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Aligning Philosophy of Education and Practice:Moving from Lecture/PowerPoint to Task-based Learning                   Mari...
What most frustrates you in your classrooms?                           2
I experienced similar frustrations . . .    And decided something had to change!                (LIKELY ME)               ...
What was modeled for                          me as an undergraduateWhat was modeled for me in my graduate program        ...
In spite of what was modeled for me as a grad student . . .                                                              5
What I knew: I wasn’t engaging and motivating my students.I was disappointing myself. If not lecture and PPTs,   WHAT?    ...
I broke each classinto a series of               • Videosmini learning                              • In-classactivities  ...
What I lacked was apedagogicalframework tobuild myapproachon . . . then,serendipitously,along cameJane Vella.             ...
TASK-BASEDLEARNING(Vella’s framework– in a nutshell)                     9
Vella’s assumptions about learners and learning                                    1. Learners arrive with the            ...
VELLA’S CLAIM:EVERYTHING CAN BE TAUGHTUSING LEARNING TASKS.She defines aLEARNING TASKas . . .an open questionput to member...
Open questions . . .• Invite                  • The “right” answer  reflective                  emerges from an  response ...
• Can present new content in an  infinite number of ways (e.g., mini  lecture (never longer than 10 mins.),  video clip, l...
THREE KEY   QUESTIONS      1. What learning has occurredRELATED TO EACH      during the session? LEARNING TASK    2. How w...
SEVEN STEPS              1. Who (participants, leaders, theOF PLANNING      number of participants)              2. Why (t...
FOUR TYPESOF LEARNING              1. Inductive work   TASKS              2. Input              3. Implementation         ...
1                       2-from Jane Vella       -from my Career                       Development class                   ...
18
An informal evaluation of my practice then and nowChickering & Gamson’s (1987) Seven Principles of        Lecture/PPTGood ...
It’s easy to lose sight of the     basics of good adult          education.     There are     SO MANY    distractions!    ...
Philosophy of education•   In his seminal writings on    participatory education, Myles Horton    refuses to separate educ...
My philosophy of education                             Adult Education = Social Change                      • The transfor...
Assumptions about learners and learningI agree with Vella that learners:• Arrive with the capacity to do the work involved...
Are decisions about practice lecturer-driven, i.e., will a great lecturer make upfor minimal studentengagement?My claim: A...
A final assumption about learning . . . Learning is messy. We as educators need to be prepared to get in and muckabout, to...
My next steps . . .                      • Step #1: Overlay Vella’s                        framework with Josie           ...
27
My next steps . . .                      • Step #2: Apply this                        multidimensional framework          ...
ReferencesAtherton, James. (2011). Learning and teaching: Deep and surface learning.     Retrieved 21 October 2012 from:  ...
Other books by Jane VellaVella, Jane. (1995). Training through dialogue: Promoting effective learning     and change with ...
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Images were sourced from the following websites:•   Frustrated woman: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from:    http://www.google....
Images were sourced from the following websites:•   Framework: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from:    http://www.google.ca/imgr...
Images were sourced from the following websites:•   Learn: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from:    http://www.google.ca/imgres?q...
Images were sourced from the following websites:•   Plan: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from:    http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=...
Images were sourced from the following websites:•   Moving forward: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from:    http://www.google.ca...
Images were sourced from the following websites:•   Talking head: Image retrieved 10.19.12 from:    http://www.google.ca/i...
Images were sourced from the following websites:•   Lose sight poster: Image retrieved 10.19.12 from:    http://www.google...
