Stanford’s Energy Story      Present and Future
Leadership in Sustainability at Stanford The Initiative on Environment and Sustainability       Research Themes Strategic ...
Stanford’s Sphere of Influence & ResponsibilityTop Ten CleanTech Universities in the U.S. for 2010“Stanford University, Pa...
The Sustainable Stanford                   Stanford EcosystemInfrastructure &                          Institutional &Syst...
Long Term Energy & Climate PlanInfrastructure to Support Academic Mission  Expansion for Campus Growth  Successor for Card...
Energy and Climate Plan - Approach                    innovation
Energy Efficiency in New        Building Design
Stanford’s New Construction Standards Require that new buildings be designed to use at least 30% less energy and25% less w...
Science and Engineering Quad                        Environment and Energy Building (2008)                            Scie...
Y2E2: Built to Conserve, Inspire & Teach                                                      “                      In ke...
Utility Conservation Results Energy                      Water• Meets calibrated design   • Met design goal to use  goal t...
Lasting Impacts on Stanford GuidelinesProject Delivery      Stanford             Seismic Design   Project Cost and   Guide...
Understanding Performance is KeyCurrent Y2E2energyconsumptioncompared toenergy codeconfirms thesavings modeledduring design.
Energy Conservation in    Existing Buildings
Energy Consumption at Stanford     • 700 major buildings     • 14.2 million SF     • Annually consume about:         • 200...
Typical Energy Consumption                 Pumps                  0%                          Heating                     ...
Approach to Energy Efficiency in Existing Bldgs• Technology Specific  – Promote individual measures with broad application...
Technology Specific Approach• Types of efficiency measures  –   Lighting  –   High efficiency motors  –   LED exit signs  ...
Technology Specific Approach Example• Energy Retrofit Program  –   Started in 1993  –   $10 million in incentives  –   330...
Building Specific Approach Top 200 Campus Energy Users – Sorted by Dollars
Building Specific Approach• Types of projects  – Lab ventilation control  – Direct Digital Control upgrades  – Humidificat...
Building Specific Approach Example• Whole Building Energy Retrofit Program  – Initiate 12 Building study in 2004  – First ...
Operational Approach• Monitoring  – Find excessive use• Maintenance  – Recommissioning• Controls
Controls – Air Handler Level         Controls
Controls – Zone Level
Controls – Zone Level
The Future of Energy Conservation• Data management and analysis  – Enable near real-time monitoring based    commissioning...
Greening Energy Supply
Why Heat Recovery is Possible       We heat & cool buildings at the same time       Cooling is just the collection of unwa...
Waste Heat Being Discarded from Cardinal Cogeneration Plant
Heat Recovery PotentialCoolingHeating
CEF Replacement OptionsOptions recommended fall into 2 categories:1.   Import electricity from grid, or2.   Make electrici...
Long Term Gas Prices
Market Electricity Prices & Spark Spread
GHG Cost                    Family of Forecasts below                    California Cap & Trade first year range set at $1...
Important Secondary ConsiderationsWater supplyEnergy Portfolio DiversityFlexibility to ChangeEnvironmental Impact & Sustai...
Campus        GUP                                Irrigation   measures                                  to LWSFPUC service...
Energy Portfolio Diversity
Flexibility to Change
Environmental Impact
Changing in Phases               Source: Stanford University                     Draft Energy & Climate Plan (April 2009)
Options Studied1.   Cardinal to 2020- Extend existing Cardinal Cogen plant to 2020 then implement Option 3-     new Stanfo...
Options Levelized at Current Commodity Prices                      Best on-site   Best imported                       gas ...
A Closer Look at the Best Options                                           Best on-site   Best imported                  ...
Cost of 100% On-Site PV for PowerOn-site PV solar electricity is better as long as 30% federal grants are still  available...
To Gas or Not To Gas?The benefit of renewable power to the owner grows as gas and electricity                          pri...
Option Recommended: Not to Gas          …but keep option openHR + GSHE: Heat Recovery + Ground Source Heat Exchange   Conv...
