Tilapia Nilotica As A Biological Indicator


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Tilapia Nilotica As A Biological Indicator

  2. 2. Parts of Tilapia Nilotica which can be use to assess the water lake pollution
  3. 3. In vitro piscine chromosome gene methodology ( modified from Moodhead)  In vitro piscine chromosome gene methodology ( modified from Moodhead)  Remove ovaries or other appropriate tissues from female and dissociates the cells using standard procedures Separate the cells from the digesting solution by low speed centrifugation , and resuspend the cell pellet in 5ml of media prepared as follows:
  4. 4. Continuation       100ml of McCoy 5c media 20ml fetal calf serum 1ml sodium bi carbonate solution 200 iµ/ ml penicillin 200 mg/ ml streptomycin 30 mg/ ml amphotericia B.
  5. 5. Continuation:  3. Place the cell suspension in a 25 ml plastic culture flask and incubate at 26oC  4. If the cell density is low and growth appears to be quite slow , add additional cells to the inoculation using the above procedure. A confluent monolayer of cells should be obtained within three weeks ,  5. Once the monolayer is obtained, establish replicate cultures, these can be stored in liquid nitrogen.
  6. 6. 7. Irradiated cell cultures ( control cultures are show irradiated) and incubate culture for an appropriate period of time in accordance with the aims of the experiment and the cell cycles time of the culture. 8. Approximately 5th prior to harvest, add colcemid ( 0.1 ml of a 10 mg /ml solution ) to the culture media. 9. Harvest cells by gently trypsinisation and centrifuged to form a pellets 10. Treat the pellet with hypotonic solution composed of 1ml of media and ¼ ml of distilled water for 35 min at room temperature.
  7. 7. Continuation:  11. Centrifuged the cells, disregard the hypotonic solution , and add 3: 1 ethanol – acetic acid for a minimum of 45 min to fix the cells.  12. After two further changes of fixative , disperse a few drops of cell suspension onto a clean wet slide and air – dry on a slide warmer at 40-50 oC  13. Place thoroughly dried preparations in methanol for 15 min, rinse in distilled water , and stin overnight in lacto- acetic orcein.
  8. 8. Some points in favour of the use of Cytogenetic analysis and its limitation Advantages:  Applicable to a variety of hosts  Direct observation of chromosomal abnormalities  Both somatic and germ cells may be analysed  Comparatively low in cost  Moderate time consuming  Can be adopted to standard toxicology procedure
  9. 9. Some points in favour of the use of Cytogenetic analysis and its limitation  Disadvantages:  Needs highly trained investigator  Quantitative correlation to point mutation not known  No distinction between viable and nonviable cells  Chromatid aberration mainly selected
  10. 10. Tilapia nilotica use to determined the metal content of a certain lake  Cadmium and lead were determined in different tissues (muscle, gill, stomach, intestine. liver, vertebral column and scales) of Tilapia nilotica to assess the lake water pollution with those toxic metals. Fish samples were chosen from different ages and weights to be analyzed along with samples of the aquatic place, sediment and lake water. The results showed that cadmium and lead concentrations were higher in fish scales and vertebral column than in the other parts of the fish. Cadmium and lead levels in High Dam lake water and fish (Tilapia nilotica)
  11. 11. Continuation:  Were a result of the pollution which uptakes from aquatic plants, sediments and gasoline containing lead that leaks from fishery boats. Tilapia nilotica fish was used as a good bioassay indicator for the lake pollution with cadmium and lead. The fish muscles in this study were in the safety baseline levels for man consumption.
  12. 12. THANK YOU!