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Lessons in the Integration of CMAM & IMCI Activities_Swedberg_5.12.11

Lessons in the Integration of CMAM & IMCI Activities_Swedberg_5.12.11






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  • Despite considerable support & training from SC for UHC in comparison area … this project shows that a program that utilizes only inpatient care for SAM just isn’t feasible or acceptable …..in the context of scarce resources there just isn’t staff nor bed capacity for all SAM cases …and carer perceptions of hospital based care is a huge barrier …they gave many reasons for ‘refusing’ to go to the UHC that included social and cultural reasons, economic reasons and issues around distrust and misunderstanding about the care that they would receive... Many of these issues are common across programs that focus only on an inpatient model for addressing SAM - we’ll hear more next about the experience of Lalmohan UHC in providing facility-based care ..
  • Interface/mobilization much harder to achieve with program workers that are ‘imported’ in and not based in villages and trusted by villagers Now will hand over to Chloe who is going to discuss the quality of care and cost effectiveness findings further ….

Lessons in the Integration of CMAM & IMCI Activities_Swedberg_5.12.11 Lessons in the Integration of CMAM & IMCI Activities_Swedberg_5.12.11 Presentation Transcript

  • Community Case Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Southern Bangladesh: an Operational Effectiveness Study
    Date : May 12, 2011
    Presented by Eric Swedberg at the CORE Group Spring Meeting, Baltimore
  • Study Team & Acknowledgements
    Co-investigator Committee - Prof. Fatima Parveen Chowdhury, Prof. Sayed Zahid Hossain, Dr. Rokeya Sultana and Dr. Syed Khairul Anam
    Investigators- Kate Sadler, Chloe Puett, Golam Mothabbir and Mark Myatt
    Others – Iman Nahil, Hasan Ali, Osman Gani Siddique, Dr. Sohel Rana, Kelly Stevenson, Margarita Clarke, Paige Harrigan and Hanqi Luo
    Funding – GAIN and PepsiCo Foundation
  • Child Malnutrition in Bangladesh
    Acute malnutrition is the severest form of undernutrition with the highest risk of mortality and morbidity
    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is defined by wasting (a low MUAC or weight for height measurement) and/or nutritional oedema
    Bangladesh has the fourth highest number in the world of children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (approx 500,000 annually)
  • Nutrition Programming in Bangladesh
    Nutrition programs over the last 20 years have been large community-based projects that have focused on
    Behaviour Change Communication
    Growth monitoring and Promotion
    Defining undernutrition with weight for age i.e. no mechanism for identifying SAM at community level.
    Severe acute malnutrition treated as a rare problem for inpatient settings (doctors) only
    This probably means that a lot of SAM has gone unidentified and untreated
  • National Strategy for SAM in Bangladesh
    This has focused on using the facility-based management protocol/adopted WHO protocol. In other countries there have been challenges with this:
    Inpatient units often resource constrained
    Number of children with SAM exceed inpatient capacity
    Opportunity costs for patients are high
    Patients present late, often very sick with complications
    Risky environment (ie risk of acquiring infection is high)
  • Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition
    Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) has been developed and tested (largely across Africa) over the past 8 years to address these problems.
    It combines
    Inpatient management of cases of SAM with complications
    Outpatient management of cases of SAM without complications and
    Uses new ready-to-use foods, for cases that have no complications
    WHO, WFP, UNSCN and UNICEF gave their strong support to the approach in 2007 with a joint statement on CMAM
    “ …. If properly combined with a facility-based approach <cut> community-based management of severe acute malnutrition could prevent the deaths of hundreds of thousands of children …”
  • Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition
    Bangladesh wanted to assess the effectiveness of such an approach in this context and how it might best be integrated into current health service delivery.
    Through the Director General of Health Services:
    A team of co-investigators was formed from the Institute of Public Health and Nutrition in Bangladesh; the Research and Planning Unit of the Directorate General Health Services; the Regional Medical College (Barisal) and the District Health Authority.
    Provided support to the study implementers; Tufts and Save the Children
  • CCM of SAM: a new approach
    Community Health Workers (CHWs)
    Not just screening and referral but..
    Effective assessment and treatment of SAM
    Package that integrated identification/treatment of SAM with CCM of illness
    Feasible in the context of poor access to clinics and hospitals by the poor
    Feasibly scaled up
    Complement and improve the recently endorsed national guidelines for management of severely malnourished children
  • Study Objective & Research Questions
