Political philosophy


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Political philosophy

  1. 1. <ul><li>“ Political philosophy is the study of human social organization and of the nature of man/woman in society” (Philosophical society.com). </li></ul><ul><li>The Racial Polity by Charles W. Mills mainly focus on moral and political demarcation . </li></ul>
  2. 2. earlier: race is biological now : race is social politically constructed Critical Race Theory
  3. 3. <ul><li>Since Feminist scholarship in philosophy has made a success, Critical Race Theory can do the same. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ In recent decades, there has been such a burgeoning of feminist scholarship in philosophy—articles, books, special journal issues, anthologies, series—that it now merits its own category, whereas scholarship on race ( as against routine condemnations of racism) has yet to arrive”; </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ There is the discovery, analysis, and critique of the sexism of the major figures of the canon”; </li></ul><ul><li>“ The problem is not that these canonical figures just happen to be male, but that their maleness enters into and seminally penetrates their theories, a conceptual DNA that reproduces a template of particular concerns, foci, values, and perspective”; </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2. “There is the parallel enterprise of the excavation and rediscovery of oppositional political texts or fragments by women”; “ The aim is to demonstrate the existence of a tradition of resistance, a ‘usable past’”;
  6. 6. 3. “There is the attempt to develop new conceptions of the polity that make explicit, through the mapping of the full dimensions of female subordination, what would be required to incorporate women into the body politic on a basis of real moral equality” .
  7. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>“ The origins of patriarchy remain a subject of bitter dispute, but even if it is not traceable to the origin of the species, as radical feminists claim, it is obviously far older than white racial domination and arguably more foundationally embedded in human interrelations. Thus, in some respects at least, racism has been less taken for granted than sexism and so requires less work to be made conceptually visible”; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><ul><li>“… a body of literature that constructs genealogies of racism and analyzes the racist views of various famous philosophers. Such research needs to be expanded”-- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>On the empirical level, what is needed is … the putting together of an anthology collecting Western philosophers’ statements on race and the non-European world”; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ On the theoretical level, what is required is a framework for situating such views and for showing that—at least in the modern period—they are … linked to a crystallizing socio-political system”; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ When they map the political, Western political philosophers do not usually consider these writings, but this neglect is arguably because of the mapmakers’ deficiencies rather than writers’”; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>“ … those critical race theorists who seek a global reconceptualization of the polity that would correspond to the feminists’ patriarchy already have a concept at hand, white supremacy… the domination of whites over nonwhites, was originally proclaimed quite openly and under that very name”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ One possible strategy for developing critical race theory within political philosophy will be to self-consciously theorize a racial polity —in this case, a white supremacist polity —and to rethink the political around the axis of race”; </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>“ One needs, in Hampton’s words, to go beyond mere ‘surface description’ to excavate the socio-political ‘deep structures’ that generate ‘not only forms of interaction that make certain kinds of [resource] distributions inevitable but also moral theories that justify those distributions’”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Different political philosophies will have different stories about the past and present of the polity, its origins and its workings, and these divergences will have implications for its moral assessment also”; </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>“ Feminist theory... has one overarching goal—to understand, explain and challenge[men’s systematic domination of women]”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>{ Critical Race Theory... has one overarching goal—to understand, explain and challenge the idea of white supremacy } </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>“ By using patriarch as a descriptive term, all the interlocking structures which had been previously identified as constituents of sexual domination could be integrated”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>{ By using White Supremacy as a descriptive term, all the interlocking structures which had been previously identified as constituents of White domination could be integrated’ } </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>“ Far from being new, the idea of race as a global system can be found practically at the inception of the oppositional black tradition”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Radical black and colonial intellectuals have always seen race in international terms as a set of relations to be understood not merely locally—in the particular setting of the Caribbean or the United States or Africa—but as the global outcome of a historic process of European imperialism, settlement, and colonialism”; </li></ul><ul><li>“ There is a set of transnational relations of domination that transcend the First World nation-state and for which race is the bearer. From the modern period onward, with the simultaneous domestic emergence of liberalism and the external expansion of Europe, pronouncements on race and the non-European world thus became theoretically significant because they had to be seen in the context of this crystallizing racial world system”. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>“ The race question is subsidiary to the class question in politics, and to think of imperialism in terms of race is disastrous. But to neglect the racial factor as merely incidental [is] an error only less grave than to make it fundamental” ( The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Owverture and the San Domingo Revolution, 283)”. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Eric Williams: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ... the profits from conquest, the slave trade, and colonial exploitation were to a greater or lesser extent crucial in enabling the European takeoff now misleadingly known as “the European miracle”; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PAUL Gilroy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ As PAUL Gilroy concludes, conquest, colonialism, and African slavery must then be seen not as the ‘special property’ of nonwhites, but rather as ‘internal’ to the West, integral to European modernity, ‘part of the ethical and intellectual heritage of the West as a whole’. In certain respects, the real political system is global”; </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>“ As with gender, then, this reconceptualization of race provides a framework for illuminating and explaining the silences, evasions, misrepresentations, and double standards of (most of ) the important figures of modern Western political theory”; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Wildness’ and ‘savagery’ are innate and necessary for non-Europeans, but external and contingent for Europeans( if they ever were in that state in the first place)”; </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>“ ... The realm of the political is reserved for those who are capable of leaving the state of nature to create political/civil society, nonwhites who are savages(as in the white settler state) are then permanently nonpolitical (“wild”, even if superficially tamed and civilized). