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Energy seminar march_28_final


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  • 1. Stanford’s Energy Story Present and Future
  • 2. Leadership in Sustainability at Stanford The Initiative on Environment and Sustainability Research Themes Strategic CollaborationsInterdisciplinary Training innovation Institutional Practice of Sustainability Sustainable Stanford: university-wide effort to reduce Stanford’s environmental impact and preserve resources through innovation and best practices.
  • 3. Stanford’s Sphere of Influence & ResponsibilityTop Ten CleanTech Universities in the U.S. for 2010“Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif. Stanford University is on the cutting edge of clean technology. Stanford has developed an ambitious, long-range, $250million initiative to sharply reduce the universitys energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The university also has established a $100 million research institute, the Precourt Institute for Energy, to focus onenergy issues (see Stanford launches $100M energy research institute). More than $30 million in yearly funding is now spent on energy research at the university. Stanford Technology Ventures Program (STVP) is the entrepreneurship center at Stanfords School of Engineering. STVP is dedicated to accelerating high-technology entrepreneurship education and creating scholarly research on technology-based firms that, in turn, provides new insights for students, scholars and business leaders. Notable cleantech spinouts: Amprius, Nanostellar, Rolith, D.light Design, Driptech, and Veranda Solar”.
  • 4. The Sustainable Stanford Stanford EcosystemInfrastructure & Institutional &Systems Individual Choices
  • 5. Long Term Energy & Climate PlanInfrastructure to Support Academic Mission Expansion for Campus Growth Successor for Cardinal Cogen (2015)Reduce Environmental Footprint innovation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Declining Water Supply Imminent Regulations Sustainability LeadershipEconomic Viability Gas price increases & volatility Monetization of carbon emissions Water cost quadrupling
  • 6. Energy and Climate Plan - Approach innovation
  • 7. Energy Efficiency in New Building Design
  • 8. Stanford’s New Construction Standards Require that new buildings be designed to use at least 30% less energy and25% less water than standard buildings of the same type Based on lifecycle cost analysis of energy demand on campus LEED Gold EquivalentJasper Ridge Field Station - Carnegie Global Ecology Jerry Yang and Akiko Yamazaki2005 Recipient of the AIA/COTE Research Center- Environment and Energy (Y2E2)Top Green Projects Award 2007 Recipient of the AIA/COTE Building Top Green Projects Award
  • 9. Science and Engineering Quad Environment and Energy Building (2008) Science and Engineering Center (2010) Nano Technology Center (2011) Bio/Chem Engineering (2014) Before:  149,000 GSF After:  545,000 GSF
  • 10. Y2E2: Built to Conserve, Inspire & Teach “ In keeping with its curriculum, the vision for Y2E2 is that of an icon sustainable building that does more than simply bring accolades to the campus.Pushing the envelope of technology: itself designed and intended to be a teaching tool, the Y2E2 building will inspire students to take the next steps towards a sustainable future.” —Vision Statement Excerpt
  • 11. Utility Conservation Results Energy Water• Meets calibrated design • Met design goal to use goal to use 42% less 90% less potable water energy than ASHRAE than EPAct 2005 90.1-2004 • Uses recycled water for• 40%-50% less energy flushing low-flow toilets intense than equivalent and urinals Stanford buildings • Lake water irrigates (mixed use office/ native & adaptive classroom / laboratory) landscape plantings
  • 12. Lasting Impacts on Stanford GuidelinesProject Delivery Stanford Seismic Design Project Cost and Guidelines for Process – Sustainability Guidelines Efficiency Lifecycle Cost “Heartbeat” Guidelines (Feb 2003) Benchmarks Analysis (Oct (2001) (March 2002) (Sept 2003) 2005)Revised in Revised in 2008 2010Board-approved, tried, tested, proven.
  • 13. Understanding Performance is KeyCurrent Y2E2energyconsumptioncompared toenergy codeconfirms thesavings modeledduring design.
