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- High degree of alignment of factors; relative balance among factors- Will help inform strategies to increase use, creation
Inspired by TUDelft in a workshop on Online learning and the future of Engineering Education, 16 September 2013 (Delft University of Technology), largest and oldest public technical university in the Netherlands Image – Venn diagramOpen enrollmentCC imageFair dealing
Increased availability. Student access to materials at the beginning of the course (immediately available online)Ease of use – online and Portable.Quality issue – Bliss et al. 2013b indicated that
Your suggestions for how we can further open up our open university…
Opening Up an Open University
The future of learning.
• Features of an open university
• AU survey on OER
• AU case
– Degrees of openness
• Benefits of Open Education
• Potential challenges
• What’s next?
Open source software
Free or less expensive
Use of OER
Creation of OER
All course development staff
Baseline data on perspectives, awareness
Published in IRRODL (October 2013)
Full Time Faculty
Member of Course
Type of OER
Open Online Distance
Not always free
Online exam system
Online assignment submission
Enrolled students only
Wide exposure through OCW sites
Bachelors, Master & Doctoral
Degrees, diplomas & certificates
No accredited certificate for OCW
Interaction with faculty
No interaction with faculty
Challenge for credit
elgg (The Landing)
Open courseware (ocw.athabascau.ca)
Open access policy for researchers
Digital content repository
• Low learner persistence in distance online
• To enhance motivation, engagement
– Learning activities approach
– Opportunity for growth in information literacy
– Practical way to enrich learner experience
• Philosophical commitment to all things open
• UNESCO/COL Chair in OER
• In-house development of courses and individual learning
– Learning tree
• Adapting existing OER
– MIT OCW
– OER Commons
– Saylor Foundation
– Public Health Image Library (PHIL)
• Lower cost (Bliss, Hilton, Wiley & Thanos, 2013a; Tait,
• Knowledge sharing (Olcott, 2012)
• More learner-centred (Conole & Ehlers, 2010;
Livingston & Condie, 2006)
• Increased availability of resources (Bliss Robinson,
Hilton & Wiley, 2013b)
• Ease of use (Petrides et al., 2011)
• Social inclusion (Nikoi & Armellini, 2012; Tait, 2013)
• Greater learner engagement (Bliss et al., 2013b)
• Increased participation (Murphy, 2013)
Lack of skills and time needed to adapt open educational materials
(Andrade et al. 2011; Bliss et al., 2013b; Murphy, 2013)
Problems with technology (Bliss et al., 2013b)
Quality & suitability of OERs (Brent, Gibbs & Gruszczynska, 2012;
Andrade et al., 2011)
Accessibility of resources (Hockings, Brett & Terentjevs, 2012)
Lack of awareness of OERs (Bossu et al., 2012a, 2012b, Rolfe, 2012)
Language issues (Richter & McPherson, 2012)
Conflict between open education philosophy and traditional university
(Brent et al., 2012; Friesen, 2009)
Lack of sustained investment in infrastructure & human resources
(D’Antoni, 2008; European Commission, 2013; Wiley, 2006)
Andrade, A., Ehlers, U.D., Caine, A. Carneiro, R., Conole, G., Kairamo, A.K., …
Holmberb, C. (2011). Beyond OER: Shifting focus to open educational practices. Open
educational quality initiative. Retrieved from http://duepublico.uni-duisburgessen.de/servlets/DerivateServlet/Derivate-25907/OPALReport2011-Beyond-OER.pdf
Bliss, T., Hilton, J., Wiley, D., and Thanos, K. (2013). College student and faculty
perceptions of the cost and quality of open textbooks. First Monday, 18(1).
Bliss, T.J., Robinson, T.J., Hilton, J. & Wiley, D.A. (2013). An OER COUP: College
teacher and student perceptions of open educational resources. Journal of Interactive
Media in Education, Spring, 1-15.
Brent, I., Gibbs, G.R. & Gruszczynska, A.K. (2012). Obstacles to creating and finding
Open Educational Resources: The case of research methods in the social sciences,
Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2012 Special Issue, 1-17.
Bossu, C., Bull, D., & Brown, M. (2012). Opening up down under: the role of open
educational resources in promoting social inclusion in Australia. Distance Education,
Bossu, C., Brown, M., & Bull, D. (2012). Do Open Educational Resources represent
additional challenges or advantages to the current climate of change in the Australian
higher education sector? In M. Brown, M. Hartnett & T. Stewart (Eds.), Future
challenges, sustainable futures. In Proceedings ASCILITE Wellington 2012 (pp. 124–
Conole, G. & Ehlers, U. (2010 ). Open educational practices: Unleashing the power of
OER. Paper presented to UNESCO Workshop on OER (Namibia) in May.
D’Antoni, S. (2008). Open educational resources the best way forward, Deliberations
of an International Community of Interest, UNESCO Report.
European Commission (2013). Opening up education: Innovative teaching and
learning for all through new technologies and open educational resources.
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the
European Economic and Social Committee of the Regions. (SWD(2013) 341 final).
Hilton, J. & Wiley, D.A. (2011). Open access textbooks and financial sustainability:
A case study on Flat World Knowledge. International Review of Research in Open
and Distance Learning, 12(5), 18-26.
Hockings, C., Brett, P. & Terentjevs, M. (2012). Making a difference – inclusive
learning and teaching in higher education through open educational
resources, Distance Education, 33(2), 237-252.
Livingston, K. & Condie, R. (2006). The impact of an online learning program on
teaching and learning strategies. Theory into Practice, 45(2), 150–158.
McKerlich, R., Ives, C., McGreal, R. (2013). Measuring use and creation of open
educational resources in higher education. The International Review of Research in
Open and Distance Learning, 14(4), 90-103.
Murphy, A. (2013). Open educational practices in higher education: institutional
adoption and challenges. Distance Education, 34(2), 201-217.
Nikoi, S. & Armellini, A. (2012). The OER mix in higher education:
purpose, process, product, and policy. Distance Education, 33(2), 165-184.
Olcott, D. (2012). OER perspectives: Emerging issues for universities. Distance
Education, 33(2), 283-290.
Petrides, L., Jimes, C., Middleton-Detzner, C., Walling, J. & Weiss, S. (2011). Open
textbook adoption and use: implications for teachers and learners. Open
Learning, 26(1), 39-49.
Richter, T. & McPherson, M. (2012). Open educational resources: Education for the
world? Distance Education, 33(2), 201-209.
Rolfe, V. (2012). Open educational resources: Staff attitudes and awareness.
Research in Learning Technology, 20, 1–13.
Tait, A. (2013). Distance and e-learning, social justice and development: The
relevance of capability approaches to the mission of open universities. The
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(4), 1-18.
Wiley, D. (2006). On the sustainability of open educational resource initiatives in
higher education. Retrieved from www.oecd.org/edu/oer