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Task based learning in a blended environment

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  • -IT’S A WAY OF STRUCTURINGDIALOGUE TO ENSURE EFFECTIVE TEACHING-IT’S A WAY OF ENSURING ENGAGEMENT OF LEARNERS WITH NEW CONTENT
  • -OPEN QUESTIONS PROVIDE A WAY OF STRUCTURING DIALOGUE TO ENSURE EFFECTIVE TEACHING,A WAY OF ENSURING ENGAGEMENT OF LEARNERS WITH NEW CONTENT-EX. “WHAT DO YOU SEE AS A REASONABLE EXCHANGE BETWEEN STARCHES AND PROTEINS FOR YOU ON ANY NORMAL WORKDAY?” (OPEN) VS. “WHAT IS A PROTEIN?” (CLOSED, I.E., TEACHER KNOWS THE ANSWER)-USING LEARNING TASKS INVOLVES HUMILITY; A GOOD TEACHER DOES NOT TEACH ALL SHE KNOWS; SHE TEACHES ALL THAT THE LEARNERS NEED TO KNOW AT THE TIME AND ALL THAT THE LEARNERS CAN ACCOUNTABLY LEARN IN THE TIME GIVEN (AS TEACHERS, THIS CAN BE A REAL STRUGGLE, I.E., TO NOT WANT TO AND TRY TO TEACH ALL THAT WE KNOW)-EX. “BY THE TIME WE FINISH THIS CLASS, YOU WILL HAVE (1) …, (2) …, (3) …, ETC.”
  • -WHO COMPONENT CONTROLS EVERYTHING; FITTING THE HOW TO THE WHO (I.E., THE LEARNING TASKS TO THE PARTICIPANTS, IS VITAL IN DESIGNING EFFECTIVE PROGRAMS)-WHEN – IT’S EASY TO PREPARE TOO MUCH WHAT AND HOW FOR THE WHEN-THE WHAT FOR (ACHIEVEMENT-BASED OBJECTIVES) ARE WHAT THE LEARNERS DO TO LEARN THE CONTENT (I.E., THE WHAT FOR IMPLEMENTS THE WHAT)-
  • -INDUCTIVE WORK CONNECTS LEARNERS WITH WHAT THEY ALREADY KNOW AND WITH THEIR UNIQUE CONTEXT (USES VERBS LIKE DESCRIBE, TELL THE STORY OF, DEFINE, SKETCH, SHOW, NAME, COMPARE, ETC.)-INPUT INVITES LEARNERS TO EXAMINE NEW INPUT (CONCEPTS, SKILLS OR ATTITUDES) (NEW CONTENT IS PRESENTED AND LEARNERS ARE EXPECTED TO DO SOMETHING WITH IT IN ORDER TO LEARN IT, I.E., CONSTRUCTED KNOWING)-IMPLEMENTATION GETS LEARNERS TO DO SOMETHING DIRECTLY WITH THAT NEW CONTENT, SOMEHOW IMPLEMENTING IT (INVITE LEARNERS TO IMMEDIATELY USE THE NEW KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, ATTITUDES IN THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT; DONE TO GET FEEDBACK ON THE LEARNER’S INTERPRETATION OF THE CONTENT AND ALSO TO OFFER THE LEARNER THE OPPORTUNITY TO PRACTICE; VELLA SUGGESTS THAT AT LEAST ONE IMPLEMENTATION LEARNING TASK BE USED FOR EVERY INPUT LEARNING TASK AND THAT WE USE ITERATIONS, NOT REPETITION)-INTEGRATION INTEGRATES NEW LEARNING INTO LIVES OF LEARNERS (INVITE LEARNERS TO APPLY WHAT THEY HAVE LEARNED TO THEIR LIFE AND WORK AND EXAMINE TRANSFER (THE USE OF NEW KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, ATTITUDES IN OTHER CONTEXTS, E.G., WORK, PERSONAL LIFE)
  • -FOR VELLA, VERBS ARE REALLY IMPORTANT-MUST BE STRONG, SPECIFIC; FALL INTO THE COGNITIVE, AFFECTIVE, PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAINS OF BLOOM’S TAXONOMY-MUST BE TOUGH (I.E., DEMAND ACTION, CHALLENGE THE LEARNER; E.G., DESIGN, EDIT, DECIDE, SELECT, WRITE, DISTINGUISH X FROM Y, ILLUSTRATE, ORGANIZE, SOLVE, RESOLVE, REALIGN), PRODUCTIVE (MUST PRODUCE FOR LEARNERS WITH PRODUCTS BEING INDICATORS OF LEARNING THAT IS TAKING PLACE; E.G., LIST, DESIGN, COMPOSE, WRITE, PREPARE, REORGANIZE, SELECT, DEVELOP, DIAGRAM, ILLUSTRATE), RESPECTFUL (FIT THE LEARNERS YOU ARE DESIGNING THE TASK FOR)-SHOULD TARGET MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
  • OUTCOMES?I FEEL MUCH BETTER ABOUT MY PRACTICE; STUDENTS SEEM TO BE MORE ENGAGED; THEY ACTIVELY TRY TO GET INTO MY CLASSES; AND WE HAVE A LOT MORE FUN – ALL GOOD SIGNS.BUT WHAT ABOUT MORE EMPIRICAL METRICS?-MY COURSE EVALS ARE CONSISTENTLY HIGH AND MY RESPONSE RATE ON COURSE EVALS IS CONSISTENTLY HIGH – TWO METRICS WHICH ARE CONSIDERED VERY IMPORTANT AT DEVRY.
