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317 electo silva acv del biodiesel de palma incluyendo la utilización de residuos para generación de electricidad

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    317 electo silva    acv del biodiesel de palma incluyendo la utilización de residuos para generación de electricidad 317 electo silva acv del biodiesel de palma incluyendo la utilización de residuos para generación de electricidad Presentation Transcript

    • IV Congreso de Energias Renovables y Biocombustibles, UNAL, Lima, Perú ACV del biodiesel de palma incluyendo la utilización de resíduos para la generación de electricidad Prof. Dr. Electo Eduardo Silva Lora NEST/IEM/UNIFEI
    • For references look at:
    • Zoneamiento agro-ambiental en Brasil
    • ASPECTOS DE SOSTENIBILIDAD DE BIOCOMBUSTIBLES EN BRASIL: BIODIESEL
    • Anos de experiência na produção de etanol, incluindo o desarrolho de motores para o uso de etanol puro. Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel: 2004 Capacidade atual de mais de 500 milhões de litros anuais 5
    • 6
    • LIMITACIONES DEL ACV • La metodologia ACV no es capaz de considerar/incluir todos los impactos relevantes (uso de la tierra y del agua, cambios indirectos en el uso de la tierra y la competición con los alimentos) . • El ACV falla al considerar la reducción en el uso del suelo relacionada con la utilización de co-productos. • Se necesita de un abordaje mas amplio (tal como la EAI - Evaluación Ambiental Integrada ). • Alto número de categorias de impactos ambientales, lo que dificulta el proceso de toma de decisiones.
    • INCONSISTENCIAS DEL ACV
    • ABORDAJE DE LA CERTIFICACIÓN BASEADA EM LA SOSTENIBILIDAD ?????????? TODO EL MUNDO HABLA DE ESTO !!
    • Experiencia del NEST/UNIFEI en estudios de sostenibilidad utilizando el ACV. Desde el año 2004 el NEST/UNIFEI ha realizado los siguientes estudios utilizando la ACV: • Biodiesel de palma, • Tratamiento y disposición de vinazas de etanol, • Metanol a partir del bagazo de caña. • Aprovechamiento energético de los resíduos sólidos urbanos.
    • C2 C3 C1
    • CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS OF THE THREE EVALUATED COMPANIES C1 C2 C3 Location in Colombia Eastern Region Northern Region Central Region Palm area, Adults (ha) 1,200 3,436 4,675 Palm area, nursery (ha) 1,100 64 130 Crop Density (Palm trees 145 143 143 ha-1) FFB Production (ton FFB 30,000 85,898 98,175 yr-1) FFB Process 101,324 85,898 154,352 (ton yr-1) Productivity 25 25 21 (ton FFB ha-yr-1) OER 19.8 21.1 20.4 (Oil Extraction Rate, %) Oil Yield 4.95 5.27 4.28 (ton oil ha-yr-1) Isolated system Electricity from Purchase all Brief description of the using diesel the grid and low electricity from energy supplies facilities and biogas in efficiency the grid engines cogeneration
    • Esquema del inventario de ciclo de vida del biodiesel de palma
    • CACHOS VACIOS RESIDUOS FRESCOS -FFB DE BIOMASA EFB (20-23%) 100 % Fibras (11-14%) 124.8 GJ/ ha.year Fruto de la palma Cáscaras (5-7%)
    • ETAPA AGRÍCOLA
    • INPUTS DE ENERGIA EN LA ETAPA AGRÍCOLA
    • INPUTS DE ENERGIA DURANTE LA EXTRACCIÓN DEL ACEITE
    • PARTICIPATION OF LC STAGES IN TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
    • Inventario global del ciclo de vida del biodiesel de palma Biometanol o etanol Uso racional de Fertilizantes VINAZAS ???
    • RELACIÓN UTPUT/INPUT (renovable/fosil) C2 C3 C1
    • Seven thermal cogeneration schemes for the palm oil industry were simulated by using Gatecycle software version 5.0.1, considering different sources and levels of biomass use with a condensing-extraction (CET) and back pressure turbines (BPT) with high pressure boilers (cases A, B, C, F, E F end G).
    • PERCENTAGE OF BIOMASS PRODUCED DURING OIL EXTRACTION PROCESS USED AS A FUEL IN THE BOILER % of biomass used as a fuel in the boiler Case Turbine Fiber Shell EFB Biogas A BPT 75 75 -- -- B CET 100 50 -- -- C CET 100 100 -- -- D BPT 100 100 100 100 E CET 100 100 50 -- F CET 100 100 100 -- G CET 100 100 100 100 30 t FFB/h plant, steam parameters were 2 MPa and 350°C.
