Saint Roch’s Secondary School Standard Grade Physical Education HOW DO WE LEARN DIFFERENT SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES?
Saint Roch’s Secondary School Standard Grade Physical Education Saint Roch’s PE Course Gymnastics: Individual Indirectly competitive activity Basketball: Indoor Team Directly competitive activity Football: Outdoor Team Directly competitive activity The following practical activities are followed throughout the course in Saint Roch’s Secondary. Badminton: Individual Directly competitive activity Personal survival: Non-competitive activity Swimming: Water-based Indirectly competitive activity
Saint Roch’s Secondary School Standard Grade Physical Education PASSING: Outside & inside foot; Heel; Long & short HEADING: Attacking & Defensive SHOOTING: Volley; Half-volley CONTROL: Head; Chest; Thigh; Feet (Dribbling) TREADING WATER: Scissors; Breast stroke: Egg-beater kick WATER ENTRIES: Straddle; Two footed UNDER WATER Surface dives BREAST STROKE SERVICES: High; Low; Flick UNDERARM SHOTS: Clear; Net; Lob OVERHEAD SHOTS: Clear; Drop; Smash DEFENSIVE PLAY ATTACKING PLAY COURT MOVEMENT Here are some of the skills and techniques you will have learned during each activity. There will be other skill and techniques you may have learned during your course. This is just for reference. ROTATION: Forward & Backward Roll; Cartwheel: Somersault BALANCE: Headstand; Handstand; Arabesque FLIGHT: Handspring vault Straddle vault PASSING: Chest; Bounce; Javelin; Overhead SHOOTING: Set; Jump; Hook; Lay-up DRIBBLING: Right & left hand; Thro’ legs DEFENCE: Zone; Man-to-man FRONT CRAWL: BACK STROKE: BREAST STROKE: Arm Action; Leg Action; Breathing; Body Position; Head Position; Starts; Tumble turns swimming football badminton personal survival basketball gymnastics
This helps break the skill down into it’s subroutines (smaller parts) Saint Roch’s Secondary School Standard Grade Physical Education A skill is broken down into three parts : Breaking down a skill 1. PREPARATION 2. ACTION 3. RECOVERY 1. RUN-UP/TAKE-OFF 2. TAKE-OFF/FLIGHT 3. LANDING 1. STARTING POSITION 2. DIVING ACTION 3. ENTRY INTO WATER For activities like vaulting in Gymnastics or diving in Swimming you use the following:
Saint Roch’s Secondary School Standard Grade Physical Education Easy Skills Complex Skills
Little co-ordination needed
Few judgements to be made
Simple order of movements
Only one movement at a time
Easy environment (e.g. good conditions,
no opposition, safety equipment)
Many judgements to be made
Complicated order of movements
Many movements at the same time
Difficult environment (e.g. poor conditions, full opposition, no safety equipment.
What is a skill? A skill tells the ‘ purpose ’ of a movement or a series of linked movements. What is a technique? A technique is a way of performing a skill. Skills can be split into two categories:
Saint Roch’s Secondary School Standard Grade Physical Education Learning Skills There are two methods used for learning skills: WHOLE-PART-WHOLE METHOD PROGRESSIVE METHOD The learning sequence is: WHOLE ACTION / PART OF THE ACTION / WHOLE ACTION The learner can find great difficulty when attempting to perform the whole skill. It is an advantage to be able to isolate each part of the skill, practise it and master it, in order to achieve success. One example on your Standard Grade course that used ‘W-P-W’ method was swimming the front crawl stroke. How did it work? ‘ W’ - Swim the full stroke to see where help is required. ‘ P’ - eg. Practise the leg action in isolation (holding a float - working the legs only) ‘ W’ - Go back onto the full stroke, trying to concentrate on the leg action as you swim. The learning sequence is done progressively: BIT-BY-BIT The skill is broken down into sub-routines, smaller parts, and each part of the skill is practised and mastered before the learner can move onto a next. The next part is more difficult. Therefore, there is a gradual increase in the complexity (difficulty) of the skill. One example on your Standard Grade course that used ‘Progressive Method’ was doing a lay-up in basketball. How did it work? ‘ bit’ – practise stepping and jumping from one foot, before shooting into the hoop ‘ bit’ - practise shot from one bounce and two steps ‘ bit’ - practise shot after dribble (ie. 1-2-shoot) ‘ bit’ – now build the practise to a game-like situation by putting in a passive defender. Dependant upon whether a skill (or technique) is easy or complex will help you to know which method of learning to use.
Saint Roch’s Secondary School Standard Grade Physical Education Practising Skills Why is it important to practise a skill over and over? To become By repeating the shot out of the bunker, over and over again, the golfer is ‘grooving’ the action into his mind and muscles so that eventually he does not have to think about the action of the shot but rather concentrate on where to land the ball or how strong to play the ball into the wind. Automatic This is very important because there are advantages to something being automatic: The performer in basketball does not need to think about how to play the shot successfully because they already know the success rate of the skill will be high The performer can then concentrate on other things, e.g. where their team mates are moving to; the movement of the defender.
Saint Roch’s Secondary School Standard Grade Physical Education How does the performer know if they are doing the skill or technique correctly? Feedback EXTERNAL FEEDBACK is the information that you receive from your teacher, coach, partner, even video. They may compare your performance against that of a good performance and then tell you what you did well before telling you what needs improvement. They will tell you only one or two things to work on so that you can concentrate on these during a practice. This will also mean you will not become confused with too many things to think about. INTERNAL FEEDBACK is the information that the performer receives by them self as the do the skill. They can ‘feel’ it. The basketball player will have a feel for the movement, e.g. they will feel if they are balanced or not; they will know if the legs and arms are straight on the shot. It is their senses that help them ‘feel the shot’.. KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS is the information that the performer receives from counting the number of successes of a shot or skill. Feedback is the information received by a performer about their performance. There are different types of feedback and they are all used to help a performer learn successfully.
Saint Roch’s Secondary School Standard Grade Physical Education What kind of problems can be faced by a performer when practising skills? Becoming tired can be a serious problem. The more tired you become the less likely you are to perform the skill correctly. Tiredness can also cause injuries. Performing the same skill for too long can cause repetitive strain. Boredom is another problem. If practices become too repetitive then there is the chance that the performer might lose concentration on what they are trying to do, eventually becoming ‘fed up’ with the practise and quite possibly the activity. How does a coach or teacher avoid these things happening?
Make sure the practices on one skill do not last too long.
Make training sessions short, interesting and frequent .
Make sure the training sessions are short, interesting and frequent. Make sure practices on one skill do not last too long and are challenging.