  • -I LEFT THE LECTURE AND PPT BEHIND BUT I’LL APPLY VELLA’S FRAMEWORK TO ENSURE RIGOUR-I’M GOING TO SEEK MORE TRAINING IN VELLA’S MODEL-TALK ABOUT APPLYING CURRICULUM ALIGNMENT MATRIX
  • Transcript of "Task based learning in a blended environment"

    1. 1. Aligning Philosophy of Education and Practice:Moving from Lecture/PowerPoint to Task-based Learning Marion R. Synnott, Ph.D. Conference Title Conference Dates  Conference Location
    2. 2. What most frustrates you in your classrooms? 2
    3. 3. I experienced similar frustrations . . . And decided something had to change! (LIKELY ME) 3
    4. 4. What was modeled for me as an undergraduateWhat was modeled for me in my graduate program 4
    5. 5. In spite of what was modeled for me as a grad student . . . 5
    6. 6. What I knew: I wasn’t engaging and motivating my students.I was disappointing myself. If not lecture and PPTs, WHAT? 6
    7. 7. I broke each classinto a series of • Videosmini learning • In-classactivities exercises (andthat included competitions)(but were notlimited to): • In-class and online discussions and research activities 7
    8. 8. What I lacked was apedagogicalframework tobuild myapproachon . . . then,serendipitously,along cameJane Vella. 8
    9. 9. TASK-BASEDLEARNING(Vella’s framework– in a nutshell) 9
    10. 10. Vella’s assumptions about learners and learning 1. Learners arrive with the capacity to do the work involved in learning. 2. Learners learn when they are actively engaged – cognitively, emotionally, and physically – with the content; i.e., what we do is what we learn. 3. New content can be presented through learning tasks and these learning tasks can integrate lecture and laboratory. 4. Learning tasks promote accountability. 10
    11. 11. VELLA’S CLAIM:EVERYTHING CAN BE TAUGHTUSING LEARNING TASKS.She defines aLEARNING TASKas . . .an open questionput to members of asmall group, whohave been given allthe resources theyneed to respond 11
    12. 12. Open questions . . .• Invite • The “right” answer reflective emerges from an response honest response by the learner in his/her• Invite critical context. thinking• Demand reflection• Stimulate creativity 12
    13. 13. • Can present new content in an infinite number of ways (e.g., mini lecture (never longer than 10 mins.), video clip, learned article, demonstration, etc.)• Can use an inductive-deductive or deductive-inductive approach – Can begin inductively by examining the life, history, and context of the learner as they relate to the topic (e.g., the way we did today) – Can begin deductively by examining the latest theoretical content (e.g., if I had begun with Vella’s theoretical framework) 13
    14. 14. THREE KEY QUESTIONS 1. What learning has occurredRELATED TO EACH during the session? LEARNING TASK 2. How will students transfer that learning, i.e., how will they use their new skills, knowledge, and attitudes (KSAs) in non-classroom settings? 3. What impact will the learning and transfer have in other settings? 14
    15. 15. SEVEN STEPS 1. Who (participants, leaders, theOF PLANNING number of participants) 2. Why (the situation that calls for this educational program) 3. When (the time frame) 4. Where (the site) 5. What (the content – knowledge, skills, attitudes (KSAs)) 6. What for (achievement-based objectives) 7. How (learning tasks and materials) 15
    16. 16. FOUR TYPESOF LEARNING 1. Inductive work TASKS 2. Input 3. Implementation 4. Integration 16
    17. 17. 1 2-from Jane Vella -from my Career Development class 17
    18. 18. 18
    19. 19. An informal evaluation of my practice then and nowChickering & Gamson’s (1987) Seven Principles of Lecture/PPTGood Practice in Undergraduate Education Modality Task-based Learning  1. Good practice encourages student-faculty contact.  2. Good practice encourages cooperation amongstudents.  3. Good practice encourages active learning.  4. Good practice gives prompt feedback.  5. Good practice emphasizes time on task.  6. Good practice communicates high expectations.  7. Good practice respects diverse talents and ways oflearning. 19