  • 14. Energy Conservation in Existing Buildings
  • 15. Energy Consumption at Stanford • 700 major buildings • 14.2 million SF • Annually consume about: • 200 million kWh • 850 million lbs steam • 50 million ton-hrs CW • About $60 million in energy costs
  • 16. Typical Energy Consumption Pumps 0% Heating 9% Lighting 28% CoolingHeating 34% Lab BuildingCooling DHW PumpsFans Lighting 5% 1% Equipment 5%Equipment 23%Lighting Fans EquipmentPumps 6% 10% Heating 37% Office Building Heating Fans Cooling 18% Fans Cooling Equipment 24% Lighting DHW Pumps
  • 17. Approach to Energy Efficiency in Existing Bldgs• Technology Specific – Promote individual measures with broad application – Leverage multiple channels to implement measures• Building Specific – Focus on specific project opportunities – Develop comprehensive solutions – Large investment opportunities• Operational• Behavioral
  • 18. Technology Specific Approach• Types of efficiency measures – Lighting – High efficiency motors – LED exit signs – Motor drives – Window film – Refrigerator & Freezer replacements – Server room cooling upgrades – Centralized chilled water conversions – Room temperature sample storage
  • 19. Technology Specific Approach Example• Energy Retrofit Program – Started in 1993 – $10 million in incentives – 330+ projects completed – Over 240 million kWh saved • Over 1 year’s worth of total campus consumption – Average project payback less than 4 years
  • 20. Building Specific Approach Top 200 Campus Energy Users – Sorted by Dollars
  • 21. Building Specific Approach• Types of projects – Lab ventilation control – Direct Digital Control upgrades – Humidification
  • 22. Building Specific Approach Example• Whole Building Energy Retrofit Program – Initiate 12 Building study in 2004 – First project completed in 2006 – 11 projects complete to-date • Invested over $15 million • Qualified for $2.3 million in utility rebates • Saving $3 million in energy costs per year • Reduce campus energy consumption by 5% – Additional $15 million budgeted for more buildings
  • 23. Operational Approach• Monitoring – Find excessive use• Maintenance – Recommissioning• Controls
  • 24. Controls – Air Handler Level Controls
  • 25. Controls – Zone Level
  • 26. Controls – Zone Level
  • 27. The Future of Energy Conservation• Data management and analysis – Enable near real-time monitoring based commissioning• Further control precision – Enable individual zones to be virtually autonomous• Integrate building demand management with supply management – Smarter scheduling – Automated demand reductions
  • 28. Greening Energy Supply
  • 29. Why Heat Recovery is Possible We heat & cool buildings at the same time Cooling is just the collection of unwanted heatStanford can recover 65% of the heat now discharged from the coolingsystem to meet 80% of campus heating demands. Source: Stanford University Draft Energy & Climate Plan (April 2009) Summer Spring & Fall Heat Recovery Winter Heat Recovery Heat Recovery
  • 30. Waste Heat Being Discarded from Cardinal Cogeneration Plant
  • 31. Heat Recovery PotentialCoolingHeating
  • 32. CEF Replacement OptionsOptions recommended fall into 2 categories:1. Import electricity from grid, or2. Make electricity on-campus using natural gas 2.a. Cogeneration options 2.b. ‘Stand alone’ power/thermal generation options“To Gas or Not To Gas” is biggest question:• Long term gas prices are prime variable controlling life cycle cost• Other key cost variables include: Market electricity prices and spark spread to gas prices GHG costs and application PG&E “Exit Fees”
  • 33. Long Term Gas Prices
  • 34. Market Electricity Prices & Spark Spread
  • 35. GHG Cost Family of Forecasts below California Cap & Trade first year range set at $10/ton to $40/tonSource: Energy Strategies, Inc- Stanford Energy Plan Peer Review (Mar 2009)
  • 36. Important Secondary ConsiderationsWater supplyEnergy Portfolio DiversityFlexibility to ChangeEnvironmental Impact & Sustainability LeadershipImpact to campus during transformation
  • 37. Campus GUP Irrigation measures to LWSFPUC service began 1960Current Allocation = 3.03 mgd
  • 38. Energy Portfolio Diversity
  • 39. Flexibility to Change
  • 40. Environmental Impact
  • 41. Changing in Phases Source: Stanford University Draft Energy & Climate Plan (April 2009)
  • 42. Options Studied1. Cardinal to 2020- Extend existing Cardinal Cogen plant to 2020 then implement Option 3- new Stanford owned and operated steam cogen plant.2. 3P Cogen- Third Party owns and operates an on-campus gas fired cogeneration plant and sells electricity, steam, and chilled water services to the university.3. Cogeneration (Steam or Hot water)- Stanford constructs, owns, and operates a gas fired cogeneration plant similar to the existing plant that does not incorporate heat recovery from the chilled water system. The Hot Water option includes conversion of campus steam distribution system to hot water for partial efficiency gains but does not include heat recovery.4. Hygen (GT) - A cogeneration/heat recovery hybrid based on gas turbine technology that intertwines the power plant with the heat recovery plant for added efficiency, but which eliminates the modularity offered by the stand alone HR + GT option.5. Hygen (IC) - A hybrid like #4 but using advanced gas fired reciprocating engines instead of a gas fired turbine.6. HR + (GT or IC)- Heat recovery plant plus conversion of steam distribution system to hot water, with a stand-alone on-site gas fired power plant based on either gas turbine or reciprocating engine technology to supply electricity instead of importing it from the grid.7. HR + GSHE- Heat Recovery Option 8 with an ‘open loop’ Ground Source Heat Exchange (GSHE) system to handle the excess winter heat and summer cooling loads that cannot be handled by heat recovery.8. HR + DA- Stanford converts the steam distribution system to hot water and constructs, owns, and operates an electrically powered heat recovery plant that extracts and reuses waste heat from the chilled water system to provide hot water and chilled water services to the university. Electricity to power the plant and the rest of the campus is imported from the grid under Direct Access.9. SHP- A Separate Heat & Power plant of gas boilers and electric chillers with imported power.
