Hancock Flipping the Switch


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Hancock Flipping the Switch

  1. 1. Flipping the Switch Using a Blended (Flipped) Learning Environment to Help Students Succeed in Compulsory Courses
  2. 2. Background Course is… • a first-year composition course • required by most degree programs in the institution • articulated with all equivalent composition courses in BC, which also tend to be required courses
  3. 3. ISSUES • Required course = learners often reluctant • Appropriate placement (a variety of prerequisites = lack of consistency) • Failure rate usually 30-40% (failure = below 60% or “C”) • Many students retake course (sometimes two and three times) • Can create a bottleneck for students (4th-year students still taking 1st year requirements)
  4. 4. Two Central Reasons for Failure (and interventions for prevention) • Inappropriate placement (students do not have language skills appropriate for university-level writing)—Intervention: Early Alert; Learning Centre tutoring, free ACP upgrading courses; attendance at office hours, etc. • Students do not submit assignments— Intervention: in-class and e-mail reminders; online submission window open 24/7 for ten days.
  5. 5. Research Question: Which “non-curricular” learning activities/resources do students perceive as most helpful to achieving a successful outcome in team-taught, blended (flipped) sections of a compulsory class?
  6. 6. “Non-Curricular Elements” • Elements not dictated by the course curriculum (as opposed to elements required by the curriculum—i.e., number and nature of assignments; topics covered; outcomes; etc.)
  7. 7. Non-curricular Elements of Blended (Flipped) Classroom • • • • • • • • Online lectures/resources/lessons Online quizzes Blogging assignment (with online communities) In-class quizzes In-class group work Formative feedback from peers Formative feedback from instructors Team-teaching
  8. 8. First….why blend? • Blended learning: “the thoughtful integration of face-to-face and online learning,” (Matheos, 2011) • Addresses “the increasing need and demand to respond to diverse student needs *and+ to provide engaging and meaningful learning experiences” (Matheos, 2011); • Has potential “to offer more flexible, more engaging, and more learning-centered approaches” (Matheos, 2011). • If well-designed, has potential to offer a higher quality learning environment than either online or fully face-to-face environments (Osguthorpe and Graham , 2003) • Some research shows that blended learning environments increase students’ chances of success (Waddoups, Hatch, & Butterworth, 2003) • The blended learning environment is particularly appropriate for academic writing courses because of the emphasis on reading and writing (Brunner, 2006)
  9. 9. Second….why team-teach? • “a very powerful way of dismantling the outmoded notion that teaching is a matter of one individual's mastery of a specialized subject matter” (Beavers and Deturck) • “an overlooked ‘low tech’ alternative for facilitating the kind of learning that develops skills in critical thinking and new knowledge construction” (Eisen and Tisdal) • Student surveys indicate a preference for the model
  10. 10. Online Elements… Online lectures/resources/lessons: • Students view lessons/processes/resources/examples online • Can view/study at convenience numerous times Online quizzes • Incentive for online participation Blogging (within small online blogging communities) • Motivates students because they are writing on topics they know about • Students not writing simply to avoid errors (confidence) • Students receive timely responses to their writing from an audience of their peers (immediacy) • Students are using skills with which they are already familiar (confidence) • Students write throughout semester (not for isolated assignments)
  11. 11. In-class Elements… In-class quizzes • Incentive to review online material and attend class In-class group work • Practicing skills outlined in online lessons Formative feedback (from peers and from instructors) • “the process used by teachers and students to recognize and respond to student learning in order to enhance that learning during learning” (Cowie and Bell, 1999, p. 147). • Research shows a connection between formative feedback and improvements in student writing
  12. 12. Methodological Approach • A qualitative/quantitative study employing an Action Research approach • 35 students who achieved 60% or greater in the course responded to an anonymous, online sixquestion survey regarding their experiences in team-taught, blended (flipped) sections of ENGL 1100 • Response rate: 64.8%