    20. 20. It’s easy to lose sight of the basics of good adult education. There are SO MANY distractions! 20
    21. 21. Philosophy of education• In his seminal writings on participatory education, Myles Horton refuses to separate education from life and life from education. He sees education as a lifelong process that involves experience and the whole of the person.• In We Make the Road by Walking, Horton discusses educational practice with Paulo Freire and comments, “I am less interested in methodology or techniques than I am in a process that involves the total person, involves vision, involves total realities.” (Horton & Freire, 1990, p. 176) 21
    22. 22. My philosophy of education Adult Education = Social Change • The transformative power of adult education is limited only by the restrictions superimposed on it by practitioners and learners. • My students and I are co-creators of the learning community we inhabit. There is a reciprocity that exists between me as a facilitator, the learners (including me), and knowledge. If I engage in dialogic teaching, it will result in a form of transformative exchange in which we as a community co-learn and co-teach. What is your philosophy of education? 22
    23. 23. Assumptions about learners and learningI agree with Vella that learners:• Arrive with the capacity to do the work involved in learning.• Learn when they are actively engaged – cognitively, emotionally, and physically – with the content; i.e., what we do is what we learn.• Can learn new content through learning tasks and these learning tasks can integrate lecture and laboratory.• Will hold themselves more accountable for their learning if they engage in learning tasks. What I’ve learned about myself is that it is imperative that I maintain a strong and meaningful connection between my philosophy of education and my practice in the classroom. What are you doing to ensure your philosophy and practice are, and remain, connected? 23
    24. 24. Are decisions about practice lecturer-driven, i.e., will a great lecturer make upfor minimal studentengagement?My claim: ABSOLUTELY NOT!While the deep learners (Atherton, 2011)may be able to retain and integrate newKSAs with minimal engagement, thesurface learners (Atherton, 2011) willmost assuredly not.For most of us, it’s not the deep learnersthat are our biggest concern. They couldlearn with or without us! 24
    25. 25. A final assumption about learning . . . Learning is messy. We as educators need to be prepared to get in and muckabout, to take risks, to not be afraid to try new things, to get over our tendency to make excuses for our inability to engage and motivate our students. 25
    26. 26. My next steps . . . • Step #1: Overlay Vella’s framework with Josie Baudier, Stephanie Foote, and Traci Stromie’s “Curriculum Alignment Matrix”* *http://tinyurl.com/sloan-cam 26
    27. 27. 27
    28. 28. My next steps . . . • Step #2: Apply this multidimensional framework to other courses I teach • Step #3: Continuously monitor the connection between my philosophy and practice • Step #4: Continue to look for other ways to do what I love better 28
    29. 29. ReferencesAtherton, James. (2011). Learning and teaching: Deep and surface learning. Retrieved 21 October 2012 from: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/deepsurf.htm.Baudier, Josie, Foote, Stephanie, & Stromie, Traci. (n.d.). Curriculum Alignment Matrix. Retrieved 16 October 2012 from: http://tinyurl.com/sloan-cam.Chickering, Arthur W. & Gamson, Zelda F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. Washington Center News, Fall 1987. Retrieved 16 October 2012 from: http://wwwtemp.lonestar.edu/multimedia/SevenPrinciples.pdf.Horton, Myles, & Freire, Paulo. (1990). We make the road by walking: Conversations on education and social change. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Vella, Jane. (2001). Taking learning to task: Creative strategies for teaching adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 29