Long Term Energy & Climate PlanInfrastructure to Support Academic Mission  Expansion for Campus Growth  Successor for Card...
Culture of SustainabilityInstitutional and Individual Behavior
Stanford Energy and Climate Plan – Solution Wedges      5%-10% reduction in energy use though behavioral programs      wit...
Building Level Behavioral Program (launched in 2010)   Start with diagnosis, provide building report card   Perform buildi...
CEE/ES 109 Greening Building and Behavior                                      Service learning class to                  ...
Building Level Sustainability Programs                      14 buildings done                        2 in progress        ...
Energy Consumption TrendsEnergy intensity at Stanford is now less than it was in 2000                               250   ...
Sustainability Dashboard – Storey House
Huang and Nanoscale
Coming Soon at Y2E2                                               Y2E2                                              Pushin...
We Can Do Better  Real-time and high-resolutionelectricity metering andfeedback to encourage action indormitories.   Branc...
Influencing Campus Culture62               62
Stanford’s Sphere of Influence & Responsibility•   Sustainable Endowment Institute Top Tier: 2007, 2009, and 2010•   Sierr...
Thank you64
Sustainability at Stanford            EnvironmentEconomy                    Equity & SocietySavings                    Ins...
Office of Sustainability     Institutionalizing Sustainability through Programs, Evaluations,                          Edu...
Energy seminar march_28_final
Energy seminar march_28_final
Energy seminar march_28_final
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Energy seminar march_28_final

  1. 1. Stanford’s Energy Story Present and Future
  2. 2. Leadership in Sustainability at Stanford The Initiative on Environment and Sustainability Research Themes Strategic CollaborationsInterdisciplinary Training innovation Institutional Practice of Sustainability Sustainable Stanford: university-wide effort to reduce Stanford’s environmental impact and preserve resources through innovation and best practices.
  3. 3. Stanford’s Sphere of Influence & ResponsibilityTop Ten CleanTech Universities in the U.S. for 2010“Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif. Stanford University is on the cutting edge of clean technology. Stanford has developed an ambitious, long-range, $250million initiative to sharply reduce the universitys energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The university also has established a $100 million research institute, the Precourt Institute for Energy, to focus onenergy issues (see Stanford launches $100M energy research institute). More than $30 million in yearly funding is now spent on energy research at the university. Stanford Technology Ventures Program (STVP) is the entrepreneurship center at Stanfords School of Engineering. STVP is dedicated to accelerating high-technology entrepreneurship education and creating scholarly research on technology-based firms that, in turn, provides new insights for students, scholars and business leaders. Notable cleantech spinouts: Amprius, Nanostellar, Rolith, D.light Design, Driptech, and Veranda Solar”.
  4. 4. The Sustainable Stanford Stanford EcosystemInfrastructure & Institutional &Systems Individual Choices
  5. 5. Long Term Energy & Climate PlanInfrastructure to Support Academic Mission Expansion for Campus Growth Successor for Cardinal Cogen (2015)Reduce Environmental Footprint innovation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Declining Water Supply Imminent Regulations Sustainability LeadershipEconomic Viability Gas price increases & volatility Monetization of carbon emissions Water cost quadrupling
  6. 6. Energy and Climate Plan - Approach innovation
  7. 7. Energy Efficiency in New Building Design
  8. 8. Stanford’s New Construction Standards Require that new buildings be designed to use at least 30% less energy and25% less water than standard buildings of the same type Based on lifecycle cost analysis of energy demand on campus LEED Gold EquivalentJasper Ridge Field Station - Carnegie Global Ecology Jerry Yang and Akiko Yamazaki2005 Recipient of the AIA/COTE Research Center- Environment and Energy (Y2E2)Top Green Projects Award 2007 Recipient of the AIA/COTE Building Top Green Projects Award