  13. 13. Why Action Research? • Current course is the organic result of an ongoing pedagogical experiment we’ve been informally researching and refining for nine years (based on feedback from student surveys) • Current study is a more formal approach using an Action Research methodology • Action Research allows for study of future iterations
  14. 14. Action Research Cycle
  15. 15. Question 1 Which of the following resources/activities/etc. do you believe were helpful in your achieving success in ENGL 1100? Please select all that apply: Online Grammar 74% 26 Online Lectures/Lessons 77% 27 Blogging Assignment 66% 23 In-class Reading Quizzes 66% 23 Group Work 51% 18 Peer-Editing Workshops 43% 15 Team-Teaching 46% 16 Formative Feedback 83% 29 Other, please specify... 9% 3 Lessons/Qu. Total Responses 35
  16. 16. Q. 1 “other”… • Instructors being available for questions via email nearly all the time • Teaching Dynamic • Discussion between students and professor
  17. 17. Question 2 Please explain which of the above list you found MOST helpful to your achieving success in English 1100 and how it contributed to your success Formative Instructor Feedback 11 Blogging Assignment 8 Online Lectures/Lessons 7 Team-teaching/Teaching Method/Teacher Enthusiasm 5 Peer-editing 3 Online Grammar Lessons/Quizzes 2 In-class Reading Quizzes 2 “Explaining the Thesis Statement” 1
  18. 18. Question 3 Do you believe the blended (partially online) format of the course was helpful in your achieving success? If so, how did the partially online format help you succeed? • 91.5% of respondents indicated that they believed the partially online environment contributed to their success in the course.
  19. 19. Questions 4-6 4. Could anything else have been included in ENGL 1100 to help you achieve greater success (for example, video lectures, online group presentations, more/less time spent in class, etc.)? 5. Was anything included in the course that did NOT help you succeed in your recently completed section of English 1100? 6. Is there any other feedback you would like to offer about your recent experience in English 1100?
  20. 20. Analysis Data interpretation techniques: – classification – identification of themes – creation of concept maps
  21. 21. Findings Four themes emerged as to why the chosen element contributed to the students’ success Quality Engagement Convenience/Flexibility Incentive (“easy grades”)
  22. 22. The Blended Learning Environment • 91.5% believed the blended environment contributed to their success in the course • Most commented on the blended environment’s quality (“helps you prepare for class better”; “enabled me to grasp concepts a lot faster”; “increased communication between students and instructors”) • Fewer commented on the blended learning environment as more flexible/convenient • Some used language related to engagement (“fun,” “not boring,” “non-traditional,” “unique”)
  23. 23. Values Associated with Blended Learning Environment Blended Learning Quality Environment Convenience/ Flexibility Engagement
  24. 24. Feedback from Students on “Non-Curricular Elements” Based on Highest Rated Elements
  25. 25. Formative Feedback from Instructors 31.5% of students identified formative feedback from instructors as the element most helpful in their success; all responses were related to quality
  26. 26. Representative Comments About Formative Instructor Feedback • “helped me steer my assignments in the right direction” • “always received great advice” • “a clear indication of whether you are on the right track” • “if it wasn't for the feedback I wouldn't have got a good grade on my essays” • “contributed a lot to the improvement of my writing skills”
  27. 27. Values Associated with Formative Feedback from Instructors Element: Value(s): Formative Instructor Feedback Quality
  28. 28. Blogging (and Blogging Communities) • Twenty-three percent of students identified blogging as the most helpful element, and, while most responses were related to quality, one student’s comments related to incentive
  29. 29. Representative Comments about Blogs • “engages students to write about a topic that interests them” • “helped me improve my writing the most” • “allowed you to be creative and discuss a topic of your interest” • “helped to write to audience other than instructors” • “helped me focus on how to present my ideas and pay more attention to my writing style and improve it” • “If I had to chose I'd say the blogging because it put writing into practice”
  30. 30. Values Associated with Blogging Element: Blogging Value(s): Quality Incentive
  31. 31. Online Lectures/Lessons/Resources • Twenty percent of students identified the online lessons/lectures as most helpful and all remarks related to quality.