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ... The overall record of the philosophical tradition as a whole is one of complicity with the establishment of the global racial system”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ To the extent that their political philosophies—and the adaptation of these philosophies to the exigencies of the states created by European expansionism—take nonwhite inferiority as natural and non-political or as political and justifiable, they are broadly committed to the creation and perpetuation of the racial polity, a polity that generally subordinates nonwhites to the interests of whites”; </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Racial conflicts have been ignored in U.S. society for decades. Until recently, treatments of the problem have been disappointed. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>“ With few exceptions, social scientists studying racism as prejudice do not consider racial division as a form of stratification build into the structure of American society……The primacy of race as an aspect of social structure in America is not recognized.” (p24) </li></ul><ul><li>“ In Political science, there has been a similar and indeed not theoretically unrelated pattern.” (p25) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Both mainstream/liberal and oppositional/Marxist political theory have been conceptually inadequate in the theorization of race and racism.”(p27) </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Benefits from being “not non-white” </li></ul><ul><li>“ the wages of whiteness” </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Why are black people angry? They are angry because they’ve been abused and excluded from history </li></ul><ul><li>Class status can depend on this </li></ul><ul><li>Black people from different classes have different attitude- do more educated act differently? It seems that the higher classes are angrier </li></ul><ul><li>so when they get to an higher class, they have more pressure from a dominant race to compete </li></ul><ul><li>CLIP from the musical RENT (I will take care of that as well). </li></ul><ul><li>people are surprised to know that Canadian Black People are as angry as the US and Carribean, but it’s the same everywhere </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>At the “Writing Thru Race” conference in Vancouver in 1994, it was a shock to find how angry Black writers were. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We have always been angry, and we will continue to be angry in a context in which we are made to feel inferior and treated as such”. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: In 1734, black slave woman Marie-Joseph Angélique was put to death because she burned down the house of her mistress. Several witnesses claimed that she intent to do that as a revenge. “ Nobody actually saw her commit the crime.” </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>“ The portrayal of the angry Black person seems to have replaced the older stereotypes in the media”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nowadays, Black youth, especially young men, tend to be portrayed as menacing thugs and criminals, quick to hurt you if you look at them sideway”. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>Working- class Black: “Working-class Black… are the people expected to be enraged with the system, surely not the educated, middle class, and successful, and not the writer, whose literary gift has afforded him or her a privileged location in the vertical mosaic of racial/class/gender hierarchy in Canada”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-class Black: “African American middle class.. are particularly angry…they felt slighted, disrespected, cheated out of opportunities routinely granted their white counterparts, and generally lacking the full entitlements that their educations and careers would lead them to expect”; </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Black writer: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dionne Brand issued a collection of essays, Bread out of Stone , which target Canadian racism and sexism and the myriad ways in which we, as Black folks, Black women, are subjected to them.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Critics were clearly annoyed with the book and did not take kindly to the angry tone of Brand’s writing.” </li></ul><ul><li>Philip Marchand of The Toronto Star : “ bitterly censorious attacks oideological foes” ; African Canadian writer Andre Alexis: “who reviewed the book, decide that the collection was ‘narrow, ungenerous and self-serving’” </li></ul><ul><li>Dionne Brand: “ One thing you do not have to do at a Caribbean writers’ conference, or perhaps any writers’ conference outside Canada, is explain that writers mean to change the world.” </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>“ .. the long history of settlement of African people, for example, and their rightful place as makers of Canada have been denied in favour of a construction of blackness as recent, as ‘others’.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ .. the mid-nineteenth-century fugitive slave era has been embraced( and all other history of Black people ignored) precisely because it has enabled the mythmakers to portray Canada as a haven for Black people in that period”; </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>“… the Canadian national identity as white and European has been purposefully constructed over time through control of our national myths, historiography, immigration policy, and especially the exclusion of Africans and other peoples of colour from the select group of those considered to be our cultural producers. </li></ul><ul><li>“ It’s impossible to be both Black and Canadian at the same time, since Canada is imagined either as a place without Black people, or where the few Blacks there are well-behaved, even apolitical.” </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>“ A part of that anger stems from that widespread notion that we are not supposed to be angry, that race relations are much better here than in the United States.” </li></ul><ul><li>“… we are constantly told that we are lucky to live in Canada, where our system respects people of all backgrounds and cultures… this hides a pernicious system of white privilege and white supremacy”. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>“… having to fear that our children might be labeled as sub-intellects when they enter any given teacher’s classroom” </li></ul><ul><li>“… how Africa is depicted in the media: there are never any positive stories about the continent, just the incessant pictures of starving children, warring tribes, and unforgiving landscapes”; </li></ul><ul><li>“… studies still show that white job seekers get three times as many job offers as Black job seekers”; </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is the white ignorance and denial of systemic racism that galls me the most”. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>“ spur us to greater heights of success and achievement”: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: the 1930s Olympic runner Ray Lewis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The coach didn’t want him in his team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The schoolteacher insulted him in front of the whole class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ But every time the gun went off at the start for the next…twelve years, I raced against those two men”. </li></ul>
  31. 32. “ Community activists Akua Benjamin and Keren Braithwaite reminded the gathering that Blacks have been at the forefront of the movement towards equity in Canada. While the language and ideas of employment equity, and so forth, have become the mainstay of the academic and policy elite…these concepts… were introduced and pushed forward by African Canadians and others.”   “ I believe it is our job as Black parents to ensure that our children become angry.”   “ We must teach them to recognize unfairness and injustice and to confront and expose those blights every step of the way.”