  • 43. Options Levelized at Current Commodity Prices Best on-site Best imported gas option power option
  • 44. A Closer Look at the Best Options Best on-site Best imported gas option power optionIncludes $900 million for capital, fuel, and O&M for on-site gas fired power plant over 35 years $900 million is substantial…could it pay for a renewable electricity plant for our power instead?
  • 45. Cost of 100% On-Site PV for PowerOn-site PV solar electricity is better as long as 30% federal grants are still available (extended through 2011)…but would require huge up-front capital, 1,100 acres initially and grow to 1,500 acres by 2050
  • 46. To Gas or Not To Gas?The benefit of renewable power to the owner grows as gas and electricity prices rise over time Gas and electricity prices likely to always rise faster than general inflation over long term
  • 47. Option Recommended: Not to Gas …but keep option openHR + GSHE: Heat Recovery + Ground Source Heat Exchange Convert steam distribution system to hot water Convert ~125 buildings on steam loop Locate new Heat Recovery Plant on west side of campus Design & Prepare for, but defer, ‘Plug and Play’ IC power plant option Clean Close Old CEF Site for Future Core Campus Development Seek to develop better long term electricity options than 100% gas… But closely monitor costs and be prepared to move to gas if prudent
  • 48. Long Term Energy & Climate PlanInfrastructure to Support Academic Mission Expansion for Campus Growth Successor for Cardinal Cogen (2015)Reduce Environmental Footprint innovation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Declining Water Supply Imminent Regulations Sustainability LeadershipEconomic Viability Gas price increases & volatility Monetization of carbon emissions Water cost quadrupling
  • 49. Culture of SustainabilityInstitutional and Individual Behavior
  • 50. Stanford Energy and Climate Plan – Solution Wedges 5%-10% reduction in energy use though behavioral programs with education and incentives. This could be higher with technology support. 5353
  • 51. Building Level Behavioral Program (launched in 2010) Start with diagnosis, provide building report card Perform building audit and formulate easy and actionable to‐do tasks with savings information Provide leadership and coordination assistance   Provide Incentives – rewards and recognition Tie results to Stanford’s emissions reduction initiative Perform payback analysis , and show sustained savings    Train students through CEE/ES 109 and Office of sustainability Inform sustainability governance and guidelines  
  • 52. CEE/ES 109 Greening Building and Behavior Service learning class to produce student sustainability coordinators Work with Office of Sustainability as staff to assist and coordinate with building managers with $500/quarter stipendUpcoming rollouts: Sweet Hall Haas Center for Public ServiceThis is a career step/try outfor students
  • 53. Building Level Sustainability Programs 14 buildings done 2 in progress 91 candidatesIf this makes sense, how should we scale?
  • 54. Energy Consumption TrendsEnergy intensity at Stanford is now less than it was in 2000 250 200 Conservation is constantlyEnergy Intensity (MMBtu/GSF) outpaced by growth, but we 150 stay ahead…. 100 50 electricity steam chilled water 0 total 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
  • 55. Sustainability Dashboard – Storey House
  • 56. Huang and Nanoscale
  • 57. Coming Soon at Y2E2 Y2E2 Pushing the envelope of technology: itself designed and intended to be a teaching tool, the Y2E2 building will inspire students to take the next steps towards a sustainable future.” —Vision Statement Excerpt TRANS PORTAENERGY Food TION WATER WASTE
  • 58. We Can Do Better Real-time and high-resolutionelectricity metering andfeedback to encourage action indormitories. Branch circuit meters andcustom data logging software topower a web interface to showresidents their power use andpromotes energy-consciousliving.
  • 59. Influencing Campus Culture62 62
  • 60. Stanford’s Sphere of Influence & Responsibility• Sustainable Endowment Institute Top Tier: 2007, 2009, and 2010• Sierra Magazine: 26th in 2009; 5th Place in 2010,• U.S. Green Building Council and Princeton Review: Guide to Green Colleges 2010• Discovery Communications: Top 10 in 2009
  • 61. Thank you64
  • 62. Sustainability at Stanford EnvironmentEconomy Equity & SocietySavings Institutional & Individual Choices Conservation
  • 63. Office of Sustainability Institutionalizing Sustainability through Programs, Evaluations, Education and OutreachEvaluations & Reporting Behavioral Sustainability ProgramsCampus CampaignsCommunication & Publication  Academic Integration