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Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition
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Schaetzl iycn ag_nutrition

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CORE Group Fall Meeting 2010. Maximizing Nutritional Benefits of Agricultural Interventions. A Review of the Food Security and Nutritional Impacts of Agriculture Interventions. - Tom Schaetzel, Infant …

CORE Group Fall Meeting 2010. Maximizing Nutritional Benefits of Agricultural Interventions. A Review of the Food Security and Nutritional Impacts of Agriculture Interventions. - Tom Schaetzel, Infant & Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project

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  • The IYCN Project is primed by PATH with subcontracts with the Manoff Group, CARE, and URC. There are staff from each organization that sit in the PATH offices.
  • Misperception: as long as production rises consumption will sort itself out. (Pacey and Payne, 1985) New technology more accessible to those with more endowments. (Pacey and Payne, 1985) “… one of the most persistent of misperceptions…about technology and economics…is the idea that as long as production is rising, any problems of consumption will sort themselves out.” “… in societies where serious social inequalities already exist, technological advances leading to increased agricultural output are always ‘liable to be limited to those who have superior endowments of land and social status’, excluding the poorer majority.” Pacey and Payne, 1985 Credit: © 2008 Monirul Alam, Courtesy of Photoshare   Caption:  An irrigation system in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • Health Education Clean water Gender equality Not everything necessary for adequate nutrition can be bought.
  • Poor households tend to have more labor at their disposal—and, they spend a higher proportion of their income on food. Consumption increase tends to be greater in these households when all employment increases. Some types of mechanization decrease income in these households.
  • Size of landholding can heighten the negative effect of price supports, since large landowners normally are sellers and small landholders normally are purchasers.
  • Small-scale processing, which tends to increase employment, sometimes of women. Increased income (from employment) can increase women’s influence over the allocation of family resources. Food disproportionately consumed by food insecure households—often disproportionately produced by the poor on lower quality land and often without benefit of irrigation.
  • Certain types of foods regularly consumed by vulnerable households have been shown to have greater impact for consumption/nutrition, namely polyculture fish, dairy, poultry, eggs, and vegetables. Nutrition counseling has a tendency to multiply effects from the agricultural intervention itself. Adding attention to access to health care, and to sanitation and hygiene, in some cases has major positive impact for nutrition.
  • Certain types of foods regularly consumed by vulnerable households have been shown to have greater impact for consumption/nutrition, namely polyculture fish, dairy, poultry, eggs, and vegetables. Nutrition counseling has a tendency to multiply effects from the agricultural intervention itself. Adding attention to access to health care, and to sanitation and hygiene, in some cases has major positive impact for nutrition.
  • Transcript

    • 1. A Review of the Food Security and Nutritional Impacts of Agriculture Interventions Maximizing Nutritional Benefits of Agricultural Interventions Tom Schaetzel Infant & Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project
    • 2. The Infant & Young Child Nutrition Project
      • USAID Global Health Bureau flagship project on infant and young child nutrition.
      • Prioritizes the prevention of malnutrition for mothers and children, focusing from pregnancy until two years of age.
      • Led by PATH in collaboration with CARE, The Manoff Group, and University Research Co., LLC.
      Photo: PATH/Evelyn Hockstein
    • 3. A New Era for Agricultural Development Source: Farming First
    • 4. Does Increased Agricultural Production Improve Nutrition?
      • “… one of the most persistent of misperceptions…about technology and economics…is the idea that as long as production is rising, any problems of consumption will sort themselves out.”
      • Pacey and Payne, 1985
      Photo: © 2008 Monirul Alam, Courtesy of Photoshare
    • 5. Does Increased Income Improve Nutrition?
      • Not everything can be bought…
      • “ Income is a rather dubious indicator of the opportunity of being well nourished….” (Dr è ze and Sen, 1989)
      Health Education Clean Water Gender Equality Photos: PATH
    • 6. The Problem
      • There are trade offs and complementarities between production/employment goals and meeting nutritional goals which should be taken into account…when making program decisions. (USAID, 1982)
      • How can we maximize the complementarities?
      • How can we minimize the tradeoffs?
    • 7. Review of Experience
      • What are the characteristics of agriculture interventions that:
        • Improve food security?
        • Improve nutrition?
      • What are the characteristics of interventions that have negative effects?
    • 8. Negative Food Security Impact
      • Results when increase unemployment among population groups already un- or under-employed.
        • Increased production tends to increase employment, but not always
        • Mechanization can decrease employment
    • 9. Negative Food Security Impact
      • Increased prices (e.g., price supports) have negative impact when vulnerable households are net purchasers.
        • Smaller producers may increase production, but not enough to become net sellers
        • Cameroon calculation for 10% price increase:
          • 3% income increase and 0.5% consumption increase
          • 11.6% reduction of consumption due to purchase
      • Lower prices have negative impact when vulnerable households are net sellers.
    • 10. Positive Food Security Impact is More Likely When…
      • Involve women
        • Better translation of income increases to food security
        • Small-scale processing (often an income source)
      • Food promoted is disproportionately produced by food insecure households (usually also disproportionately consumed by these households).
      Photo: QFP/Mario DiBari
    • 11. Positive Nutrition Impacts are More Likely When…
      • The intervention includes explicit nutrition counseling (coupled with access to health care, sanitation and hygiene).
        • Calculation (Rwanda): doubling energy intake decreases stunting by only ¼ standard deviation—a clean latrine has twice the effect
        • Comparisons of orange-fleshed sweet potato with and without counseling
    • 12. Positive Nutrition Impacts are More Likely When…
      • The intervention involves women.
      • The intervention includes home gardens.
      • The intervention introduces micronutrient-rich crop varieties.
    • 13. Positive Nutrition Impacts are More Likely When…
      • Vulnerable households regularly consume the food commodity being produced.
        • Independent of income effects
        • Even for commercial crops
        • Examples: fish, vegetables, dairy, poultry and eggs
      Photo: PATH
    • 14. Positive Nutrition Impacts are More Likely When…
      • Interventions are designed to benefit/protect nutritionally vulnerable populations.
      • Requires identifying and considering the situation of vulnerable households before the project takes place.
      Photo: PATH
    • 15. Solutions
      • Include meaningful nutrition objectives in project design (with activities supporting them).
      • Protect nutritional considerations in the design of production/income projects.
      Photo: QFP/Mario DiBari
    • 16. Key Considerations
      • The expected impacts are often unclear and require modeling at the outset.
      • Modeling requires identifying the nutritional vulnerable, and understanding why they are vulnerable.
    • 17. Thank you Contact me: tschaetzel@path.org
    • 18. The preceding slides were presented at the CORE Group 2010 Fall Meeting Washington, DC To see similar presentations, please visit: www.coregroup.org/resources/meetingreports

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