  32. 32. Representative Comments About Online Lectures/Lessons/Resources • “on-line lessons helped me gain a better understanding of the readings” • “they were really in-depth and provided a lot of answers to questions” • “if we missed a class, it was easy to catch up. • “helped clear up any of the confusion I had” • “I like that we are assigned readings, resources and lectures to read prior to each class so we can prepare” • “online lectures all relate to the writing assignments and help us build our writing skills slowly” • “helps prepare for the in-class lesson better ”
  33. 33. Values Associated with Online Lessons/Lectures/Resources Element: Value(s): Online Lectures/ Lessons/ Resources Quality
  34. 34. Team-Teaching • Fourteen percent of students identified teamteaching as most helpful in terms of their success; all remarks related to engagement. • Interestingly, though only a handful of students selected “team-teaching” as the central element related to their success in the course, many commented on it positively in the final question, which solicited general feedback. • Comments invariably related to engagement
  35. 35. Representative Comments About Team-Teaching • • • • • • • • • • “helped me to stay focused” “kept the class interesting” “quite amusing” “dual professor concept was very entertaining” “team-teaching kept the class active” “team-teaching made class interesting and lively” “the team-teaching experience was fantastic” “was great having 2 teachers” “having two different instructors allowed for different views “made the class room discussions more interesting and somehow as a student you felt more calm” • “very enthusiastic and passionate about what they are teaching” • “a good team” • “compliment each other’s teaching styles”
  36. 36. Values Associated with Team-Teaching Element: Value(s): TeamEngagement Teaching
  37. 37. Peer Editing (Formative Feedback from Peers) • Eight percent identified peer editing as most helpful, and all remarks related to quality.
  38. 38. Representative Comments About Peer Reviews • “you can see where your problems are” • “helped me cultivate more ideas for my writing and improved my skills” • “made sure I had my essay draft done on time and a week prior to handing it in”
  39. 39. Values Associated with Peer-Editing Element: Value(s): Peer Editing Quality
  40. 40. Non-Curricular Elements • all of the responses concerning the highest rated “non-curricular elements”—formative feedback, blogging, online lessons/lectures, team-teaching, and peer-editing--relate primarily to quality • secondarily to engagement • only one response was related to incentive • and none to convenience/flexibility.
  41. 41. Values Associated with Five Top-Rated “Non-Curricular” Elements Element: Value(s): • Formative Feedback, • Blogging Quality • Online Lectures/Resources, • Team-Teaching • Peer-Editing Engagement Incentive
  42. 42. Selected Responses as to Whether Students Would Choose Blended over Face-to-Face if Given Choice • Yes--because it cuts down time spent in class (less attention span) but improves • • • • • efficiency because you can manage time better. Yes--it forced you to be active in order to succeed rather than just having to show up to class and sit through an allotted time period. yes, it was very flexible that helped me to succeed not only in this course but also my other courses. Yes, it definitely helped me time wise and was not overwhelming at all as in the traditional classes. I think this method is successful and will for sure will consider taking classes in this format in the future. Yes-I hope Kwantlen offers more partially online courses for students! I personally like this idea! Yes--i prefer partially online course because it provides me with more flexibility (with time) • As the semester went on, I really saw the benefit of the partially online format. • Will definitely choose future partially online courses.