    30. 30. Other books by Jane VellaVella, Jane. (1995). Training through dialogue: Promoting effective learning and change with adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Vella, Jane. (1997). How do they know they know? Evaluating adult learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Vella, Jane. (2002). Learning to listen, learning to teach: The power of dialogue in educating adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Vella, Jane. (2007). On teaching and learning: Putting the principles and practices of dialogue education into action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass. 30
    31. 31. 31
    32. 32. Images were sourced from the following websites:• Frustrated woman: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=frustration&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=j7qANEFp8l29uM:&imgr efurl=http://sharlapatrick.com/%3Fattachment_id%3D396&docid=--uALvwFyxVN1M&imgurl=d http://sharlapatrick.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/frustration1.jpg&w=849&h=565&ei=x- Z6UKCuL8njiAKW0oHIDw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=562&sig=112878518443330486557&page=1&tbnh=95&tbnw=143&s tart=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:18,s:0,i:190&tx=92&ty=61• Life/change word cloud: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=change&num=10&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=Qz4pycP_tzMfO M:&imgrefurl=http://taniaboutin.com/coping-with-change/&docid=6TFEcfwNN8RniM&imgurl=http://taniaboutin.com/wp- content/uploads/2012/01/change- wordle.jpg&w=650&h=313&ei=1d96UJfzLseViAKm7ICYDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=770&vpy=254&dur=9189&hovh=15 6&hovw=324&tx=179&ty=87&sig=112878518443330486557&page=2&tbnh=92&tbnw=192&start=21&ndsp=25&ved=1t :429,r:4,s:21,i:233• Jumps into the deep end poster: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=jumping+into+the+deep+end&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=ep3R dqy_CDwOaM:&imgrefurl=http://memegenerator.net/instance/24167407&docid=_PyP9mns5xb88M&imgurl=http://cdn. memegenerator.net/instances/400x/24167407.jpg&w=400&h=473&ei=YOF6ULTtEua6igLgrIGgDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&v px=471&vpy=175&dur=31&hovh=244&hovw=206&tx=104&ty=159&sig=112878518443330486557&page=3&tbnh=126 &tbnw=107&start=44&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:21,s:44,i:278• Figure w/light bulb: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=idea&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=tkUsgro1TNltKM:&imgrefurl= http://quartile.squarespace.com/blog/2011/4/17/is-the-big-new-idea- overrated.html&docid=BM15QLu8FkLRcM&imgurl=http://quartile.squarespace.com/storage/post- images/BigIdea.jpg%253F__SQUARESPACE_CACHEVERSION%253D1303031431987&w=300&h=400&ei=0uh6UO W- MajGiwLwg4GACg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=601&vpy=217&dur=1482&hovh=259&hovw=194&tx=95&ty=182&sig=11287 8518443330486557&page=1&tbnh=113&tbnw=76&start=0&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:21,s:0,i:212 32
    33. 33. Images were sourced from the following websites:• Framework: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=framework&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=4Xy0Ma_VpNJf SM:&imgrefurl=http://wpteach.com/what-is-a-wordpress-framework-and-why-should-i-care/&docid=rnOEWPXU- EomtM&imgurl=http://wpteach.com/wp- content/uploads/2011/12/framework.jpg&w=683&h=455&ei=eQ17UITTOMbmiwKqoIGQBQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=62& sig=112878518443330486557&page=1&tbnh=98&tbnw=147&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:137&tx=54&ty=28• Clock: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=time&start=98&um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=595&addh=36&tbm=isch&tbnid=Odozz6M tCyOjGM:&imgrefurl=http://www.smarterchaos.com/blog/2012/09/05/time-dont-waste-mine-dont-waste- yours/&docid=DL23RxXDplkJYM&imgurl=http://www.smarterchaos.com/blog/wp- content/uploads/2012/09/Time.jpg&w=800&h=667&ei=Cg57UMiCM4TXigKz44Fg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=234&sig=112 878518443330486557&page=5&tbnh=133&tbnw=160&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:98,i:50&tx=98&ty=82• Nuts: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=nutshell&um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=aOCrDFlq- lNh1M:&imgrefurl=http://withafairwind.wordpress.com/2011/01/12/the-birmingham-leadership-experience-in-a- nutshell/&docid=WCfQScnU_kW- _M&imgurl=http://withafairwind.