governance
  4. 4. URBANIZATION IN INDIA & SANITATION CHALLENGES India Trends • Population 400 Million—600 Mn in 15 years • 8,000 towns and cities Implications • Cities generate 40 Billion liters of sewage daily (100L/capita) • 10 Billion is “treated” (25%) • Only 7 cities treat 50% of sewage • About zero is treated for re- use • Cost of poor sanitation: 6.4% of GDP (World Bank)
  5. 5. CONFIDENTIAL • Manual emptying common; mechanical equipment underutilized where available • Provision of services often unregulated; informal market • Limited performance of existing technologies • Septage management projects often over-focus on infrastructure • As with sewage treatment projects, O&M costs & roles undervalued • High emptying frequency; poor households pay higher fee 5 FECAL SLUDGE & SEPTAGE MANAGEMENT (FSSM): OFT-IGNORED COMPONENT IN SANITATION SECTOR 10/20/2013
  6. 6. CONFIDENTIAL We focus on two fundamental sanitation challenges: 1. Expanding and improving sanitation without central sewers, because this is – and will be – by far the most common type of sanitation service used by the poor 2. Making sanitation services safe and sustainable by addressing the failure to effectively transport, treat, and reuse waste captured in on-site facilities © Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 6 THE SANITATION SERVICE CHAIN
  7. 7. WHAT IF? The sanitation value chain could be made more efficient with innovation
  8. 8. CONFIDENTIAL We focus on two fundamental sanitation challenges: 1. Expanding and improving sanitation without central sewers, because this is – and will be – by far the most common type of sanitation service used by the poor 2. Making sanitation services safe and sustainable by addressing the failure to effectively transport, treat, and reuse waste captured in on-site facilities © Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 8 THE SANITATION SERVICE CHAIN
  9. 9. REINVENTING THE TOILET Using transformative technologies throughout the sanitation value chain to plug key gaps
  10. 10. CONFIDENTIAL © Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 10 NEW PRODUCT CATEGORIES, BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES Omni-Ingestor • Access 90% of pits • Effective Emptying • Efficient Transport • 50 GPM • 0 to 40% solids Omni-Processor • Decentralized • Nutrient Recovery • Energy Production • 20 tons per day • 20 to 50% solids Reinvented Toilet • $0.05/person/day • No pathogens • User demand • 5 kg per day • Less than 25% total solids Biologically & Environmentally Safe • Profitable • Sustainable
  11. 11. CONFIDENTIAL © 2016 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation WE ASPIRE TO REDUCE THE LEAKAGES AND DYSFUNCTIONALITIES IN THE EXISTING VALUE CHAIN Technologies • Disruptive technological innovation to upset the status quo of traditional sewers and latrines • Commercialize with strong private sector partner • Identify interim technologies for sludge and septage treatment Systems & Infrastructure • Move donors to fund FSSM infra., not just sewer systems and latrine construction • Transform the enabling environment (talent, access to finance, toolkits, citizen engagement platforms, etc.) Fundamentally transform the sanitation sector to reach universal use of sustainable sanitation services, which contributes to health and gender equality outcomes for the underserved

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