it causes us to think about whiteness on many different scales; whiteness needs to be understood as an interconnected global system
states that ideologies of “race,” ethnicity, and belonging are fundamentally bound up with the histories of the nation
states that his intention is to show that the struggle to define new local, national, and regional identities appropriate for the 21st century can serve as a paradigm for those dedicated to comprehending and subverting the mechanisms of whiteness on an international scale
uses example/analogy of sport; the international arena provided by sport demonstrates the pleasures and dangers, the significance and the irrelevance, of the strongly held feeling that one belongs to a nation
predictably nationalist behaviour of some English fans abroad during international soccer games invariably provokes a frenzy of self-examination in the media that provides interesting reading on questions of the national character and consciousness
Ware asks: so where does all the empty pride and false patriotism come from?
Ware answers: from England’s own right wing press, from the posh end of the Euro-hating Telegraph, to the xenophobia of the Mail, right down to the flagrant loathing of foreigners in the Sun
does not answer the question: why have the English been so peculiarly receptive to this propaganda, and why other nations have not had the same opportunity to be inflamed by cynical newspaper magnates; Ware, however, decides to leave these questions aside for a moment
Prophylactic: adj. acting to defend against or protect something Source: www.dictionary.com Prophylactic Identities
Anne Leslie (a journalist) states that if it is necessary to build the self-esteem of young blacks (which it is), that should not be at the expense of the self-esteem of young whites; however, Leslie conflates white with English which replicates the common-sense view that Englishness is deeply imbued with the characteristics of light skin and the nuances of “race” that float around the category
Richard Dyer updates discussion of white as a skin colour that works as a category that is internally variable and unclear at the edges
certain historians have challenged the making of whiteness as an economic, political, and social category in the U.S.; however, in Britain, an approach is required that examines the fluidity of its naturalizing power in relation to internal differences of class rather than “race”
Ware poses question: if whiteness is synonymous with Englishness, functioning as a hidden normative code that determines who is in or out on the basis of birth and complexion, what of children of settlers who are born in England, but not light skinned?
states he would like to consider aspects of contemporary debate on the content of this broader category of Britishness
this un-natural portrayal of reality (i.e. through the idea of the exhibitions, Disneyland, etc...) contributes to a false sense of reality, or a “hyperfamiliarity” to a country’s identity
Colonialism: n. a policy by which a nation maintains or extends its control over foreign dependencies Post-Colonialism: suggests an end to colonial rule and that the country will return to their traditional norms before colonization had taken place. Source: www.dictionary.com Devil on the Cross by Ngugi Neo-Colonialism: colonialism only changed but did not end.
white supremacist ideologies created intense hatred that erupted in violence in which the Teddy Bear Gang terrorized black people. Influx of new people created identity crisis of Englishness and whiteness. Many white people showed solidarity with black community and identified with their struggles.
racism dehumanizes both black and white people which can lead to critical self reflection and a “mutual process of learning and unlearning” of cultures (Ware, 206). Victim and perpetrator of racism are both victims of dominant white culture.
Entering Another Country > If one enters an unfamiliar area and cannot identify him/herself with people of his/her own culture, one feels as though they are in a foreign land. > “Instead of choosing whiteness by assimilation, the British were presented with daily opportunities to make different kinds of moral choices about the kind of people they thought they were.”(p. 208) > A Black British author, Mike Phillips, gives his account of his realization of the feeling of being at home in England after travelling around the country. (p. 208)
> Phillips describes how he encounters people of different origins when he travels through London, and this is a normal trait of London. > He moves on to tour Scotland, and also confesses how he fears that being a Black man can lead to being attacked or killed because of the colour of his skin. (p. 208) > He next visits Newcastle, where he realises that he had not spotted a black or Asian person for half an hour. He felt that he had stepped into a foreign land.
> Phillips described how no one made him feel uncomfortable despite the fact that he was distinct. The only discomfort he felt was with unfamiliarity with a place that he thought he knew. > Ware concludes: “instead of searching for notions of national distinctiveness among people defined by the anachronism of race and its surrogate, colour, it would be far more productive and healthy to open out the definition of Englishness to include the views of relative newcomers who have realized that England is where they feel most at home.” (p. 211)
Identity : The collective aspect of the set of characteristics by which a thing is definitively recognizable or known
“ My mother told me not to be afraid. I passed through the fire.” (42)
rejects education system that assaults the spirit
acknowledges anger to be herself so she can dance
My Mother Used to Dance in connection with Perfidious Albion
“ The contingencies of imperialism brought under British jurisdiction, many different ethnic groups who continue to retain an affinity with the country, either through direct settlement here or through structures such as commonwealth-but this does not automatically permit them to identify as ‘English’ even if they are born and brought up in the country.”
In Mother: common themes of victimization, patronization, that eventually lead to courage