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/nutshell2.jpg&w=300&h=268&ei=xA57UL2jJobtiQKby4Hw Cw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=218&sig=112878518443330486557&page=2&tbnh=126&tbnw=150&start=22&ndsp=25&ved =1t:429,r:3,s:22,i:177&tx=38&ty=56• Thinking head: Inage retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=assumptions&start=130&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&addh=36&tbm=isch&tbnid= txNhoRCOUyCUHM:&imgrefurl=http://blogs.cfainstitute.org/investor/2012/01/04/the-dcf-model-question-your- assumptions/&docid=H9ozQMc3QxuptM&imgurl=http://cfa.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/investor/files/2012/01/The-DCF- Model-Question-Your- Assumptions.jpg&w=287&h=352&ei=TiZ7UI7ANuiyigLLo4G4Cg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=390&sig=11287851844333048 6557&page=6&tbnh=125&tbnw=132&ndsp=26&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:130,i:203&tx=51&ty=49 33
    34. 34. Images were sourced from the following websites:• Learn: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=learn&um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=IHRvHaZ8nNd0wM:&imgref url=http://www.infed.org/biblio/b- learn.htm&docid=n06lHHuDFLVUZM&imgurl=http://www.infed.org/images/illustrations/learn_mark_brennan_cc-by-nc- sa2_flickr_heycoach- 1197947341.jpg&w=600&h=450&ei=5xF7UOvUGcvliwLGrIHACA&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=78&sig=11287851844333048 6557&page=1&tbnh=109&tbnw=143&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0,i:143&tx=75&ty=57• Question marks: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=QUESTION+MARKS&start=227&um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=595&addh=36&tbm=isc h&tbnid=Fxrnl- W1eGJsWM:&imgrefurl=http://theunemployedbride.wordpress.com/2011/05/&docid=Gr_7tNYDJscQzM&imgurl=http://th eunemployedbride.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/question-marks.jpg&w=400&h=300&ei=DRN7UKazG- WjiAK094FQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=265&sig=112878518443330486557&page=9&tbnh=128&tbnw=171&ndsp=25&ved =1t:429,r:10,s:227,i:209&tx=72&ty=85• Content strategy: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=content+strategy&um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=nXFbRsKDjc2Ie M:&imgrefurl=http://seo-hacker.com/content-strategy-important/&docid=mzzn4wNnKkpU8M&imgurl=http://seo- hacker.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Content- Strategy.png&w=330&h=345&ei=4BN7UNGGHa_vigL6moDgDQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=328&sig=11287851844333048 6557&page=2&tbnh=138&tbnw=137&start=21&ndsp=27&ved=1t:429,r:19,s:21,i:197&tx=31&ty=93• 1-2-3 blocks: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=3+key+questions&um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=mOrzoUyssAm W7M:&imgrefurl=http://giveitsomesparkle.wordpress.com/2012/06/27/three-essential-marketing-questions-to- ask/&docid=3eWpLEcOMZADVM&imgurl=http://giveitsomesparkle.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/123-building- blocks.jpg&w=800&h=567&ei=yxR7UIXANKWtygG71YHoDA&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=406&sig=1128785184433304865 57&page=1&tbnh=119&tbnw=201&start=0&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:15,s:0,i:115&tx=94&ty=53 34