  9. 9. Science and Engineering Quad Environment and Energy Building (2008) Science and Engineering Center (2010) Nano Technology Center (2011) Bio/Chem Engineering (2014) Before:  149,000 GSF After:  545,000 GSF
  10. 10. Y2E2: Built to Conserve, Inspire & Teach “ In keeping with its curriculum, the vision for Y2E2 is that of an icon sustainable building that does more than simply bring accolades to the campus.Pushing the envelope of technology: itself designed and intended to be a teaching tool, the Y2E2 building will inspire students to take the next steps towards a sustainable future.” —Vision Statement Excerpt
  11. 11. Utility Conservation Results Energy Water• Meets calibrated design • Met design goal to use goal to use 42% less 90% less potable water energy than ASHRAE than EPAct 2005 90.1-2004 • Uses recycled water for• 40%-50% less energy flushing low-flow toilets intense than equivalent and urinals Stanford buildings • Lake water irrigates (mixed use office/ native & adaptive classroom / laboratory) landscape plantings
  12. 12. Lasting Impacts on Stanford GuidelinesProject Delivery Stanford Seismic Design Project Cost and Guidelines for Process – Sustainability Guidelines Efficiency Lifecycle Cost “Heartbeat” Guidelines (Feb 2003) Benchmarks Analysis (Oct (2001) (March 2002) (Sept 2003) 2005)Revised in Revised in 2008 2010Board-approved, tried, tested, proven.
  13. 13. Understanding Performance is KeyCurrent Y2E2energyconsumptioncompared toenergy codeconfirms thesavings modeledduring design.
  14. 14. Energy Conservation in Existing Buildings
  15. 15. Energy Consumption at Stanford • 700 major buildings • 14.2 million SF • Annually consume about: • 200 million kWh • 850 million lbs steam • 50 million ton-hrs CW • About $60 million in energy costs
  16. 16. Typical Energy Consumption Pumps 0% Heating 9% Lighting 28% CoolingHeating 34% Lab BuildingCooling DHW PumpsFans Lighting 5% 1% Equipment 5%Equipment 23%Lighting Fans EquipmentPumps 6% 10% Heating 37% Office Building Heating Fans Cooling 18% Fans Cooling Equipment 24% Lighting DHW Pumps
  17. 17. Approach to Energy Efficiency in Existing Bldgs• Technology Specific – Promote individual measures with broad application – Leverage multiple channels to implement measures• Building Specific – Focus on specific project opportunities – Develop comprehensive solutions – Large investment opportunities• Operational• Behavioral
  18. 18. Technology Specific Approach• Types of efficiency measures – Lighting – High efficiency motors – LED exit signs – Motor drives – Window film – Refrigerator & Freezer replacements – Server room cooling upgrades – Centralized chilled water conversions – Room temperature sample storage
  19. 19. Technology Specific Approach Example• Energy Retrofit Program – Started in 1993 – $10 million in incentives – 330+ projects completed – Over 240 million kWh saved • Over 1 year’s worth of total campus consumption – Average project payback less than 4 years
  20. 20. Building Specific Approach Top 200 Campus Energy Users – Sorted by Dollars
  21. 21. Building Specific Approach• Types of projects – Lab ventilation control – Direct Digital Control upgrades – Humidification
  22. 22. Building Specific Approach Example• Whole Building Energy Retrofit Program – Initiate 12 Building study in 2004 – First project completed in 2006 – 11 projects complete to-date • Invested over $15 million • Qualified for $2.3 million in utility rebates • Saving $3 million in energy costs per year • Reduce campus energy consumption by 5% – Additional $15 million budgeted for more buildings
  23. 23. Operational Approach• Monitoring – Find excessive use• Maintenance – Recommissioning• Controls
  24. 24. Controls – Air Handler Level Controls
  25. 25. Controls – Zone Level
  26. 26. Controls – Zone Level
  27. 27. The Future of Energy Conservation• Data management and analysis – Enable near real-time monitoring based commissioning• Further control precision – Enable individual zones to be virtually autonomous• Integrate building demand management with supply management – Smarter scheduling – Automated demand reductions