    To examine the operational effectiveness of enabling existing CHWs to identify and treat children over the age of 6 months suffering from uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) without the need for referral to facility-based inpatient health services.
    Examine the effectiveness (i.e. the rate of recovery) and cost effectiveness of treatment of SAM provided by CHWs and of that provided by the standard of care for SAM in areas that are not yet delivering CCM of childhood illness.
    Evaluate coverage of the intervention
    Evaluate the quality of care delivered by the CHW
  • Program approach: identifying children with SAM
    261 CHWs: monitoring of nutrition (using MUAC & oedema) & health status (clinical signs) during normal activities:
    GMP: 0-24 months
    Household visits of sick children: 0-36 months
    Identification of SAM:
    MUAC < 110mm and/or
    Nutritional oedema
  • Age ≥ 6 months
    MUAC < 110mm and/or bilateral edema
    SAM with NO complications
    SAM WITH complications
    Good Appetite
    Clinically well.
    If infection is present it is mild. For example:
    • Pneumonia that is not classified as severe
    • Diarrhoea with no dehydration
    Poor Appetite
    Clinically unwell.
    For example:
    • Any of the IMCI general danger signs or
    • Severe pneumonia or
    • Diarrhea with dehydration
    Outpatient Care by the CHW
    Inpatient Care at the UHC
    Classification of SAM and treatment modality in our program Upazila
  • Management of children with SAM
    Community-based management
    SAM with complications:
    Inpatient phase 1 according to national guidelines – F75 100 kcal/kg/day
    Gradual introduction of RUTF and discharge to the CHW to complete treatment
    SAM with no complications managed by CHW
    RUTF 200 kcal/kg/day
    Counsel on feeding and caring practices
    Follow up weekly at home
    Discharged cured at 15% weight gain
    Facility based management
    Inpatient dietary management according to national guidelines
  • Effectiveness: data collection
    Monthly monitoring database
    Recovery, mortality etc
    Interviews and FGDs with carers of SAM children
    Child card data:
    Demographic and nutritional characteristics at admission
    MUAC and weight gain for different levels of malnutrition
    Length of stay
  • Coverage: data collectionSQUEAC (semi quantitative evaluation of access & coverage)
    A two-stage assessment in April 2010:
    STAGE 1 : Using routine program monitoring data, already available data and qualitative data to hypothesize level of program coverage
    STAGE 2 : Test hypothesis using small-area surveys.
    See http://www.brixtonhealth.com/SQUEAC.Article.pdffor more information
  • Preliminary Results (1): Community Case Management of SAM (Jun09-10)
  • Preliminary Results (2): Community Case Management of SAM(Jun09-10)
    • Total children (6-36 months) in study : 724 (711 children with MUAC <110mm, and 13 children with edema )
  • Exploring high recovery and low mortality
    Early identification and early treatment of SAM and early & appropriate treatment of Illness
    Less complications
    Easier to treat
    Very few referrals to inpatient care
    Distribution of MUAC at admission for the period June 09-June 10 (n=718)
  • Exploring early presentation and high coverage
    Multiple pathways to treatment
    Very decentralized CHW network using MUAC tapes during daily activities
    Home visits to sick children
    Good interface between the community, community level health practitioners and the program
    CHWs recruit carers to find cases
    Health assistants, village doctors and TBAs refer children to the CHW
  • ‘I am very happy to have this program. We can treat the SAM children. Before this we had no idea. We used to go to the health assistant but he also had no proper idea. We all thought it was a strange disease. No knowledge. No prevention. No treatment. Now we prevent SAM and now we treat SAM’
  • Exploring early presentation and high coverage (2)
    Community mobilization around SAM
    Etiologies understood by carers matched program messages
    Able to recognize SAM
    SAM as a treatable condition
    Program quality
    CHWs trusted by community
    No drug or RUTF stockout
    Small caseloads (2-4 cases on average)
  • Preliminary Results (3): Facility-based Care of SAM (Aug09-Apr10)
    In the second phase of the CCM of SAM rollout all children identified with SAM in this Upazila are now eligible for treatment by CHWs with RUTF.
  • Exploring low uptake and high default
    • Bed and staff capacity
    • Carer perception of hospital-based treatment
  • Summary
    In this context a purely facility-based approach for the treatment of SAM is not feasible nor acceptable to participants
    Community-case management of SAM, that combines outpatient and inpatient treatment, can be an extremely effective strategy to ensure timely treatment to a very high proportion of cases.
    Several aspects of program design are important for effectiveness including:
    Very decentralized CHW network and multiple pathways to treatment that supported early identification and treatment of cases
    A very small number of cases that require inpatient treatment
    Use of a CHW cadre supported a good interface between program and community and a high level of mobilization around SAM
    Quality of program and of care delivered by CHWs ….