  43. 43. • Partially online .This is my first time taking a partially online course and i will take it again if an opportunity arises in other courses. Furthermore i will recommend it to anyone who wishes to take Eng 1100 • i would prefer partially online courses for almost every kind of course except those that require applied math/physics. • I prefer the partially online format for future English courses and even other courses like psychology or something too. • I prefer partially online as most students today have work. • I would take a partially online course again • Yes, I loved the partially online format. It enabled me to grasp concepts a lot faster and be able to discuss the things I wasn’t clear on with my professors. I would without a doubt take this format if it was offered with other courses. • I would definitely take another blended learning course • Yes-I loved the partially online format! Firstly, I find it really boring to sit in the class for three hours composing essays, so this course was actually fun and not boring or traditional! It's just a unique class :)
  44. 44. Responses from Students who Did not Prefer Blended Model Only two respondents indicated a preference for the fully face-to-face environment: • “I didn't like the online part, the lecture was more engaging” • “I Didn't really learn as well, would of preferred more class time”
  45. 45. Future Directions for Research 1) Action Research/Case Study: Fully face-toface class wherein students have the options of attending one class per week either online or face-to-face. 2) Blogging: Connecting blogging achievements to success in academic writing.
  46. 46. References • • • • • • • Action Research. (n.d.). Center for Enhanced Learning and Teaching (CELT). Retrieved from http://celt.ust.hk/teaching-resources/action-research Borja, Rhea R. (2005). ‘Blogs’ catching on as tool for instruction: teachers use interactive web pages to hone writing skills. Education Week, 25(15). Retrieved from ERIC database. Brunner, D. (2006). The potential of the hybrid course vis-a-vis online and traditional courses. Teaching Theology & Religion, 9(4), 229-235. Retrieved from ERIC database. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Chapter 14 Action Research. In Research methods in education. London: Routledge Falmer. Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. W. (2012). Part VI. Action Research. In Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications (pp. 506-529). Boston: Pearson. Kim, K., & Bonk, C. (2006). The future of online teaching and learning in higher education: the survey says…. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 29(4), 22-30. Retrieved from ERIC database. Manzo, K. (2008). More students master "basics" on writing NAEP. Education Week, 27(32). Retrieved from ERIC database.
  47. 47. Matheos, K. (2011). Innovative Practices Research Project COHERE Report on Blended Learning (Rep.). Retrieved from http://cohere.ca/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/REPORT-ONBLENDED-LEARNING-FINAL1.pdf Mertler, C. A. (2013). Action research: Improving schools and empowering educators. [S.l.]: Sage Publications. Mills, G. E. (2011). Action research: A guide for the teacher researcher. Boston: Pearson. Osguthorpe, R., & Graham, C. (2003). Blended learning environments: definitions and directions. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 4(3), 227-33. Retrieved from ERIC database. Provincial Exams - Curriculum and Assessment - Province of B.C. (n.d.). Provincial Exams Curriculum and Assessment - Province of B.C. Retrieved from http://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/topic.page?id=13992E4EC93F4F36B5478D37D441D626 Ramaswami, R. (2008). The prose of blogging (and a few cons, too). T.H.E. Journal, 35(11), 2125. Retrieved from ERIC database. Read, Sylvia (2006). Tapping into students’ motivation: lessons from young adolescents’ blogs. Voices from the Middle. Volume 14, Number 2. Retrieved from ERIC database. Smith, C. (2008). Technologies for transcending a focus on error: blogs and democratic aspirations in first-year composition. Journal of Basic Writing (CUNY), 27(1), 35-60. Retrieved from ERIC database. Vardi, I. (2012). The impact of iterative writing and feedback on the characteristics of tertiary students' written texts. Teaching in Higher Education, 17(2), 167-179. Waddoups, G., Hatch, G., & Butterworth, S. (2003). Case 5: blended teaching and learning in a first-year composition course. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 4(3), 271-78. Retrieved from ERIC database.
  48. 48. Wiliam, D. (2010), "The role of formative assessment in effective learning environments" in The Nature of Learning: Using Research to Inspire Practice, OECD Publishing. Williams, Jeremy B. and Jacobs, Joanne (2004). Exploring the use of blogs as learning spaces in the higher education sector. Australasian Journal of Education. 20(2), 232-247. Retrieved from ERIC database. Wingate, U. (2010). The impact of formative feedback on the development of academic writing. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 35(5), 519-33.