  28. 28. Greening Energy Supply
  29. 29. Why Heat Recovery is Possible We heat & cool buildings at the same time Cooling is just the collection of unwanted heatStanford can recover 65% of the heat now discharged from the coolingsystem to meet 80% of campus heating demands. Source: Stanford University Draft Energy & Climate Plan (April 2009) Summer Spring & Fall Heat Recovery Winter Heat Recovery Heat Recovery
  30. 30. Waste Heat Being Discarded from Cardinal Cogeneration Plant
  31. 31. Heat Recovery PotentialCoolingHeating
  32. 32. CEF Replacement OptionsOptions recommended fall into 2 categories:1. Import electricity from grid, or2. Make electricity on-campus using natural gas 2.a. Cogeneration options 2.b. ‘Stand alone’ power/thermal generation options“To Gas or Not To Gas” is biggest question:• Long term gas prices are prime variable controlling life cycle cost• Other key cost variables include: Market electricity prices and spark spread to gas prices GHG costs and application PG&E “Exit Fees”
  33. 33. Long Term Gas Prices
  34. 34. Market Electricity Prices & Spark Spread
  35. 35. GHG Cost Family of Forecasts below California Cap & Trade first year range set at $10/ton to $40/tonSource: Energy Strategies, Inc- Stanford Energy Plan Peer Review (Mar 2009)
  36. 36. Important Secondary ConsiderationsWater supplyEnergy Portfolio DiversityFlexibility to ChangeEnvironmental Impact & Sustainability LeadershipImpact to campus during transformation
  37. 37. Campus GUP Irrigation measures to LWSFPUC service began 1960Current Allocation = 3.03 mgd
  38. 38. Energy Portfolio Diversity
  39. 39. Flexibility to Change
  40. 40. Environmental Impact
  41. 41. Changing in Phases Source: Stanford University Draft Energy & Climate Plan (April 2009)
  42. 42. Options Studied1. Cardinal to 2020- Extend existing Cardinal Cogen plant to 2020 then implement Option 3- new Stanford owned and operated steam cogen plant.2. 3P Cogen- Third Party owns and operates an on-campus gas fired cogeneration plant and sells electricity, steam, and chilled water services to the university.3. Cogeneration (Steam or Hot water)- Stanford constructs, owns, and operates a gas fired cogeneration plant similar to the existing plant that does not incorporate heat recovery from the chilled water system. The Hot Water option includes conversion of campus steam distribution system to hot water for partial efficiency gains but does not include heat recovery.4. Hygen (GT) - A cogeneration/heat recovery hybrid based on gas turbine technology that intertwines the power plant with the heat recovery plant for added efficiency, but which eliminates the modularity offered by the stand alone HR + GT option.5. Hygen (IC) - A hybrid like #4 but using advanced gas fired reciprocating engines instead of a gas fired turbine.6. HR + (GT or IC)- Heat recovery plant plus conversion of steam distribution system to hot water, with a stand-alone on-site gas fired power plant based on either gas turbine or reciprocating engine technology to supply electricity instead of importing it from the grid.7. HR + GSHE- Heat Recovery Option 8 with an ‘open loop’ Ground Source Heat Exchange (GSHE) system to handle the excess winter heat and summer cooling loads that cannot be handled by heat recovery.8. HR + DA- Stanford converts the steam distribution system to hot water and constructs, owns, and operates an electrically powered heat recovery plant that extracts and reuses waste heat from the chilled water system to provide hot water and chilled water services to the university. Electricity to power the plant and the rest of the campus is imported from the grid under Direct Access.9. SHP- A Separate Heat & Power plant of gas boilers and electric chillers with imported power.
  43. 43. Options Levelized at Current Commodity Prices Best on-site Best imported gas option power option
  44. 44. A Closer Look at the Best Options Best on-site Best imported gas option power optionIncludes $900 million for capital, fuel, and O&M for on-site gas fired power plant over 35 years $900 million is substantial…could it pay for a renewable electricity plant for our power instead?