    35. 35. Images were sourced from the following websites:• Plan: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=planning&um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=4rdshXxUdjqFXM:&imgr efurl=http://www.exomarketing.biz/en/blog/2012-new-year-resolution-%25E2%2580%2593strategic- planning/&docid=2DffdbnPgUA-zM&imgurl=http://www.exomarketing.biz/wp- content/uploads/plan.jpg&w=400&h=266&ei=6RV7UJbiJLCWyAG57YHgCg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=94&sig=112878518 443330486557&page=3&tbnh=129&tbnw=229&start=46&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:46,i:341&tx=115&ty=68• Lego steps: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=task&um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=f2Ye_e2kO062cM:&imgrefurl =http://wtpictcyberwellnesswebquest.codinglogic.com/task.html&docid=-VhidA5gP- yroM&imgurl=http://wtpictcyberwellnesswebquest.codinglogic.com/task_3.jpg&w=374&h=280&ei=gRd7UOfFN8SQiQKx jIH4Cw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=437&vpy=236&dur=281&hovh=194&hovw=260&tx=137&ty=112&sig=11287851844333 0486557&page=4&tbnh=132&tbnw=176&start=74&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:74,i:417• Example: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=example&start=199&um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=595&addh=36&tbm=isch&tbnid=Rg4 hwwdMOnBb8M:&imgrefurl=http://www.ministryofsound.com/lifestyle/blog/tags/96/example/&docid=z9Rt76k1rIumhM&i mgurl=http://www.ministryofsound.com/uploads/blog/Example%252520tour_1103_blogImage_JPG_l.jpg&w=700&h=28 0&ei=Uxh7UIDcHqmrigLz6oHAAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=66&vpy=193&dur=1841&hovh=142&hovw=355&tx=214&ty= 77&sig=112878518443330486557&page=9&tbnh=68&tbnw=170&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:199,i:44• Girard quote: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=one+step+at+a+time&um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=glmRf9j7QX 2LoM:&imgrefurl=http://adorable-home.com/thought-of-the-day/one-step-at-a-time- 1624/&docid=sZa5yrw11mZjDM&imgurl=http://adorable-home.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/One-step-at-a- time1.jpg&w=600&h=400&ei=rRl7UJPhKOP9iwLDxYHgBQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=172&sig=112878518443330486557 &page=3&tbnh=132&tbnw=176&start=49&ndsp=26&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:49,i:305&tx=737&ty=52 35
    36. 36. Images were sourced from the following websites:• Moving forward: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=moving+forward&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=QIGiBh1YmFRmi M:&imgrefurl=http://movingforward-kharlo.blogspot.com/2009/08/moving- forward.html&docid=g8pPjIerPmp0hM&imgurl=http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_xPE5snUb- _E/SnngEX2ZZkI/AAAAAAAAAAc/7Y-cX9v0CBw/S1600- R/moving%252Bforward.bmp&w=401&h=400&ei=gyx7UP3XOovhigKW7IDgDg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=530&sig=11287 8518443330486557&page=2&tbnh=126&tbnw=137&start=21&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:21,i:174&tx=41&ty=57• Thank you: Image retrieved 10.14.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=THANK+YOU&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=Am7leKEWCo1NjM: &imgrefurl=http://www.glittergraphics.org/graphics/thank- you/&docid=jl2NU34CD3xzcM&imgurl=http://www.glittergraphics.org/graphics/thank- you/images/10.jpg&w=500&h=335&ei=ZyJ7UIvfNcaJjALoq4G4CQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=78&sig=1128785184433304 86557&page=1&tbnh=97&tbnw=145&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:137&tx=76&ty=57• Large lecture hall: Image retrieved 10.19.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=lecturer+in+class&num=10&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=pHdEsf p62QPCvM:&imgrefurl=http://its.uiowa.edu/instruction/lectures/&docid=aMk46XK_hnal6M&imgurl=http://its.uiowa.edu/in struction/lectures/images/classroom.jpg&w=432&h=288&ei=Q52BUKSKLIHJiwKf1YHACw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=78&s ig=112878518443330486557&page=1&tbnh=106&tbnw=141&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:0,i:126&tx=51&ty=69• Learning circle: Image retrieved 10.19.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=learning+circle&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=JZ46SeP8nXNgW M:&imgrefurl=http://psg.faimerfri.org/category/uncategorized/&docid=MCi7ndHmPF1nDM&imgurl=http://psg.faimerfri.or g/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Learning-Circle-DSC_8539- e1284634447705.jpg&w=600&h=400&ei=JJ6BUNXjGIbwiwLYz4CYCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=103&vpy=169&dur=382 2&hovh=183&hovw=275&tx=172&ty=146&sig=112878518443330486557&page=2&tbnh=123&tbnw=164&start=21&nd sp=24&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:21,i:176 36