    • Electricity generation index of the cogeneration systems. Effic. of Generation Fuel Power Heat Rate Electricity Index (MW) (MW) (MJ/kWh) Generation (kWh.kg-1. * (%) biodiesel) A 21.013 1,74 39.10 9.21 0.2014 B 22.546 1,86 39.25 9.17 0.2153 C 28.010 2,84 32.04 11.24 0.3287 D 51.814 3,96 40.84 8.81 0.4583 E 38.698 4,98 24.55 14.66 0.5764 F 49.368 7,03 21.88 16.45 0.8136 G 51.814 7,55 21.42 16.80 0.8738
    • Output/Input relation for biodiesel production life cycle. INPUT [MJ / kg Biodiesel] C1 C2 C3 Agricultural stage 3.20 4.23 2.63 Oil Extraction with 1.06 1.27 0.72 Cogeneration Oil Refining 0.98 0.98 0.98 Transesterification 5.01 5.01 5.01 Total Input 9.96 11.20 9.05 OUTPUT [MJ / kg C1 C2 C3 Biodiesel] Fiber 0.85 0.72 0.66 Shell, 2.79 2.64 1.85 Biogas 0.05 0.05 0.05 Kernel cake 2.54 2.38 2.46 Kernel Oil 6.00 5.64 5.82 Glycerin 2.09 2.09 2.09 Fatty acids 1.27 1.27 1.27 Biodiesel 39.60 39.60 39.60 Total Output 55.22 54.42 53.83 O/I (using EFB as 5.54 4.86 5.95 Fertilizer)
    • Impact of cogeneration on input/output index Case C2 (Without Case A Case G Cogeneration) Surplus Generation Index 0.00 0.201 0.979 (kWh kg-1biodiesel) INPUT (MJ/kg biodiesel) Agricultural stage 3.93 3.93 4.23 Oil Extraction 1.27 0.92 0.92 Oil Refining 0.98 0.98 0.98 Transesterification 5.01 5.02 5.02 Total Input 11.20 10.86 11.16 OUTPUT (MJ/kg biodiesel) Biodiesel 39.60 39.60 39.60 Electricity - Cogeneration 0.00 0.70 3.05 Total Output 54.42 55.12 54.05 Output /Input 4.86 5.08 4.85
    • • The LCA for two cases (cases C2 and G) were carried out using the Simapro software and the results were compared with the fossil diesel production LCA indexes (at the refinery) through data available in the Simapro database.
    • C2/G In relation to Mid Point Categories C2, (%) Carcinogens -2.41 Non-Carcinogens -0.67 Respiratory inorganics -4.50 Ionizing radiation -4.25 Ozone layer depletion -33.31 Respiratory organics -6.92 Aquatic ecotoxicity -4.15 Terrestrial ecotoxicity 0.23 Terrestrial acidification -1.20 Land use -148.11 Aquatic acidification -3.53 Aquatic eutrophication 3.32 Global warming -7.64 Non-renewable energy -16.62 Mineral extraction -11.63
    • Impact assessment Single score IMPACT 2002+ method. Damage category Case C2 Case C2/G % Reduction END POINTS CATEGORIES Total -5.85E-5 -7.925E-5 -35.457 Human Health 3.66E-5 3.517E-5 -4.068 Ecosystem Quality 1.153E-5 1.143E-5 -0.874 Climate Change -0.000152 -0.000164 7.643 Resources 4.53E-05 3.78E-5 -16.619 C2 C2/G FOSSIL DIESEL
    • CONCLUSIONS AND REMARKS • The potential for energy production from oil palm biomass residues is 124.8 GJ ha-1 year-1 • Transterification stage have the greater fossil energy input due to the methanol utilization. Efforts must be done for the commercial implementation of the methyl route seeking an increase of biodiesel LC sustainability. • The electricity generation index can reach 1.02 kWh per kg of biodiesel when the residues are fully used and a condensing steam turbine with high steam parameters is employed. • The Output/Input energy ratio for the palm oil biodiesel reaches values as 5.08, almost 3.5 greater than other biodiesels from different vegetable oils.
    • CONCLUSIONS AND REMARKS • Outpu/Input index is not able to accurately consider the effect of cogeneration implementation as the energy output of biomass residues is evaluated based on its calorific value. • In relation to the conventional process, the case with cogeneration presents a very high positive impact on Land occupation (-148%), Ozone layer depletion (-33%) and non-renewable energy consumption (-16.62 %). • Life cycle equivalent CO2 emissions were also reduced from -0.5346 to -1.4053 kg for biodiesel with and without cogeneration, respectively.
    • ESTUDIO DE ACV – Tratamiento de las vinazas del etanol
    • FCDCC- Fertirrigación “in natura”
    • SCDTT - Concentración de vinazas hasta 40 % y fertirrigación
    • ABDCC - DIGESTIÓN ANAERÓBIA
    • SCCBA - CONCENTRACIÓN Y COMBUSTIÓN DE VINAZAS
    • CONCLUSIONES • La evaluación de la sostenibilidad es un problema multicriterial. • La eficiencia energética atraves de la cogeneración baseada en sub-productos y la reducción del consumo de energia en las diferentes etapas del ciclo de vida deven ser considerada. • La metodologia ACV debe ser mejorada y normalizada. Incertezas a resolver: volatilizacion de los componentes de los fertilizantes, asignación de co-productos e impactos del uso de la tierra. • La certificación baseada en la reducción de las emisiones de GEI, utilizando como herramienta la ACV es actual y debemos saber utilizarla a nuestro favor.
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS • The authors are very grateful to the Oil Palm Research Center of Colombia - CENIPALMA and the palm oil mills for providing all the information, so that this study could be carried out. • Also to the Science Foundation of the Minas Gerais State – FAPEMIG and the National Research Council CNPq for the finantial support and grants.
    • Muchas gracias electo@unifei.edu.br esl43@yahoo.com
    • Prof. Dr.Electo Silva Lora electo@unifei.edu.br