  45. 45. Cost of 100% On-Site PV for PowerOn-site PV solar electricity is better as long as 30% federal grants are still available (extended through 2011)…but would require huge up-front capital, 1,100 acres initially and grow to 1,500 acres by 2050
  46. 46. To Gas or Not To Gas?The benefit of renewable power to the owner grows as gas and electricity prices rise over time Gas and electricity prices likely to always rise faster than general inflation over long term
  47. 47. Option Recommended: Not to Gas …but keep option openHR + GSHE: Heat Recovery + Ground Source Heat Exchange Convert steam distribution system to hot water Convert ~125 buildings on steam loop Locate new Heat Recovery Plant on west side of campus Design & Prepare for, but defer, ‘Plug and Play’ IC power plant option Clean Close Old CEF Site for Future Core Campus Development Seek to develop better long term electricity options than 100% gas… But closely monitor costs and be prepared to move to gas if prudent
  48. 48. Long Term Energy & Climate PlanInfrastructure to Support Academic Mission Expansion for Campus Growth Successor for Cardinal Cogen (2015)Reduce Environmental Footprint innovation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Declining Water Supply Imminent Regulations Sustainability LeadershipEconomic Viability Gas price increases & volatility Monetization of carbon emissions Water cost quadrupling
  49. 49. Culture of SustainabilityInstitutional and Individual Behavior
  50. 50. Stanford Energy and Climate Plan – Solution Wedges 5%-10% reduction in energy use though behavioral programs with education and incentives. This could be higher with technology support. 5353
  51. 51. Building Level Behavioral Program (launched in 2010) Start with diagnosis, provide building report card Perform building audit and formulate easy and actionable to‐do tasks with savings information Provide leadership and coordination assistance   Provide Incentives – rewards and recognition Tie results to Stanford’s emissions reduction initiative Perform payback analysis , and show sustained savings    Train students through CEE/ES 109 and Office of sustainability Inform sustainability governance and guidelines  
  52. 52. CEE/ES 109 Greening Building and Behavior Service learning class to produce student sustainability coordinators Work with Office of Sustainability as staff to assist and coordinate with building managers with $500/quarter stipendUpcoming rollouts: Sweet Hall Haas Center for Public ServiceThis is a career step/try outfor students
  53. 53. Building Level Sustainability Programs 14 buildings done 2 in progress 91 candidatesIf this makes sense, how should we scale?
  54. 54. Energy Consumption TrendsEnergy intensity at Stanford is now less than it was in 2000 250 200 Conservation is constantlyEnergy Intensity (MMBtu/GSF) outpaced by growth, but we 150 stay ahead…. 100 50 electricity steam chilled water 0 total 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
  55. 55. Sustainability Dashboard – Storey House
  56. 56. Huang and Nanoscale
  57. 57. Coming Soon at Y2E2 Y2E2 Pushing the envelope of technology: itself designed and intended to be a teaching tool, the Y2E2 building will inspire students to take the next steps towards a sustainable future.” —Vision Statement Excerpt TRANS PORTAENERGY Food TION WATER WASTE
  58. 58. We Can Do Better Real-time and high-resolutionelectricity metering andfeedback to encourage action indormitories. Branch circuit meters andcustom data logging software topower a web interface to showresidents their power use andpromotes energy-consciousliving.
  59. 59. Influencing Campus Culture62 62
  60. 60. Stanford’s Sphere of Influence & Responsibility• Sustainable Endowment Institute Top Tier: 2007, 2009, and 2010• Sierra Magazine: 26th in 2009; 5th Place in 2010,• U.S. Green Building Council and Princeton Review: Guide to Green Colleges 2010• Discovery Communications: Top 10 in 2009
  61. 61. Thank you64
  62. 62. Sustainability at Stanford EnvironmentEconomy Equity & SocietySavings Institutional & Individual Choices Conservation
  63. 63. Office of Sustainability Institutionalizing Sustainability through Programs, Evaluations, Education and OutreachEvaluations & Reporting Behavioral Sustainability ProgramsCampus CampaignsCommunication & Publication  Academic Integration 
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