    37. 37. Images were sourced from the following websites:• Talking head: Image retrieved 10.19.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=talking+head&start=73&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=aWLhPiliB F2kYM:&imgrefurl=http://exposingthemyths.blogspot.com/2011/07/pat-brown-hasnt-got-clue-how- things.html&docid=Y9TDigwmmAg1cM&imgurl=http://3.bp.blogspot.com/- kulxmQdm0i4/TiVWXCsY_aI/AAAAAAAAAAs/fFBV4_mNMAM/s1600/talking%252Bhead.jpg&w=1505&h=1181&ei=DK CBUNC5OcnjigLKtoCwCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=835&vpy=115&dur=203&hovh=199&hovw=253&tx=155&ty=116&si g=112878518443330486557&page=4&tbnh=135&tbnw=172&ndsp=26&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:73,i:21• Horton/Freire book jacket: Image retrieved 10.19.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=we+make+the+road+by+walking&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=N 78_qI1QTTHJdM:&imgrefurl=http://www.betterworldbooks.com/we-make-the-road-by-walking-id- 0877227756.aspx&docid=AumrQcZBrb7DVM&imgurl=http://images.betterworldbooks.com/087/We-Make-the-Road-by- Walking-Horton-Myles- 9780877227755.jpg&w=245&h=400&ei=_KWBUK63Fs3MigKrmYD4Dw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=264&vpy=101&dur=90 5&hovh=287&hovw=176&tx=97&ty=165&sig=112878518443330486557&page=1&tbnh=135&tbnw=86&start=0&ndsp= 22&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:71• Philosophy: Image retrieved 10.19.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=philosophy&start=75&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=zAOTOTP6Zt ULFM:&imgrefurl=http://www.sensunels.com/viewdoc.asp%3Fco_id%3D27&docid=_NaeNCbtUbYUuM&imgurl=http://w ww.sensunels.com/media/immagini/58_dibi_philosophy.jpg&w=467&h=655&ei=SamBUMOsDeHIiwLo4YDoAQ&zoom= 1&iact=rc&dur=483&sig=112878518443330486557&page=4&tbnh=128&tbnw=91&ndsp=30&ved=1t:429,r:22,s:75,i:74 &tx=13&ty=75• Painted hands: Image retrieved 10.19.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=learning&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=IuL5JgICE_HLNM:&imgre furl=http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/personalizedlearning/&docid=Ssa1v9g_qaqP7M&imgurl=http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/per sonalizedlearning/img/pl_hands.jpg&w=627&h=397&ei=_KuBUP_iFYXbiwKBiYDYAQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=499&sig= 112878518443330486557&page=4&tbnh=130&tbnw=183&start=69&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:69,i:383&tx=89&ty=101 37
    38. 38. Images were sourced from the following websites:• Lose sight poster: Image retrieved 10.19.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=lose+sight&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=knESBFRW9sQj5M:&i mgrefurl=http://www.pedlars.co.uk/vintage-poster-we-must-not-lose- sight.html&docid=3aUDxOOTnImgeM&imgurl=http://www.pedlars.co.uk/media/catalog/product/cache/1/image/1280x12 80/9df78eab33525d08d6e5fb8d27136e95/V/2/V21MELSU.jpg&w=1280&h=1280&ei=CwKEUL2uKcGYiQKk4IH4Aw&zo om=1&iact=hc&vpx=108&vpy=117&dur=4680&hovh=225&hovw=225&tx=123&ty=141&sig=112878518443330486557& page=4&tbnh=122&tbnw=125&start=68&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:13,s:68,i:330• Guy and question mark: Image retrieved 10.19.12 from: http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=question+mark&hl=en&rls=ig&biw=1280&bih=595&tbm=isch&tbnid=YYfg_RPwQBzTlM :&imgrefurl=http://liongadgets.com/wordpress/most-important-ten-questions-to-ask-yourself/question- mark/&docid=el4ufHamgZaiEM&imgurl=http://liongadgets.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/question- mark.jpg&w=4000&h=4000&ei=3wWEUIGyL6H6iwK_vYDgDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=843&vpy=110&dur=2090&hovh =225&hovw=225&tx=87&ty=129&sig=112878518443330486557&page=2&tbnh=130&tbnw=147&start=28&ndsp=29&v ed=1t:429,r:27,s:28,i:309 38
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